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10/22/2008 1 Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment Chapter 11 Assessing personality Defining Personality The word comes from the Latin persona, meaning Personality: An individual’s distinct and relatively enduringpattern of , feelings, motives, and . : Stability in behavior over time and across situations : Behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation
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  • 10/22/2008

    1

    Personality:Theory,Research,andAssessment

    Chapter11

    Assessingpersonality

    DefiningPersonality

    ThewordcomesfromtheLatinpersona,meaning

    Personality:Anindividualsdistinctandrelativelyenduringpatternof ,feelings,motives,g p , g , ,and .

    :Stabilityinbehaviorovertimeandacrosssituations

    :Behavioraldifferencesamongpeoplereactingtothesamesituation

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    2

    DefiningPersonality:PersonalityTraits

    PersonalityTraits anddimensions

    The Modeli Extraversion

    . Opennesstoexperience Agreeableness .

    StudyingPersonality

    The Approach Thefivefactormodel

    PsychodynamicPerspective BehavioralApproaches Perspective BiologicalPerspective

    Perspectives

    psychoanalytictheory Structureofpersonality

    Pleasureprinciple Ego Realityprinciple Morality

    Levelsofawareness Conscious Unconscious .

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    PsychodynamicPerspectives

    Freudspsychoanalytictheory .

    andAggressionA i t Anxiety

    Defense .

    Figure 11.2 Freuds model of personality structure

    Figure 11.3 Freuds model of personality dynamics

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    DefenseMechanisms .

    Keepingdistressingthoughtsandfeelingsburiedin . Projection

    Attributingyourthoughts,feelings,ormotivestosomeoneelse .

    Divertemotionalfeelings(anger)fromoriginalsourcetosubstitute Reactionformation

    Behavingexactlyoppositeofyourtruefeelings .

    Revertingtoimmaturepatternsofbehavior Rationalization

    Creatingafalseexcusetojustifyunacceptablebehavior .

    Increasingselfimagebyforming withperson/group

    FreudonDevelopment:Stages

    =physicalpleasure Psychosexualstages

    Oral Phallic Latency Oral, ,Phallic,Latency, . =Excessivegratificationorfrustration Overemphasisonpsychosexual duringfixatedstage

    Stage

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    Stage

    Earlyordelayedweaningleadsto:

    talkativeness

    .

    overeating

    alot

    bitingsarcasm

    Stage

    Stage

    Adultswhoremainfixatedattheanalstagetendtobe:

    . Stubborn Obsessedwithorderliness

    Sloppy, ,disorganized

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    Stage

    Stage The Complex

    Boysidimpulsesinvolvesexualdesirefor ,andadesiretoeliminatethe .Eventually,identifieswithhis .

    The Complex Girlhasstrongattachmenttomother,

    anddevelops envy,wheresheblameshermotherfornothavingapenis.Eventuallytransferlovetofather,identifieswith .

    Stage

    Iffixatedatthisstage,adultstendtohave: . Problems with .Problemswith . sexualidentity Problemswithstableloverelationship

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    Period

    Stage

    EvaluatingPsychodynamicPerspectives

    Strengths Theimportanceofearly experiences Spurredotherresearchandtheories The . Theroleofinternalconflict Theuseof torespondtounpleasantexperiences

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    EvaluatingPsychodynamicPerspectives

    Weaknesses Violatesthescientificprincipleoffalsifiabilitypoor .

    Inadequate baseInadequate base Basedonexperiencesofafewatypicalindividuals

    Theoryisbasedonretrospectiveaccountsandfalliblememories

    views

    Perspectives

    views Conditioningandresponsetendencies

    Bandurassocial theory Observationallearning Behaviorisshapedbymodels Selfefficacy

    Mischelsviews The controversy

    Situationalfactorsdeterminebehavior,ratherthantraits

    Figure 11.5 A behavioral view of personality

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    Figure 11.6 Personality development and operant conditioning

    EvaluatingBehavioralPerspectives

    Pros Basedon ,controlledresearch ExplainsdifferentbehaviorsindifferentsituationsMajor events in life can change Majoreventsinlifecanchange

    Cons Overdependenceonanimalresearch Personalitynotavalid .

