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Jan 13, 2017



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1. SOWING1.10 INTRODUCTIONSowing is a placing seeds in the soil to have good germination in the field. More precisely, seeds can be generally sown into the soil by maintaining a planting depth of about 2-3 times the size of the seed.On sowing, the following aspects should be fulfilled:-a. Correct amount of seed per unit area.b. Correct depth at which seed is placed in the soil.c. Correct spacing between row-to-row and plant-to-plant.

1.2 Sowing methods

(i) BroadcastingBroadcasting is the process of random scattering of seed on the surface of seedbeds. It can be done manually by using hand.After the spread of seeds, the planking equipment is then used for covering seeds with soil.


(ii) DibblingDibbling is the process of placing seeds in holes made in seedbed and covering them. In this method, seeds are placed in holes make at definite depth at fixed spacing.The equipment used for dibbling is called dibbler.

(iii) DrillingDrilling consists of dropping the seeds in furrow lines in a continuous flow and covering them with soil.Equipment(s) used in drilling This can be done by a plough (Animal drawn seed drill) or specified Tractor.For the case of plough(Animal drawn seed drill) machine, is the one in which seed metering is done manually by the operator. The drill consists of furrow openers, funnel for feeding seed, seed pipes for connecting funnel with pipes

For operation, the seed is fed by the operator manually in the funnel, and is dropped in the furrow created by the openers.

(iv) Seed dropping behind the ploughIt is very common method used in villages. It is used for seed like maize, beans, peas and wheat.A man drops seeds in the furrow walking behind the plough. The depth of sowing depends on the depth of plough.

(v) TransplantingTransplanting consists of preparing seedlings in nursery and then planting these seedlings in the prepared field. It is commonly done for rice(paddy), vegetable and flowers.Equipment used for Transplanting is called Transplanter.

(vi) Hill droppingIn this method, seeds are dropped at fixed spacing and not in a continuous stream. Thus the spacing between plant to plant in a row is constant.Seed dropping can be done manually by hand or mechanically using special machine.a)Manually This done by hand, picking of seed and placing direct into the drilled hole.

b) MechanicallyThis done by machine where seeds are dropped in equal spacing. The equipment below is a seed dropper for hill dropping method.The seeder in action, first dropping seed, then the basket-like wheels roll over the seed, covering it with soil and tamping it down.

2.0 SEED DRILLSeed drill is a machine for placing the seeds in a continuous flow in furrows at uniform rate and atcontrolled depth with or without the arrangement of covering them with soil.2.1 Function of seed drill: Seed drill performs the following functionsi) To carry the seeds.ii) To open furrow to an uniform depthiv) To place the seed in furrows in an acceptable patternv) To cover the seeds and compact the soil around the seed.

2.2 COMPONENTS OF SEED DRILLA seed drill with mechanical seed metering device mainly consists of :- Frame, Seed box, Furrow openers, Covering device and Transport wheels.Frame: The frame is usually made of iron with suitable braces and brackets. The frame is strong enough to withstand all types of loads in working condition.

Seed box : It may be made of mild steel sheet or galvanized iron with a suitable cover.Covering device: It is a device to refill a furrow after the seed has been placed in it.Transport wheel: There are two wheels fitted on the main axle. The wheels have suitable attachments to transmit power to operate seed dropping mechanism.Driller: Pointed end that used to drill a hole for seed and to the machines is a point where seeds enters the soil.

3.0 METERING MECHANISMThe mechanism of seed drill or fertilizer distributor which deliver seeds or fertilizers from the hopper at selected rates is called seed metering mechanism.Seed metering mechanism may be of several types;1)Fluted feed type 2)Internal double run type3)Cup feed type4)Cell feed mechanism5)Brush feed mechanism6)Auger feed mechanism7)Picker wheel mechanism8)Star wheel mechanism

1. Fluted feed typeIt is a seed metering devices with adjustable fluted roller to collect and deliver the seeds into the seed tube. Fluted feed type mechanism consists of a fluted feed wheel, feed roller, feed cut-off and adjustable gate for different sizes of grains.

