Top Banner

Click here to load reader

Steganography-Based Secret and Reliable ... Steganography-Based Secret and Reliable Communications: Improving Steganographic Capacity and Imperceptibility A thesis submitted for the

Apr 27, 2020

ReportDownload

Documents

others

  • Steganography-Based Secret and

    Reliable Communications: Improving

    Steganographic Capacity and

    Imperceptibility

    A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    by

    Adel Almohammad

    Department of Information Systems and Computing

    Brunel University

    August, 2010

  • I

    ABSTRACT

    Unlike encryption, steganography hides the very existence of secret information

    rather than hiding its meaning only. Image based steganography is the most

    common system used since digital images are widely used over the Internet and

    Web. However, the capacity is mostly limited and restricted by the size of cover

    images. In addition, there is a tradeoff between both steganographic capacity and

    stego image quality. Therefore, increasing steganographic capacity and enhancing

    stego image quality are still challenges, and this is exactly our research main aim.

    Related to this, we also investigate hiding secret information in communication

    protocols, namely Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) message, rather than in

    conventional digital files.

    To get a high steganographic capacity, two novel steganography methods were

    proposed. The first method was based on using 16x16 non-overlapping blocks and

    quantisation table for Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compression

    instead of 8x8. Then, the quality of JPEG stego images was enhanced by using

    optimised quantisation tables instead of the default tables. The second method, the

    hybrid method, was based on using optimised quantisation tables and two hiding

    techniques: JSteg along with our first proposed method. To increase the

    steganographic capacity, the impact of hiding data within image chrominance was

    investigated and explained. Since peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is extensively

    used as a quality measure of stego images, the reliability of PSNR for stego

    images was also evaluated in the work described in this thesis. Finally, to

    eliminate any detectable traces that traditional steganography may leave in stego

    files, a novel and undetectable steganography method based on SOAP messages

    was proposed.

    All methods proposed have been empirically validated as to indicate their utility

    and value. The results revealed that our methods and suggestions improved the

    main aspects of image steganography. Nevertheless, PSNR was found not to be a

    reliable quality evaluation measure to be used with stego image. On the other

    hand, information hiding in SOAP messages represented a distinctive way for

    undetectable and secret communication.

  • II

    DEDICATION

    This thesis is dedicated, with deepest love and everlasting respect, to numerous

    precious persons.

    To my parents for their continuous love, support and encouragement which

    helped me to achieve my dream.

    To my wife and daughter who I am indebted to, without their continuous

    sacrifices and patience the completion of this project could not be possible.

    To my brothers and all my friends, for their support and patience throughout

    these stressful years.

    To the principles of each and every ambitious person who knows that patience

    and hard work make the dreams.

    With my love…

    Adel Almohammad

    10 Ramadan, 1431

    20 August, 2010

  • III

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    Firstly, all praise is due to Allah (Glorified and Exalted is He), without his

    immeasurable blessings and favours none of this could have been possible.

    During the course of this research, there have been numerous people who have

    provided me with guidance, inspiration and support for completing this thesis. I am

    indebted to my supervisor Dr. George Ghinea for his continuous encouragement and

    support at all stages of this research. His involvement proved vital to the completion

    of this thesis. I would like to thank him for his useful and valuable advice. I also owe

    thanks to Professor Robert M. Hierons, my second supervisor, for his insightful and

    encouraging comments and suggestions throughout this research.

    On the personal front, I would like to express my gratitude to my family, for their

    continuous love, support and sincere prayers during the course of this research. I must

    also express my thanks to all my colleagues in the Department of Information

    Systems and Computing at Brunel University. I will also like to thank my friends and

    other participants who helped me a lot by participating and motivating me in the

    course of my research.

    Lastly but not the least, I will like to thank the Ministry of Higher Education in Syria

    and the University of Aleppo for providing me a chance and funding to keep this

    research going.

  • IV

    DECLARATION

    The following papers have been published (or have been submitted for

    publication) as a direct result of the research discussed in this thesis:

    Journals:

    1. Almohammad, A., and Ghinea, G., (2010). Stego Image Quality:

    Objective and Subjective Perspectives. Submitted to IEEE Transactions

    on Image Processing, IEEE.

    2. Almohammad, A., and Ghinea, G., (2010). Information Hiding in

    Grayscale and Colour Images. Submitted to Signal Processing: Image

    Communication, Elsevier.

    Reviewed Conferences:

    1. Alrouh, B., Almohammad, A., and Ghinea, G., (2010). Information Hiding

    and SOAP Messages. The 5th International Conference for Internet

    Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST 2010), London, UK, 8-11

    November, 2010, (Accepted), IEEE.

    2. Almohammad, A., and Ghinea, G., (2010). Stego Image Quality and the

    Reliability of PSNR. International Conference on Image Processing

    Theory, Tools and Applications (IPTA 2010), Paris, France, 7-10 July,

    2010, 215-220, IEEE.

    3. Almohammad, A., and Ghinea, G., (2010). Image Steganography and

    Chrominance Components. 10th IEEE International Conference on

    Computer and Information Technology (CIT 2010), Bradford, UK, 29

    June -1 July, 2010, 996-1001, IEEE.

    4. Almohammad, A., Ghinea, G., and Hierons, R. M., (2009). JPEG

    Steganography: a Performance Evaluation of Quantisation Tables.

    International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and

    Applications (AINA 2009), Bradford, UK, 26-29 May, 2009, 471-478,

    IEEE.

    5. Almohammad, A., Hierons, R. M., and Ghinea, G., (2008). High Capacity

    Steganographic Method Based Upon JPEG. The Third International

    Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES 2008),

    Barcelona, Spain, 4-7 March, 2008, 544-549, IEEE.

  • V

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................. I

    DEDICATION.........................................................................................................II

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................... III

    DECLARATION................................................................................................... IV

    Journals:................................................................................................................ IV

    Reviewed Conferences:.......................................................................................... IV

    TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................... V

    LIST OF TABLES.................................................................................................. X

    LIST OF FIGURES...............................................................................................XI

    Chapter 1: Information Security and Steganography....................................... 1

    1.1 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................... 1

    1.2 RESEARCH BACKGROUND........................................................................ 2

    1.2.1 Steganography and Cryptography ......................................................... 3

    1.2.2 Steganography and Watermarking ........................................................ 4

    1.2.3 Information Security and Steganography .............................................. 5

    1.3 MOTIVATIONS AND RESEARCH PROBLEM ................................................ 8

    1.4 RESEARCH AIM ........................................................................................ 9

    1.5 THESIS OUTLINE ...................................................................................... 9

    Chapter 2: Steganography and the Art of Covert Communication............... 12

    2.1 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................... 12

    2.2 STEGANOGRAPHY DEFINED.............

Welcome message from author
This document is posted to help you gain knowledge. Please leave a comment to let me know what you think about it! Share it to your friends and learn new things together.