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1 1 SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program The SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program is funded principally through a grant from the SPE Foundation. The society gratefully acknowledges the companies that support this program by allowing their professionals to participate as lecturers. Special thanks to the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) for its contribution to the program. Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Lecturer Program www.spe.org/dl Cement and Cementing: An Old Technique With a Future? Bernard Piot Schlumberger Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Lecturer Program www.spe.org/dl
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SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

Oct 09, 2019

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Page 1: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

1

1

SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program

The SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program is funded principally through a

grant from the SPE Foundation.

The society gratefully acknowledges the companies that support this

program by allowing their professionals to participate as lecturers.

Special thanks to the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and

Petroleum Engineers (AIME) for its contribution to the program.

Society of Petroleum Engineers

Distinguished Lecturer Programwww.spe.org/dl

Cement and Cementing:

An Old Technique With a Future?

Bernard PiotSchlumberger

Society of Petroleum Engineers

Distinguished Lecturer Programwww.spe.org/dl

Page 2: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

2

3

Outline

• Cement

• Cementing: a necessary evil?

• Alternative isolation techniques

• Today’s well challenges

– Cement versatility

• Well architecture tool for the future

4

Cement

Material and Regulations

Page 3: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

3

5

0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00Time (HH:MM)

0

20

40

60

80

100

Vis

cosi

te(B

c)

Thickening time test (neat class G)

0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:000

20

40

60

80

100

Con

sist

ency

, Bc

Time, h

Portland Cement

• Hydraulic binder

• Suspension (paste or

slurry) for placement

• Controllable setting

• Solid

– Strong

– Impermeable

• Inexpensive

• Available everywhere

0 15 30 45 60 75Time (HH)

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

Com

pres

sive

Stre

ngth

Typ

eB

(psi

)

Strength development test (neat class G)

Time, h0 15 30 45 60 75

Com

pres

sive

str

engt

h, p

si

1,000

500

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

3,500

4,000

0

6

History of Oilfield Cement

• Before our era

– Clay, lime

Ca(OH)2 + CO2 � CaCO3

• Roman times

– Pozzolanic cements

• 1824: Portland cement

– Selected raw materials

• 1903: Portland cement in oil wells

• 1917: “Oilfield” cements

• API created 20 Mar 1919

• 1940: ASTM Types 1 to 5

• 1948: API Code 32 released

– Became API RP10B in 52

• 1952: 6 classes of cement

• 1953: API Std 10A

• API Spec 10A in 72

• ISO 10426 since 2000

Page 4: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

4

7

Cement Types

• Construction cements

– Common cement

– API classes A, B, C

• Retarded cements

– Deeper wells

– Classes D, E, F

– Pressurized consistometer

– Cementing companies

– Abandoned early 80s

• Plain Portland cement

– Classes G, H

– Quality control, reproducibility

– More universal

• Class J cement

– Replaced by G/H + Silica

• Slag cement

– ~80s Brine resistance

– ~90s Mud compatibility

• Others

8

Use of Cement

• USA

– ~ 80% class H and G

– ~ 10% class A, ~ 10% Class C

• Rest of the world (international service companies)

– >95% class G (often imported)

– Class A or C; or local common cement: preferentially Type V (ASTM), or CEM-I 42.5 or 52.5 (EN 197-1)

• Logistics allowing

• If good and even quality

• If adequate quality control

Page 5: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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9

From API to ISO (since 1998)

• API Committee 10

• ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2

• ISO 10426 – well cements– ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A) - specification

– ISO 10426-2 (ANSI/API RP 10B-2) - testing

– ISO 10426-3 (ANSI/API RP 10B-3) – deepwater wells

– ISO 10426-4 (ANSI/API RP 10B-4) - foam cement

– ISO 10426-5 (ANSI/API RP 10B-5) – shrinkage/expansion

– ISO 10426-6 (ANSI/API RP 10B-6) – static gel strength

• Other work groups: – Evaluation (logs), High Temperature, Deepwater…

10

Cementing: A Necessary Evil?

Evolution of Equipment and Technology,

and an Outline of Their Shortcomings

Page 6: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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11

Technology Older Than a Century

• First well cementing ~ 1903

– Perkins Oil Well Cementing Co., Calif.

– Shovel/cement mixer

• First use of an eductor

– Jet mixer invented 1921

– “High pressure” mixing

– In use till the 1970s

• Still used by some

• Gravity cement feed

12

Primary Cementing Objectives

• Casing anchor (axial support)

• Protection against corrosion and erosion

• Support of borehole walls

• Zonal isolation

Hole

Casing

Cement

Gas zone

Oil zone

Page 7: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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13

Unsuccessful Zonal Isolation

Risk to

HSE

ACP/SCP Remedial

work

Early

water

prodn

Loss of

prodn

Interzonal

fluid flow

NPV

Loss of Loss of

wellwell

14

Cementing Process at Surface

Additives

Water

Slurry

Homogenizing/

ControlPumpingWell

Dosing and

Mixing

Dry Additives

Cement Bulk

Blend

Page 8: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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15

Handling Dry Cement

• From cutting sacks to

pneumatic handling

– Storage

– Transport

– Blending

• Typical problems

– Contamination

– Humidity (air)

– Deliverability

– Homogeneity

• Fully automated blender

16

Control of Mixing

SG - 1.0

+SLURRY SG ~ 1.9

CEMENT

SG - 3.2=

Density Control

Page 9: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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Cement Quality = Slurry Performance

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1Density

Viscosity

Gelation

Free Fluid

Stability

Dehydration

Pump Time

Early Strength

� W/C ratio; extender; weighting agent

� Fluid loss agent

� Anti-settling agent

� Dispersant / viscosifier

� Retarder/accelerator

Viscosity

GelationPump time

Free fluidDehydration

Stability

Early strength

Density

18

Cementing Additives Key Milestones

• Lignosulphonates and cellulosics

• Sugars and superplasticizing agents (~ 1960s)

