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Studies in depolymerization of natural polysaccharides--PhD thesis

Nov 18, 2014

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Studies in the Enzymatic depolymerisation of natural polysaccharides A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI FOR THE Ph. D. (Technology) DEGREE IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SUBMITTED BY SATISH DASHARATH SHEWALE UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF Prof. A. B. Pandit INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI MATUNGA, MUMBAI-400 019. INDIA JUNE-2008 STATEMENT BY THE CANDIDATE As required by the University Ordinance 770, I wish to state that the work embodied in this thesis titled Studies in the Enzymatic depolymerisation of natural polysaccharides, forms my own contribution to the research work carried out under the guidance of Prof. A. B. Pandit at the Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Mumbai, Matunga, Mumbai. This work has not been submitted for any other degree of this or any other university. Whenever references have been made to the previous work of others, it has been clearly indicated as such and included in the Bibliography. Satish D. Shewale (Research Student) Certified by, Prof. Aniruddha B. Pandit (Research supervisor) UGC Scientist C (Professors Grade), Chemical Engineering Division, Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Mumbai, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019. Date: Place: Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 CERTIFICATE The research work described in this thesis has been carried out by Mr. Satish D. Shewale under my supervision. I certify that this is his bonafide work. The work described is original and has not been submitted for any other degree of this or any other university. Further that he was a regular student and has worked under my guidance as a full time student at Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Mumbai, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 until the submission of the thesis to the University of Mumbai. Prof. Aniruddha B. Pandit (Research Supervisor) UGC Scientist C (Professors Grade) Chemical Engineering Division, Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Mumbai,, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019. Date: Place: Matunga, Mumbai-400 019. List of publications 1. Satish D. Shewale; Aniruddha B. Pandit Hydrolysis of soluble starch using B. licheniformis -amylase immobilized on superporous CELBEADS, Carbohydrate Research, 2007, 342 (8), Pg. 997-1008. 2. Satish D. Shewale; Aniruddha B. Pandit Enzymatic production of glucose from different qualities of sorghum and application of ultrasound to enhance the yield, Carbohydrate Research, Forwarded for publication. 3. Satish D. Shewale; Aniruddha B. Pandit Enzymatic production of maltose from different qualities of sorghum and application of ultrasound to enhance the yield, Carbohydrate Research, To be Forwarded for publication. Dedicated to my family . . . . Acknowledgement ||'|-|||| |||||||-||| l|||| |||| |||+|| ||||. |||| ||| 7|| |||+|| |||| |-||| | || ||| -|| | 7|| ||||7| ||'|-| |||| ||||| ||7| ||| |l'| |||| ||||| -|| |||| ||| ||||| | l|'|| ||| -|+||| ||| |||| l|| 7|| l|| |||| || s-| ||| | s7 || || ||||, || l-||| |||| (|||| |||||| |||| ||| |||| |||| || ||||| |||| l7|| |'| '||) | | 7||| ||||| l|||| ||'|-||| ||-| |||| ||||| || |||||. |||| l7||| ||||||| || || |||, u|||| ||-|| ||. |'| -| |||||| ||'| l7||||| ||| |||| || |||. ||| |, ||+|, s||, |'||||| ||u| |7'||| l||| |||||||'| ||-| |7| ||||. -|+| : |7'||||| ||'|-|, |. || ||| UICT is the place, where I have spent about 6 years of my life and these years are mainly responsible for my way of being today. So firstly I thank UICT and all the people associated with UICT. I thank all the teaching staff of UICT in M. Chem. Engg. for taking my chemical engineering knowledge to new heights. I express my sincere gratitude to my research supervisor Prof. Aniruddha B. Pandit for his constant encouragement, bearing with me and supporting me in all my downtimes, not spoon feeding me in the research work and bringing the best in me. I always amazed by his knowledge, his way of thinking, calm nature, and switching gears from one research area to other in the lab meeting. His enthusiasm always motivated me and compelled me to do at my