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VISCOSITY Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc. • www.gardco.com • (954) 946-9454 • 1-800-762-2478 GARDNER STANDARD BUBBLE VISCOMETERS Kinematic Cat No. Tube Centistokes PRICE Set of 20 bubble tube standards des- ignated A thru T with 2 empty tubes (Grade A, Class G) and directions for use, complete in storage case. Weight: 3 lbs net; Shipping Weight: 7 lbs VI-VG-9111 K 287.9 $66.00 VI-VG-9112 L 302.3 66.00 VI-VG-9113 M 335.4 66.00 VI-VG-9114 N 345.2 66.00 VI-VG-9115 O 377.9 66.00 VI-VG-9116 P 408.8 66.00 VI-VG-9117 Q 441.8 66.00 VI-VG-9118 R 467.4 66.00 VI-VG-9119 S 517.7 66.00 VI-VG-9120 T 547.2 66.00 Kinematic Cat No. Tube Centistokes PRICE SINGLE FILLED STANDARD BUBBLE VISCOMETER TUBES A THRU T: VI-VG-9100 GARDNER BUBBLE VISCOMETER SET A THRU T ......................$1,228.00 VI-VG-9100/C SET W/ NIST CERTIFICATION ....................................................2,643.00 MANUFACTURED BY BYK-GARDNER INC. VI-VG-9101 A 53.6 $66.00 VI-VG-9102 B 68.8 66.00 VI-VG-9103 C 92.7 66.00 VI-VG-9104 D 102.9 66.00 VI-VG-9105 E 122.7 66.00 VI-VG-9106 F 151.9 66.00 VI-VG-9107 G 160.0 66.00 VI-VG-9108 H 210.8 66.00 VI-VG-9109 I 224.2 66.00 VI-VG-9110 J 268.2 66.00 MEETS ASTM D1131, D1545, D1725; AOC:Ka 6-63; FTMS 141a:4272 SETS OF FILLED STANDARD TUBES FROM A-5 to Z-10 SERIES Kinematic Cat No. Tube Centistokes Price (each) VI-VG-9001 A5 5.1 $66.00 VI-VG-9002 A4 7.1 66.00 VI-VG-9003 A3 14.0 66.00 VI-VG-9004 A2 21.3 66.00 VI-VG-9005 A1 31.0 66.00 VI-VG-9000 GARDNER BUBBLE VISCOMETER SET A5 THRU A1...................$394.00 VI-VG-9000/C Set w/ NIST Certification........................................................1,195.00 Set of 5 bubble tube standards designated A5 thru A1 with 2 empty tubes (Grade A, Class G) and directions for use, complete in storage case. Weight: 1 1/2 lbs net Shipping Weight.: 5 lbs SINGLE STANDARD BUBBLE TUBES A5 - A1: Individual tubes w/ N.I.S.T. Certification available — Add /C2 to item Number.........$286.00 1
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  • VISCOSITY

    Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc. www.gardco.com (954) 946-9454 1-800-762-2478

    GARDNER STANDARD BUBBLE VISCOMETERS

    Kinematic Cat No. Tube Centistokes PRICE

    Set of 20 bubble tube standards des-ignated A thru T with 2 empty tubes (Grade A, Class G) and directions for use, complete in storage case.

    Weight: 3 lbs net; Shipping Weight: 7 lbs

    VI-VG-9111 K 287.9 $66.00VI-VG-9112 L 302.3 66.00VI-VG-9113 M 335.4 66.00VI-VG-9114 N 345.2 66.00VI-VG-9115 O 377.9 66.00VI-VG-9116 P 408.8 66.00VI-VG-9117 Q 441.8 66.00VI-VG-9118 R 467.4 66.00VI-VG-9119 S 517.7 66.00VI-VG-9120 T 547.2 66.00

    Kinematic Cat No. Tube Centistokes PRICE

    SINGLE FILLED STANDARD BUBBLE VISCOMETER TUBES A THRU T:

    VI-VG-9100 GARDNER BUBBLE VISCOMETER SET A THRU T......................$1,228.00VI-VG-9100/C SET W/ NIST CERTIFICATION ....................................................2,643.00

    MANUFACTURED BY BYK-GARDNER INC.

