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Jul 09, 2015
We express our sincere gratitude to our principal for providing us good facilities and proper environment for developing our project and to do it in the required way. We are grateful to our project director for giving us the opportunity to do the project. We are thankful to Head of Department of Mechanical Engineering for his valuable advice and motivation.We wholeheartedly thank our project instructor Mr. Satya Prakash (Lect. Dept. of Mechanical Engg.), for his valuable advice and support. Also we express our heartfelt thanks to vikaram kumar (HR) for his helpful feedback and timely assistance.We convey our sincere thanks to all other lecturers for their help and encouragement. We thank all our friends who have helped us during the work with their inspiration and cooperation. We truly admire our parents for their constant encouragement and enduring support, which was inevitable for the success of this venture. Once again we convey our gratitude to all those persons who had directly and indirectly influenced on the work.
Powertrain CoverageIn addition to the 3-year/36,000 mile protection, many of your powertrain components are protected even further with coverage extending to 5 years or 100,000 miles, whichever comes first.
EngineEngine coverage includes all internally lubricated parts, engine oil cooling hoses, and lines. Also included are all actuators and electrical components internal to the engine (e.g., Active Fuel Management valve, lifter and oil manifold) cylinder head, block, timing gears, timing chain, timing cover, oil pump/oil pump housing, OHC carriers, valve covers, oil pan, seals, gaskets, manifolds, flywheel, water pump, harmonic balancer, engine mount, turbocharger, and supercharger. Timing belts are covered until the first scheduled maintenance interval. Exclusions: Excluded from the powertrain coverage are sensors, wiring, connectors, engine radiator, coolant hoses, coolant, and heater core. Coverage on the engine cooling system begins at the inlet to the water pump and ends with the thermostat housing and/or outlet that attaches to the return hose. Also excluded is the starter motor, entire pressurized fuel system (in-tank fuel pump, pressure lines, fuel rail(s), regulator, injectors, and return line), as well as the Engine/ Powertrain Control Module and/or module programming.- For trucks equipped with a 6.6L Duramax diesel engine, the diesel engine, except those items listed under What Is Not Covered later in this section, is covered for 5 years or 100,000 miles, whichever comes first.
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Platinum Fuel SaverEnergy content
From a barrel of oil almost 40% is used to produce gasoline, with the rest used to produce
a host of products including jet fuel and plastics and many industrial chemicals (The How's and Why's of Replacing the Whole Barrel).
The combustions process of gasoline releases the energy desired. The combustion of thehydrocarbons making up gasoline ideally produces only carbon dioxide, water, and energy in thefollowing reaction:
2!!" + 25! 160! + 18!
Gasoline offers almost 45 MJ/kg. Crude oil has an energy density of 41.9 MJ/kg which is2.7 times that of dried wood. It can be refined into products with an even greater energy densitysuch as diesel fuel, gasoline, and kerosene for instance, which burn much cleaner than coal orcrude oil (Energy Density). With different blends and additives along with the ambienttemperature and season, the energy content can differ about 5%.
Gasoline is used in many ways and with that there are different preferred results that can
be obtained by using additives. Dyes are used in gasoline to prohibit the use of gasoline withouta road tax intended for off road usage in on road vehicles. Untaxed Gasoline is dyed, while taxedgasoline is clear or white. Another use for dye is in diesel fuel. Highway diesel fuel is not dyed,while not EPA approved highway diesel is dyed red (Fuel and Fuel Additives ). Detergents areadded to clean engines from carbon build up which will help the startup process and engineefficiency. Fuel stabilizers and antioxidants are used to preserve gasoline and can inhibit gumbuild up in the engine if the vehicle is not used frequently. An important focus in gasolineadditives is to find out what additives enhance gasoline combustion by increasing the pressure atwhich it will combust and to make the gasoline combustion complete and uniform.During WWI, it was found that an inexpensive chemical called Tetra-ethyl lead can beadded to gasoline to significantly improve its octane rating (EPA). With this additive, cheapergrades of octane can be made usable with this chemical. Tetra-ethyl lead, by increasing theoctane, allowed engine compression to be substantially raised. This leads to an increased vehicleperformance and fuel economy. This lead additive used to increase octane rating enableddevelopment of modern high-compression gasoline engines. Yet in the 1970s lead began to bephased out and banned in the US because of the environmental hazards it posed.