2.Internal double run typeIt is a seed metering device in which the feed wheel is provided with fine and coarse ribbed flanges. It consists of discs, mounted on a spindle and housed in a casing fitted below the seed box.

3. Cup feed mechanismIs the mechanism that consist of cups of spoons and the periphery of a vertical rotating disc which picks up the seeds from the hopper and delivers them into the seed tubes. It consists of a seed hopper which has two parts , the upper one is called gain box and the lower one is called feed box.

5. Brush feed mechanismIt is a mechanism in which a rotating brush regulates the flow of seed from the hopper The following is diagram of brush feed mechanism

6. Cell feed mechanismIt is a mechanism in which seeds are collected and delivered by a series of equally spaced cells on the periphery of a circular plate or wheel.

7. Auger feed mechanismIt is a distributing mechanism consisting of an auger which causes a substance to flow evenly in the field through an aperture at the base or on the side of hopper.8.Picker wheel mechanismIt is a mechanism in which vertical plate is provided with radially projected arms which drop the large seeds like potato in furrows with the help of suitable jaws.

4.0 FURROW OPENERSThe furrow openers are provided in a seed drill for opening the furrows before dropping the seeds. The seed tube conducts the seed from the feed mechanism into the boot from where they fall into the furrows.4.1 TYPES OF FURROW OPENERSDifferent types of furrow openers are;1)Shovel type2)Shoe type3)Disc type(single disc, double disc)

1.Shovel typeShovel type furrow openers are widely used in seed drills.Shovel type openers are best suited for stony or root infested fields2.Shoe typeIt works well in trashy soils where the seed beds are not smoothly prepared. They are made from two flat pieces of steel welded together to form a cutting edge. It is specially suited for black cotton soil. Shoe is made of carbon steel having minimum carbon content of 0.5 percent with a minimum thickness of 4mm. 3.Disc type furrow openersThere are two types of disc type furrow openersSingle disc typeDouble disc type

Single disc type furrow openers Are found suitable where plant debris or trash mulches are used. It is a furrow opener consisting of one concave disc and set at an angle while operating, shifts the soil to one side making a small ridge. The disc is kept clean by two scrapers.Double disc type furrow openers In double disc type furrow opener, there are two flat discs, set at an angle to each other. The discs open a clean furrow and leave a small ridge in the centre.


The furrow opener consists of:ShovelSeed tubeBoot for seed and fertilizer 1. ShovelIt is made of carbon steel having carbon content of 0.5 percent and a minimum thickness of 4.0mm. Shovel type furrow opener of 100 to 200mm size are used on seed drills.2. Seed tubeIt is a tube which carriers the seeds from the metering device to the boot. 3.Boot - It is a part of the sowing machine which conveys the seeds or fertilizers from the delivery tube to the Furrow.

CALIBRATION OF SEED DRILL AND SEED-CUM-FERTILIZER DRILLThe procedure of testing the seed drill for correct seed rate is called calibration of seed drill. It is necessary to calibrate the seed drill before operating in the field to get a predetermined seed rate of the machine. The following steps are to be followed for calibration of seed drill or seed-cum- fertilizer drill. Step 1: Determine the nominal width (W) of drill. W = M S Where M is the number of furrow openers and S is the spacing between the openers in metre and W is in metreStep 2: Find the length of a strip (L) having nominal width W necessary to cover 1/25 th of a hectare. L =( 10000/W)(1/25)=(400/W) metres Step 3: Determine the number of revolutions (N) the ground wheel has to make to cover the length of the strip (L). DN=(10000/W)(1/25) where D is the diameter of ground wheel in metre or N=(10000/DW)(1/25)=(400/DW) rpm Step 4: Raise the seed drill in such a way that the ground wheels turn freely. Make a mark on the drive wheel and a corresponding mark at a convenient place on the body of the drill to help in counting the revolutions of the drive wheelStep 5: Put the selected seed and fertilizer in the respective hoppers. Place a sack or a container under each boot for seeds and the fertilizers.