    VI-VG-9101 A 53.6 $66.00VI-VG-9102 B 68.8 66.00VI-VG-9103 C 92.7 66.00VI-VG-9104 D 102.9 66.00VI-VG-9105 E 122.7 66.00VI-VG-9106 F 151.9 66.00VI-VG-9107 G 160.0 66.00VI-VG-9108 H 210.8 66.00VI-VG-9109 I 224.2 66.00VI-VG-9110 J 268.2 66.00

    MEETS ASTM D1131, D1545, D1725; AOC:Ka 6-63; FTMS 141a:4272SETS OF FILLED STANDARD TUBES FROM A-5 to Z-10 SERIES

    Kinematic Cat No. Tube Centistokes Price (each)VI-VG-9001 A5 5.1 $66.00VI-VG-9002 A4 7.1 66.00VI-VG-9003 A3 14.0 66.00VI-VG-9004 A2 21.3 66.00VI-VG-9005 A1 31.0 66.00

    VI-VG-9000 GARDNER BUBBLE VISCOMETER SET A5 THRU A1 ...................$394.00VI-VG-9000/C Set w/ NIST Certification........................................................1,195.00

    Set of 5 bubble tube standards designated A5 thru A1 with 2 empty tubes (Grade A, Class G) and directions for use, complete in storage case.

    Weight: 1 1/2 lbs net Shipping Weight.: 5 lbs

    SINGLE STANDARD BUBBLE TUBES A5 - A1:

    Individual tubes w/ N.I.S.T. Certification available Add /C2 to item Number.........$286.00

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  • VISCOSITY

    Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc. www.gardco.com (954) 946-9454 1-800-762-2478

    Kinematic Cat No. Tube Centistokes Price (each)

    Kinematic Cat No. Tube Centistokes Price (each)

    VI-VG-9200 GARDNER BUBBLE VISCOMETER SET, U THRU Z6...........$ 747.00 VI-VG-9200/C SET W/NIST CERTIFICATION...........................................2,185.00

    Set of 4 bubble tube standards designated Z7 thru Z10 with 2 empty tubes (Grade A, Class G) and directions for use, complete in storage case.

    Weight: 1 1/2 lbs net; Shipping weight: 5 lbs

    Set of 12 bubble tube stan-dards designated U thru Z6 with 2 empty tubes (Grade A, Class G) and directions for use. Complete in case.

    Weight: 2 1/2 lbs net; 7 lbs shipping weight.

    SINGLE STANDARD BUBBLE TUBES Z7 - Z10:

    SINGLE STANDARD BUBBLE TUBES U - Z6:

    VI-VG-9201 U 665.9 $66.00VI-VG-9202 V 889.2 66.00VI-VG-9203 W 1073.0 66.00VI-VG-9204 X 1200.0 66.00VI-VG-9205 Y 1737.0 66.00VI-VG-9206 Z 2289.0 66.00VI-VG-9207 Z1 2909.0 75.00VI-VG-9208 Z2 4056.0 75.00VI-VG-9209 Z3 4840.0 75.00VI-VG-9210 Z4 7241.0 75.00VI-VG-9211 Z5 9917.0 75.00VI-VG-9212 Z6 15080.0 75.00

    VI-VG-9251 Z7 40650.0 $94.00VI-VG-9252 Z8 73280.0 94.00VI-VG-9253 Z9 91500.0 94.00VI-VG-9254 Z10 119000.0 94.00

    VI-VG-9250 GARDNER BUBBLE VISCOMETER SET, Z7 THRU Z10......$415.00 VI-VG-9250/C SET W/NIST CERTIFICATION.................................................1,843.00