best. I have been enormously fortunate to have a supervisor who has always had the time and patience to answer the many (often quite stupid and tedious I think) questions I have had. I am also thankful to him for checking several versions of the article that needs to be forwarded for publication, reports, chapters of thesis etc. without getting bore of mistakes in them. I would like to thank Prof. A. M. Lali for providing CELBEADS for the present work and allowing me to use lab facilities from his lab. I would like to thank Prof. D. N. Bhowmick for allowing me to use facilities from his lab. I am grateful to UGC for providing research fellowship during tenure of Ph D work. My special thanks are due to Mr. Potdar from workshop, who always being there in case of any instrument problems. Without his efforts, it would have been really very difficult to complete this work. I thank my very special friends during the entire time, i spent in UICT, Yogesh Doshi, my saala Awaara Balu and Ajit (my langoti yaar in chemical engineering) for their timely help and constant encouragement. I am really very thankful to god to give me such wonderful friends. I would like to thank all my ABP labmates Parag, Virendra, Gopal, Rajesh, Shashank (KS), Mohan, Amit (ask him any problem about computer, amazingly he has solution), Pratap, Prashant (Birra), Ambu, Parag (kanthu), Preeti, Shailesh (Sher), Shankar, Vishwa, Haresh, Naresh, Ajaykumar, Pramod, Hemant, Sandip, Shravan, Bijal, Aditi, Apoorva, and all others who have newly joined the ABP group. My special thanks to all AML labmates, especially Kishor (for giving me the taste of Trekking), Amol, Amit, Pratap, Pooja, Archana, Ann, Ganesh, Umesh, Amrutraj, Abhijar, Monika, Rashmi, Sandip, and all others for making the working in lab joyful. Special thanks to my dear friends, Atul (Ghatotkach) from Physics lab, Mahendra (Mamu) from BNT lab, Anup, Rajesh, Santosh from GDY lab for their wonderful company. Special thanks to my Masters group Sunil (Barakya), Yoko, Ninad, Balu, Randheer (Bhaiyya) and Shreenivas for their constant encouragement and timely help. I also thank Chindarkar, Subhash, and Parab for their cooperation during my work and their always helping nature. I would like to thank my parents aai and nana for providing all the support needed; their support and faith in me always encouraged me. Sweet memories of my aaji come to my mind. She would have been very happy to me for completing the highest qualification. I also thank my younger brother and my best friend Chetan for everything he did for me. I also thank my elder brother Suresh, Mugdhavahini, my darling neice Lekha, and my in laws mama, mami, Smita and all others for their love for me. I would like to thank my dear wife Supriya for her love, encouragement, understanding, and awesome support throughout the Ph D work. Thank you for bearing with my late hours, work weekends, bad moods (which being consequences of not getting results), and going for treks with freinds. Now, last but certainly not least my son, Malhar. He always is a source of joyful moments for me. His presence around me always kept me in fresh mood to do my work. It is quite possible that I might have missed name of few people in spite of their valuable assistance, both from a professional and personal perspective. I thank all of them. Satish D. Shewale CONTENTS 1. Introduction 1 2. Overview of starch and starch hydrolysis products 7 2.1. Starch 8 2.1.1. Starch composition 11 2.1.1.1. Amylose 11 2.1.1.2. Amylopectin 12 2.1.1.3. Other minor components 14 2.1.2. Starch granule structure 15 2.1.3. Gelatinization of starch 18 2.1.4. Starch production and applications 20 2.2. Starch hydrolysis products 21 2.2.1. Starch hydrolyzing enzymes 22 2.2.1.1. Bacterial -amylase 27 2.2.1.2. Fungal -amylase 28 2.2.1.3. Glucoamylase 29 2.2.1.4. -amylase 29 2.2.1.5. Pullulanase 30 2.2.1.6. Isoamylase 30 2.2.1.7. Glucose isomerase 30 2.2.2. Maltodextrins 31 2.2.2.1. Production 31 2.2.2.2. Application 34 2.2.3. Glucose syrup 35 2.2.3.1. Production 35 2.2.3.2. Applications 39 2.2.4. Dextrose hydrolysate, crystalline dextrose and liquid dextrose 40 2.2.4.1. Production 40 2.2.4.2. Applications 44 2.2.5. Maltose syrup 45 2.2.5.1. Production 45 2.2.5.2. Applications 46 2.2.6. Fructose syrup 47 2.2.5.1. Production 47 2.2.5.2. Applications 48 3. Sorghum: Literature Review 49 3.1. Introduction, Ori