Emissions fromleaded gasoline were producing lead aerosols that covered the earth in a thin layer, which ishighly toxic to living things such as humans. With modern refining technology of gasoline, leadadditives are no longer needed to meet desired octane ratings. Other additives were found to achieve the octane ratings needed without causing harm to vehicles or people.
Oxygenates are fuel additives that are an oxygen-bearing compounds that can enhancegasoline combustion and sometimes achieve higher octane ratings. The use of non-oxygenatedgasoline in cold conditions tends to increase carbon monoxide emissions from vehicles. Theclean air act requires use of oxygenated gasoline, in areas where winter time carbon monoxidelevels exceed federal air quality standards (EPA).
Ethanol is an oxygen-bearing compound that is highly effective in enhancing gasolinecombustion. Ethanol is soluble in gasoline and extends life of our oil reserve. Ethanol is also 115octanes and can boost lower grades of octane to higher desired grades. E15, a 15% blend ofethanol in gasoline, works to increase fuel efficiency by improving fuel combustion by addingoxygen to the reaction ethanol burns, thereby reducing exhaust emissions. With EPAs June 15,2012 approval of a number of companies misfueling mitigation plans, EPA has acted on each ofthe Clean Air Act steps required to bring E15 to market. Some companies have now met all ofthe Clean Air Act requirements related to E15 and may lawfully introduce E15 into themarketplace. (EPA)
Methyl Tertiary Butyl ether (MTBE) is another common additive and a fairly simplemolecule that is created from methanol. MTBE does not harm catalytic converters. MTBE isuseful because like ethanol it boosts octane. Unlike ethanol, MTBE is thought to be acarcinogenic compound and mixes easily with water (MTBE). If gasoline containing MTBEleaks underground, it can easily contaminate our water wells. However, along with MTBE beingreleased into the environment so are other additives along with the gasoline.
Platinum Fuel Saver Framework
The Platinum Fuel Saver is a device that uses a mixture of Platinum, Rhodium and
Rhenium (Robinson, Method for reduction of pollution from combustion chambers) to allegedlyimprove a cars miles per gallon by 22% (Platinum 22). The inventor, Barnett Joel Robinson,explains the system in his two patents.The Platinum Fuel Saver was originally produced by the National Fuel SaverCorporation. However, at the time of this writing, the Platinum Fuel Saver is produced and distributed by 1800lessgass.com. In 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency released a report on the claims about the Platinum Fuel Saver. (EPA) The report states that Robinsonsclaim of improved mileage was not seen during the tests. EPA completed the evaluation based on the information available and our technical assessment of the technology. EPA judged thatthere was no technical basis or appropriate test data to support the claims for a fuel economyimprovement or emission reduction due to the device. Therefore, EPA issued a report concludingthat the device would not have an emission or fuel economy benefit. (EPA) While this does notnecessarily mean that the Platinum fuel saver did not work as advertised, it does raise somequestions since their website has has now demonstrated on the EPA Federal Test Procedure a48% increase in miles per gallon (Platinum 22) but the only known test stated otherwise.
Platinum Fuel Saver Operation:
Robinsons first patent described a delivery system, which is used by the Platinum Fuel
Saver. The delivery system consists of a closed container for water with the platinum solution init that is covered by a thin film of oil (#10 in Figure2). The thin film of oil acts as a means ofcoating the water molecules in the solution to provide proper distribution of the solution to the8.Lathe machine Its mainly use for turning, knurling, centring, grooving, drilling etc. its very most important tool ( machine tool) because all the mechanical work performed in it. There are many part of lathe machine.Lathe Components Tailstock The tailstock can be used to support the end of the work piece with a centre, or to hold tools for drilling, reaming, threading, or cutting tapers. It can be adjusted in position along the ways to accommodate different length work pieces. The tailstock barrel can be fed along the axis