Top Banner

Click here to load reader

STEM: Women Are All Over It

Sep 24, 2015

ReportDownload

Documents

elly-zupko

In January 2015, writer and designer Elly Zupko raised over $33,000 via Kickstarter to fund the creation of a design that would feature over 50 notable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics—fields collectively known as STEM. She crowdsourced nominations of women to be included in the design, narrowing down a pool of hundreds of candidates to the 51 who appear in the final design.

This repeating design currently appears on shirts, fabrics, wallpaper, wrapping paper, and posters. This booklet provides brief biographical information on all the women included on the design.

  • STEMWomen Are All Over It

  • The text of this booklet is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/. For specific photo permissions, please see the back of this booklet.

    STEM: Women Are All Over It visual design: 2015, SMLX Good, Inc. The visual design used on the cover, shirt, and other products may only be reprinted with express license and permission from SMLX Good, Inc.

    SMLX Good, Inc. is a registered 401c3 non-profit organization. Please consider donating to support our education efforts.

    Visit us on the web at www.STEMshirt.org.

  • SMLXG O O D

    Created by SMLX Good, Inc.

    STEMWomen Are All Over It

  • In January 2015, writer and designer Elly Zupko raised over $33,000 via Kickstarter to fund the creation of a design that would feature over 50 notable women in science, technology, engineering, and mathemat-icsfields collectively known as STEM. She crowdsourced nomina-tions of women to be included in the design, narrowing down a pool of hundreds of candidates to the 51 who appear in the final design.

    This repeating design currently appears on shirts, fabrics, wallpaper, wrapping paper, and posters. This booklet provides brief biographi-cal information on all the women included on the design.

    Zupko subsequently started a non-profit organization, SMLX Good, to ensure funds raised from this project would be used to continue education and activism across a spectrum of social causes, including closing the gender gap in STEM fields. For more information about this project and SMLX Good, please visit us on the web at www.STEMshirt.org.

    SMLX Good Board of DirectorsElly Zupko

    Maryah ConverseJessica Goodyear

    Gabriel KabikSharyn Blum

    About the Project

  • 1. Ada Lovelace

    2. cole Polytechnique

    3. milie du Chtelet

    4. Jocelyn Bell Burnell

    5. Kalpana Chawla

    6. Maria Goeppert-Mayer

    7. Shirley Ann Jackson

    8. Emmy Noether

    9. Caroline Herschel

    10. Annie Jump Cannon

    11. Mae Jemison

    12. Hedy Lamarr

    13. Jane Goodall

    14. Alice Ball

    15. Gertrude Elion

    16. Margaret Hamilton

    17. Dorothy Hodgkin

    18. Barbara McClintock

    19. Joan Roughgarden

    20. Sally Ride

    21. Stephanie Kwolek

    22. Sofja Kowalewskaja

    23. Rosalind Franklin

    24. Lise Meitner

    25. Grace Hopper

    26. Elizebeth Friedman

    27. Henrietta Swan Leavitt

    28. Marie Curie

    29. Katherine Lathrop

    30. Christine Darden

    31. Tilly Edinger

    32. Fay Ajzenberg-Selove

    33. Lynn Conway

    34. Mary Anning

    35. Rachel Carson

    36. Melba Roy

    37. Mary Somerville

    38. Rita Levi-Montalcini

    39. Marie Maynard Daly

    40. Hypatia of Alexandria

    41. Temple Grandin

    42. Ruby Payne-Scott

    43. Yvonne Cagle

    44. Liu Yang

    45. Ellen Ochoa

    46. Chiaki Mukai

    47. Helen Quinn

    48. Valentina Tereshkova

    49. Chien-Shiung Wu

    50. Margaret Dayhoff

    51. Meg Lowman

  • 11. Ada Lovelace Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (18151852) was an English mathematician known for her work on the Analyti-cal Engine, Charles Babbages proposed mechanical computer. Lovelace is credited with creat-ing the first algorithm intended to be carried out by a machine. In other words, Ada Lovelace was the first computer program-mer. Her writings, called simply Notes, are an essential part of the history of computer pro-gramming. She described herself as an analyst and metaphysi-cian, and was interested in how society interacts with technology.

    2. cole Polytechnique

    Fourteen women were killed in an anti-feminism massacre at the cole Polytechnique in Montreal, Quebec on December 6, 1989. Thirteen of the fourteen victims were pursuing degrees in STEM fields. We include this plaque in re-membrance of these young wom-en in STEM: Genevive Bergeron, Hlne Colgan, Nathalie Croteau, Barbara Daigneault, Anne-Marie Edward, Maud Haviernick, Maryse Laganire, Maryse Leclair, Anne-Marie Lemay, Sonia Pelletier, Mi-chle Richard, Annie St-Arneault, Annie Turcotte, and Barbara Klucznik-Widajewicz.