• Polyamine/imine ( ~1970s)

• SB Latex ( ~ 1980s)

• Co/ter-polymers AMPS (~ 1980s)

– Temperature stability

• Biopolymers (~ 1990s)

– Not based on Xanthan gum

• Environmentally friendly additives (end 1990s)

– OSPAR (OSlo-PARis) convention 1998

Page 10: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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Cementing Process Downhole

• Failures identified 30-40s

• Field practices

– Turbulent displacement

• High Reynolds ~50s

• 10 min contact ~60s

– SloFlo / Plug Flow ~70s

• Fluid with yield stress

• Displacement studies

– Yield stress fluids ~end 60s

– Mobility ratio/differential

velocity ~70s

– “Pump as fast as you can”

– All semi-empirical

• Very mixed results

– Even in vertical wells

DIRECTION OF FLOWV = 0

V = 0

V max

20

Mud Removal Modeling

• More complex wells

– Deviated, horizontal

& extended reach

• More critical wells

– Deepwater, high-pressure

high-temperature

• Importance for Zonal Isolation

– Very difficult modeling

– Computational Fluid Dynamics

(CFD) tools not applicable

• Eccentricity effects

– Modeling ~ end 80s

– Turbulent/Effective Laminar Flow

– Rheology/Density contrast

• Erodability / PDGM concept

– Polymer muds

• Numerical 2D Modeling (2002)

• Lubrication analytical model (2003)

Page 11: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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Cement Evaluation Logs

• Sonic logs

– CBL ~60s

– Compensated CBL ~80s

– Segmented Compensated

• Ultrasonic logs

– 8 sensors ~80s

– 1 rotating sensor ~90s

• Limitation of cement logs

– Strength or Impedance ~80s

– Microannulus/Isolation???

– Microdebonding ~mid-90 s

– Casing interface exclusively

• Flexural Attenuation (2006)

– 1 + 3 sensors

– Full cemented annulus width

– 3rd interface

– Differentiate lightweight

cements from liquids

– Confirm hydraulic isolation

– Visualize casing in borehole

22

Alternative Isolation Techniques

Other Fluids and Mechanical Means

Page 12: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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23

Organic Resins

• Very limited applications

– Cost

– Shelf-life

– Sensitivity

– Health, safety, and environment

– Compatibility (water, mud…)

– Placement

– …

24

Mechanical Systems

• Complementary to cement

– Casing drilling, expandable casing (EC)

– Swellable elastomer layer

• Exclusive of cement

– EC/Casing with (oil or water) swellable

packer

– Another form of completion

• May still require cement for most other casings

Page 13: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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25

Today’s Well Challenges and

Versatility of Cement

26

New Reservoir Isolation Challenges

• Aging and depleting fields

– Completions at lower pressures

– Steam injection, stimulation

– Workovers and repairs

– Plugging and abandonment

• Exploration and new developments

– Isolation under higher pressure and temperature

– Very narrow pore/frac pressures margin

– In deeper water and at colder temperatures

Page 14: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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27

Need for Ultra-Low Density

• Conventional Cement Slurries

– Directly linked to W/C ratio

– Slurry

• Very low rheology

• Stability

– Set cement

• Very low strength, high permeability, very long setting times

• High performance/high solid cements

– Adapted from concrete industry

– Same water/solid ratio at all densities

• From 900 to 2800 kg/m3

– Similar rheology

– High strength, low permeability

28

Slurry Quality Control?

Solid Fraction Monitoring

SG - 1.0

+ CEMENT

SG - 3.2 Slurry Density - 1.0 ??

=

What if density 1.0?

Page 15: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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Well Architecture and Logistics

• Lighter isolation-quality cements

– Depleted reservoirs

– Single-stage cementing

– Production liner instead of casing

• Light cements that set faster at

low temperatures

– Deepwater conductors,

surface casings…

30

Cement A

Cement B

Is Isolation Durable?

Cement is strong, but fragile

• Understanding failures

– P or T increases

– Drilling, milling, repairs

– P or T decreases

• Modeling capability

– Parameter sensitivity

rock

cement

casing

P,T

rock

cement

casing

rock

cement

casing

P,T

Page 16: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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Isolation Made Durable

• Controlled flexibility and expansion

– Isolation maintained

during P, T changes

– From construction to abandonment

32

A Tool in Well ArchitectureSummary

Page 17: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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33

Cement in the Past

• A necessary evil?

• Commodity?

34

Cementing Today

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1Early strength

Final strength

Permeability

Shrinkage

Bonding

Flexibility

Durability

Toughness

• Solutions portfolio

– Not only slurry

performance

– Set material properties

– Short/long-term well

requirements

• Modeling tools

– Fit-for-purpose,

cost-effective system

Page 18: SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program · 5 9 From API to ISO (since 1998) • API Committee 10 • ISO TC 67 /SC 3/WG 2 • ISO 10426 – well cements – ISO 10426-1 (ANSI/API 10A)

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Cementing Tomorrow:

A Technology for the Future

• Oilwell cementing has evolved considerably

• Oilwell cementing will continue to quickly adapt

– New cements from cement manufacturers

– New tools from cementing service industry

• Physically active, chemically re-active or inert materials

• Process design/simulation means

– A true well engineering technology

• An interesting future

� Evolving cement industry

– Still considerable academic

research

– CO2 emissions

– Important engineering

development

� Oilfield cementing industry– More tools in the toolbox

• Materials, simulators

– Adapt to tomorrow’s well

requirements

– A true well engineering

technology

36

Thank you for your attention