    Perspectives

    CarlRogerss theory Selfconcept

    Conditional/unconditional regard andanxiety

    AbrahamMaslowstheoryof . ofneeds Thehealthypersonality

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    Figure 11.7 Rogerss view of personality structure

    Figure 11.8 Rogerss view of personality development and dynamics

    Figure 11.9 Maslows hierarchy of needs

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    Figure 11.10 Maslows view of the healthy personality

    EvaluatingHumanisticPerspectives

    Pros Recognizedimportanceofsubjectiveviews Recognizedimportanceofself . Led to some effective .Ledtosomeeffective . Laidfoundationfor psychology

    Cons Manyaspectsoftheoryaredifficulttotest Unrealistic . Moreempiricalresearchneeded

    BiologicalPerspectives

    theory Determinedbygenes Extraversionintroversion

    Behavioralgenetics studies Heritabilityestimates

    Theevolutionaryapproach Traitsconducivetoreproductive .

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    Figure 11.11 Eysencks model of personality structure

    EvaluatingBiologicalPerspectives

    Pros Convincingevidencefor influence Extensive,carefullycontrolledresearch ofneural/brainpatternsand/ ppersonalitytraits

    Cons Toomuchrelianceon estimates Cannotexplainallbehavior(nocomprehensivetheoryof )

    PersonalityTests

    projectivetests Thematic Test(TAT) .S lf t i t i Selfreportinventories FactorTraitInventory

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    PsychoanalysisPersonalityTests

    Tests Allowpeopleto unconsciousneeds,wishes,andconflictsonto stimuli

    . Atestinwhichpeopleareaskedtoreportwhattheyseeinasetofinkblots

    PsychoanalysisPersonalityTests

    Tests Thematic Test(TAT)

    Atestinwhichpeopleareaskedtomakeup fromaset of ambiguous picturessetofambiguouspictures

    Activity11.3

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    ReviewofTAT

    Wewillgoovereachpictureanddiscusswhatyoufound

    Therearenorightanswers

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    PersonalityScales

    Answeraseriesofquestionaboutself Iameasily TorF Iliketogoto TorF

    Assumesthatyoucanaccuratelyreport Therearenorightorwronganswers Fromresponses,developapictureofyoucalleda profile

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    Minnesota PersonalityInventory

    Mostwidelyusedpersonalityinstrument NowtheMMPI 2

    Clinical& settingsg Measuresaspectsofpersonalitythat,ifextreme,suggestaproblem e.g.,extreme .

    Longtest questions

    CharacteristicsoftheMMPI2

    Hasseveraldifferent (multiphasic) Scalesthoughttomeasuredifferentkindsofpsychological . e.g.,depression

    Scalescoresindicatehowyoucomparewithothers

    Overallassessmentis . Frominspectingprofileofdifferentscales

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    MMPIScoreProfile

    The Model

    Someversionofthe factorsreliablyappearinmanycultures/countriesmaybebasic

    t f hcomponentofhuman .

    However,therearesomedrawbackstoadoptingthisviewofpersonality theoriesarebetteratdescribingpeoplethan them.

    .. Artistic, curious, Artistic, curious, imaginative, insightfulimaginative, insightful

    .. Efficient, organized, Efficient, organized, reliable, ethicalreliable, ethical

    The Model

    reliable, ethicalreliable, ethical.. Active, assertive, Active, assertive,

    energetic, gregariousenergetic, gregarious.. Appreciative, forgiving, Appreciative, forgiving,

    generous, considerategenerous, considerate.. Anxious, selfAnxious, self--pitying, pitying,

    tense, impulsive, touchytense, impulsive, touchy

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    InfluencesonPersonality

    123pairsofidenticaltwinsand127pairsoffraternaltwins

    Measured on Big Measuredon Big personalitydimensions

    Resultssuggestthatpersonalitydifferencesinthepopulationare 050%geneticallydetermined.

    Evaluating Tests

    Strengths Normed againstavarietyof samples

    Allowsyoutodeterminewhatisoutsidetheboundsofnormal in comparison to a groupnormal incomparisontoa group

    . Reliesonselfreport Butwithcaveatstocatch .

    ElevatedscoresonMMPIcorrelatetoavarietyofdifferent disorders(suggestssomekindofutility)

    EvaluatingObjectiveTests Limitations

    measures Deception Social . Responsesets(e.g.,nay )

    utility Particularlyfortestsotherthan . Youreoutgoing:so ?

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    Bias Characteristicofalmostallpersonalitytheories/tests

    Knowthe pattern Correlateittootherthingstoexplainwhereitcamefromandhowitwillaffectfuturebehavior

    Easyto differentwaysthatyourpersonalitycouldhavebeen .