  • 23. milie du Chtelet Gabrielle milie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chte-let (17061749) lived in France during the Age of Enlighten-ment and was a mathematician, physicist, and author. She is most famous for her translation and commentary on Principia Math-ematica by Isaac Newton, which remains today as the standard French translation. A true poly-math with skills in math, science, languages, and arts, she also used her math talents to become a successful gambler, and some credit her with the invention of modern financial derivatives.

    4. Jocelyn Bell BurnellJocelyn Bell Burnell (1943) is a Northern Irish astrophysicist who discovered the first radio pulsars as a postgraduate student at Cambridge. She also helped to construct the four-acre ra-dio telescope that enabled the discovery. Despite being the first to observe and precisely analyze the pulsars in 1967, her professor and an associate received the No-bel Prize for the discovery. Bells is one of the highest profile cases of sexism in science; however, she herself has not been critical of her omission from the prize. She has since become active against sexism in scientific fields.

  • 35. Kalpana Chawla Kalpana Chawla (19622003) was the first Indian-American astronaut and the first woman of Indian descent to visit space. Her first flight was among the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia, where she served as a mission specialist and primary robotic arm operator. Later responsibili-ties included microgravity experi-ments, advanced technology de-velopment, and astronaut health and safety. Over her lifetime, she traveled 10.67 million kilome-tersthe equivalent of 252 times around the Earth. She was killed in the 2003 Columbia disaster with six other crew members.

    6. Maria Goeppert-Mayer

    Maria Goeppert-Mayer (19061972) was a German-born Ameri-can theoretical physicist and the second woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Physics. She received the prize for proposing the nuclear shell model of the atomic nucleus. In 1930, Goep-pert-Mayer theorized the possibil-ity of two-photon absorption by atoms, which couldnt be verified until 31 years later. Today, the unit for the two-photon absorp-tion cross section is named the Goeppert-Mayer (GM) unit. Go-eppert-Mayer was also a member of the Manhattan Project and wrote programs for ENIAC.

  • 47. Shirley Ann Jackson

    Shirley Ann Jackson (1946) is an American physicist and the first African-American woman to earn a doctorate from the Mas-sachusetts Institute of Technol-ogy, where she was one of fewer than twenty African-American students and the only one study-ing theoretical physics. She is the 18th (and current as of this writing) president of the Rensse-laer Polytechnic Institute, and is the first woman and first African American to hold this position. While president, Jackson has helped to raise over $1 billion in donations for philanthropic causes.

    8. Emmy NoetherAmalie Emmy Noether (18821935) was a German mathemati-cian who has been called the most important woman in the history of mathematics by a number of luminaries, including Albert Einstein. Noethers [first] theorem, which explains the con-nection between symmetry and conservation laws, has become a fundamental tool of modern theoretical physics. In mathemat-ics, Noether developed theories of rings, fields, and algebras. She is also known for her extensive work on noncommutative alge-bra, linear transformations, and commutative number fields.

  • 59. Caroline Herschel Caroline Herschel (17501848) was a German-British astrono-mer. Herschel was a significant aid to her brother, William Herschel, in his position as the Kings Astronomer to George III, polishing mirrors and perform-ing the extensive calculations that enabled the functionality of his telescopes. She eventually began making observations on her own, notably discovering M110the second companion of the An-dromeda Galaxyand eight com-ets, including the periodic comet 35P/Herschel-Rigollet. She was the first woman to be paid for her contributions to science.

    10. Annie Jump Cannon

    Annie Jump Cannon (18631941) was a deaf American astronomer and progenitor of modern stellar classification, having classified around 500,000 stars. She is co-credited with creating the Harvard Classification Schemethe first serious attempt to organize stars based on temperature. Cannon was one of Pickerings Women at Harvard, where she aided the lab by examining data, perform-ing astronomical calculations, and cataloging photographswhile being criticized for working out-side the home. Cannon discov-ered 300 variable stars, five novas, and one spectroscopic binary.

  • 611. Mae Jemison Mae Jemison was the first Afri-can-American woman to travel in space. A medical doctor, Jemison was selected by NASA in 1987 to join the astronaut corps and went into orbit 5 years later on the Space Shuttle Endeavor. Jemison holds nine honorary doctorates in areas including science, engi-neering, letters, and humanities. She has also appeared on Star Trek: The Next Generation, and cites Lieutenant Uhura from Star Trek as her inspiration for join-ing NASA. Jemison retired from NASA in 1993 to start a technol-ogy company and teach.

    12. Hedy Lamarr In addition to being a glamorous film star who acted in 35 movies, Hedy Lamarr was an Austrian and American inventor credited with co-inventing the technol-ogy for spread spectrum and frequency hopping communica-tions that enables modern wi-fi and B