    Procedure Knowing the approximate viscosity, pick four standard tubes closest in viscosity to your sample Fill the sample tube iwth liquid, insert a cork, and then using the tube holder insert the four lettered tubes and the sample tube into the holder. Turn over the holder and visually compare what letter best matches the rise time of the bubble in the sample The rise time in seconds of the sealed tubes and samples can also be determined using a basic timer

    Please be aware of the following accuracies when performing the test:

    Temperature control: 1C = 10% errorVerticality control: 5 slant = 10% errorTube I.D. control: 0.1mm = 2% error

    ORIGINAL GARDNER EMPTY VISCOSITY TUBES

    VI-730391 Empty Tubes, Grade A, Class G, 144/pkg w/corks, 10.65mm .......................$224.00VI-730392 Empty Tubes, Grade B, Class V, 144/pkg w/corks, 10.75mm ..........................195.00VI-730551 Empty Tubes, Grade N, 144/pkg w/corks & Time Test ASTM D 1545 ................251.00VI-44004 Corks, 150/pkg ............................................................................................19.00

    Individual tubes U thru Z w/ N.I.S.T. Certification available Add /C2 to item Number.........$280.00Individual tubes Z1 thru Z10 w/ N.I.S.T. Certification available Add /C2 to item Number...$346.00

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  • VISCOSITY

    Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc. www.gardco.com (954) 946-9454 1-800-762-2478

    Sturdy metal frame with plastic handle holding 5 tubes in one row by means of spring clips. Flat ends allow holder to be set in vertical position in water bath or on table. Comes without tubes.Weights: 1/2 lbs net; 2 lbs shipping weight.

    HAND-HELD TUBE HOLDER, 5 TUBE

    VI-VG-7420 Tube Holder ........................................ 158.00

    CARGILLE EMPTY VISCOSITY TUBESFOR MEASURING VISCOSITY BY THE AIR BUBBLE RISE METHOD

    MEETS ASTM D 1545

    INTRODUCTIONRheology is a branch of science dealing with the deforma-tion and flow of materials which includes the subject of viscosity. Viscosity is a measurement of internal friction, or resistance, to flow by external forces. Viscosity is the ratio of shear force to shear rate (the slope of the curves in Fig. 1a) expressed by:n = f / A = shear force f = Force dv/dx shear rate A = Area v = Velocity x = DistanceThe viscosity of many materials depends on shear rate and is classified accordingly, Fig 1b. Viscosity is expressed as Absolute, n, and Kinematic, v. Absolute viscosity is determined by measuring the shear force required to produce a given shear rate and is independent of the density of the liquid. Kinematic viscosity is measured by the time required for a given volume of liquid to flow through a capillary or restriction. It is related to flow caused by the hydrostatic head of the liquid and therefore strongly dependent on density.The relationship between Absolute and Kinematic viscosity is given by the following, where p is density:

    v = n/pOne of the simplest methods for determining Kinematic viscosity is by the rising bubble technique employing matched viscosity tubes. The method is visual, convenient, rapid and easily learned by technical and non-technical personnel.

    Fig. 1a Fig. 1b

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  • VISCOSITY

    Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc. www.gardco.com (954) 946-9454 1-800-762-2478

    PROCEDURE FOR USING CARGILLE VISCOSITY TUBES

    A viscosity tube is filled to the 100mm level score with the material to be tested. A cork is inserted to the 108mm score which provides and fixes a uniform air bubble. The sample, and standard if used, is placed in a suitable rack and immersed in a water bath until a uniform temperature of 25C (77F) is attained. If viscosity determinations are performed by referral to comparison samples of known viscosi-ties or precisely calibrated standards, then they, too, should be at the same temperature as the samples. Viscosity is determined by one of two methods:

    COMPARISON METHODThe bubble rate rise of the samples is compared to samples of known viscosities or calibrated standards contained in tubes of the same dimensions. The rack containing the samples and standards is removed from the water bath, held vertically to stabilize the air bubbles and quickly inverted maintaining vertical-ity. A comparison of air bubble speed of the samples to the standards permits estimation of viscosity; the faster the rate of bubble rise, the lower the viscosity. The user may prepare viscosity standards or employ Gardner Viscosity Standards.