Step 6: Set the rate control adjustment for the seed and fertilizer for maximum drilling. Mark this position on the control for reference.Step 7: Engage the clutch or on-off adjustment for the hoppers and rotate the drive wheel at the speed N. N=400/(DW) rev/minStep 8: Weigh the quantity of seed and fertilizer dropped from each opener and record on the data sheet.Step 9: Calculate the seed and fertilizer dropped in kg/hectare and record on the data sheetStep 10: Repeat the process by suitable adjusting the rate control till desired rate of seed and fertilizer drop is obtained.

TEST FOR SEED UNIFORMITY The following test are done to ensure uniformity in metering of seed; (1)Sticky belt methodMount the drill on a stand and allow 10 metre long belt to travel under the furrow openers or seed tubes in such a way that the speed of the belt is equal to the running speed the drill.Apply a sticky layer of grease to the belt to facilitate the proper embedding of seeds without any displacement.Operate the drill and observe the number of seeds dropped and the average distance between two seeds for each metre of belt length.(2)Sand bed methodPrepare an artificial levelled bed of 25 cm depth from fine sand and of a length of at least 5 metres and the width equal to the nominal width of the drill.Allow the drill to travel over this bed with furrow openers or seed tubes lowered to 3 to 5 cm from the top surface of the bed.Observe the number of seeds dropped and the average distance between two seeds for each metre of bed length.

5.0 PLANTER A planteris an agricultural farm implement that is used for planting seeds that are larger in size and cannot be used by usual seed drills.5.1 FUNCTIONS OF THE PLANTERTo open the furrowTo meter the seedTo deposit the seed in the furrowTo cover the seeds and compact the soil over it

5.2 COMPONENTS OF THE PLANTERHopperSeed metering deviceKnock out arrangementCut-off mechanismFurrow openerAnd other devices

5.3 SEED METERING MECHANISM OF THE PLANTERThere are a number of seed metering devices in a planter but the most common device consist of a rotating plate at the bottom of seed hoppers. The horizontal seed plates have got suitable notches or holes called cell. Depending upon the type of notches on the plates, it is of three types; edge drop, flat drop and hill drop. (i) Edge dropThe edge drop carries the seed on edge in the cell of the plate.


(ii) Flat dropThe flat drop carries the seed on a flat in the cell of the plate.

(iii) Hill drop In hill drop, the cells round the edge of the plate are large enough to admit several seeds at a time.

WORKING MECHANISMThe rotating plate receives seeds from the hopper. The plates move under an arrangement called Cut-off which allows on those seeds which are accommodated in the cells. Knock out mechanism is the device that knocks out the seeds from the cells or picker heads of the mechanism.

FACTORS FOR ACCURACY OF THE PLANTERSpeed of the plateShape and the size of the cellsShape of the hopper bottomUniformity of seed size.


6.1 POTATO PLANTER Potato planter have two types of potato dropping mechanism; Automatic and Semi-automatic mechanisms.

AUTOMATIC POTATO PLANTER The automatic potato planter consists of hopper for each row and cups with chain drive mechanism. The graded potatoes are picked up by the cup and carried to furrow opener spout and realized into the furrow.

SEMI- AUTOMATIC POTATO PLANTERIt is also used for planting potatoes. The semi-automatic potato planter consist of hopper, metering disc, and furrow openers


6.2 SUGARCANE PLANTERIt is used for planting sugar cane.

COMPONENTS OF MECHANICAL SUGARCANE PLANTER1.Three point linkage2.Main frame3.Cabins4.Seats for labors5.Feeder openings6.Cane feeding system7.Cane cutting system8.Fertilizer metering system9.Guard10.Ridgers11.Insecticide and fungicide solution tank12.Fertilizer boxes13.Fertilizer conveyor14.Fertilizer pipes15.Soil cove


CONCLUTION Generally, Sowing and planting equipment are of greater importance as they make easier the process of planting and sowing rather than when done manually. Sowing and planting equipments are many and of different types as described above. Each type of sowing and planting equipment for specified crop works efficiently if it is used properly and at the specified task. Hence farmers should be careful when choosing the type of equipment ,they must choose the right equipment considering the type, size and biological characteristics of grains or seeds to be planted so that they can not be damaged.REFERENCES Lecture notes of agricultural engineering by Dr Jagdishwar sahay