    TIME-METHOD (ASTM D 1545)Time-Test Tubes are required to determine viscosity by the Timed-Method. The length of time, in seconds, required for an air bubble to pass from the 27mm to 100mm score mark, a distance of 73mm, is ap-proximately equal to the viscosity of the liquid in Stoke units; alternatively, viscosity may be expressed in Bubble Seconds. It is important to note that the position of the air bubble in relation to the 27mm score should be similar at the end of the test on the 100mm score.

    VISCOSITY TUBE SELECTION GUIDE

    Cargille Viscosity Tubes are divided into three Classes as determined by precision sorting in accordance with bore size, number of score marks and contemplated method of use for bubble rise testing, Fig. 2. The numbers assigned refer to the bore size, which is expressed in mm.

    TIME-TEST VISCOSITY TUBES, 10.65mmTime-Test Viscosity Tubes are frequently referred to as ASTM D-1545 Tubes, which originated from the adopted standard method of test for viscosity as described in ASTM D-1545 issued by the American Society for Testing and Materials. Time-Test Tubes are scored in three places: Fig. 3a: 27mm, 100mm and 108mm. The score mark at 27mm is used for a 73mm timed travel. Time-Test Viscosity Tubes are also subjected to additional testing procedures to ascertain the 10.65mm bore which is very critical for precision measuring.

    The time required for an air bubble in a liquid to rise is directly proportional to its viscosity. Bubble rise rates vary with the inside diameters of viscosity tubes; therefore, the tubes must be precision matched to a tolerance that will keep bubble rise rate variations below the level of visual detection. Variations in viscosity readings or comparisons are visually imperceptible from viscosity tubes with inside diameter tolerances closer than 0.025mm. Any variations in readings are attributed to differences in viscosities.Viscosity is determined by either measuring the time an air bubble takes to pass between two specifi-cally spaced marks on viscosity tubes, or by comparison to the bubble rate rise of calibrated viscosity standards. The accuracy of the method is therefore a function of precision matching of tube bores and identical score heights, which are measured from the center outside bottom.Other factors, such as uniformity of temperature and verticality of tubes, influence timed bubble travel and controlled laboratory techniques are essential for precise results. For example, a variation in temperature of 0.1C will cause a 1% variation in the timed bubble travel, and a one radius departure from tube verticality may introduce a 10% error in the timed bubble travel.

    RISING BUBBLE TECHNIQUE, PRINCIPLE

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  • VISCOSITY

    Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc. www.gardco.com (954) 946-9454 1-800-762-2478

    CLASS G-10.65 AND CLASS V-10.75 TUBESClass G-10.65 and V-10.75 Viscosity Tubes are used principally for direct comparisons to Gardner Viscosity Standards. Both Classes of tubes are inscribed at the 100mm and 108mm lengths, Fig. 3b. For bubble rate rise comparisons to Gardner Viscosity Standards, the following equivalency chart is provided: Cargille Class G-10.65 = Gardner Grade A Tubes Cargille Class V-10.75 = Gardner Grade B Tubes

    CLASSIFICATION OF CARGILLE VISCOSITY TUBES

    CLASS SCORE MARKS I.D. 0.025mm METHOD OF TESTINGTime-Test, 10.65mm 108mm, 100mm 10.65 Bubble time rise or(ASTM D 1545) 27mm (equivalent to Gardner bubble comparisons N Grade Tubes) Class G-10.65 108mm, 100mm 10.65 Bubble comparisons (equivalent to Gardner to Gardner Standards; A Grade Tubes) or to calibrated standards with identical tube Class V-10.75 108mm, 100mm 10.75 dimensions (equivalent to Gardner B Grade Tubes)

    DIMENSIONSCargille Viscosity Tubes are manufactured to the closest possible tolerances and then precisely measured for final selection. Length.......................114mm 2mm Wall Thickness..........0.65mm Tolerance, I.D...........0.025mm Composition.....Soda-lime glass, flat-bottom Score Height Tolerance......0.5mmNOTE: Inside diameter tolerance closer than 0.025mm is unnecessary since variations in viscosity readings or comparisons would be imperceptible.SCORE MARKSAll Cargille Viscosity Tubes are permanently inscribed with two score marks, at 100mm and 108mm heights (Fig 3b) with the exception of Time-Test Viscosity Tubes, which have an additional score at 27mm (Fig. 3a). In compliance with ASTM D 1545, all score marks are measured from the center outside bottom of the tubes.The score mark at 100mm represents the filling level and the 108mm score is used to fix the size of the air bubble in the tube by inserting a cork to this mark. The 27mm and 100mm scores on Time-Test Viscosity Tubes are used to time the bubble rise.

    VISCOSITY TUBE SPECIFICATIONS

    Fig. 3bFig. 3a

    SPECIFICATION REFERENCESAmerican Oil Chemists Society (AOCS)Method Ka6-63American Society For Testing and MaterialsD1131 53 (1975), D1545 89 D1725 62 (1970)Federal Test Method Standard (FTMS)Method 4271

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  • VISCOSITY

    Paul N. Gardner Co., Inc. www.gardco.com (954) 946-9454 1-800-762-2478

    VISCOSITY TUBE ACCESSORIES

    CARGILLE LABORATORIES VISCOSITY TUBESPRICE PER GROSS

    COLOR TUBESCritical color or turbidity comparisons are frequently affected by variations in the light path of the liquid sample. To minimize this visual diluting effect, tubes are availlable with matched bore sizes to 0.05mm to insure replicate volume comparisons under similar light path conditions. Dimensions 114mm long , 10.80mm I.D., 0.65mm wall thickness.

    SHELL VIALS Tubes exhibiting bore sizes exceeding Viscosity, Color and Rough Sort Tube specifications are availabe for innumerable laboratory applications where inside dimensional tolerance is critical . Dimensions 114mm long, approximate 12mm O.D., 0.65mm wall thickness.

    VI-44154/GR Time Test (ASTM D-1545) Grade N w/ corks ..........................$283.00VI-44106/GR Class G-10.65mm dia Grade A w/ corks ...............................248.00VI-44107/GR Class V-10.75mm dia Grade B w/ corks ...............................219.00

    ACCESSORIESVI-44200 or 44250/GR Rough Sort Tubes (Specify High or Low Range) ........................83.00VI-44350/GR Viscosity/Color Tubes with corks .............................................111.00VI-36134/GR Shell Vials. .............................................................................70.00VI-36132 Viscosity Tube Sample Storage box (Model CK-3)---(Ea.). ..........42.00VI-44004 Corks (for Viscosity Tubes), 150 corks per package---(Pkg). .......19.00

    ROUGH SORT TUBES Tubes unsuitable for viscosity applications are separated, sorted, matched and grouped into two ranges according to tube bore size. Although these tubes are not precesion matched or scored, they are adquately matched in bore size for diversified use in general industrial and labora-tory procedures. Rough Sort Tubes-Low.....Range 10.50-10.75mmRough Sort Tubes-High....Range 10.75-11.00mm

    correspondingly-numbered index charts for recording pertinent sample information, and an exterior card in a polished brass card holder for easily identifying the general contents of the sample storage box.

    VISCOSITY TUBE SAMPLE STORAGE BOXA durable, compact, solid, fibreboard Sample Storage Box with attractive dark green, moisture and abrasive resistant exterior covering holds up to 100 viscosity tubes in partitioned compartments. The compartments are arranged 5X20 and are alpha-numerically indexed for rapidly locating stored viscosity samples. Boxes are supplied with separate,

    CORKSHigh quality, short length corks, properly fit viscosity tubes so that the small end is in firm contact with inside of tubes to prevent small extraneous bubbles from interfering with timed bubble movement.

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