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South Asia Unit 8 Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka
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South Asia Unit 8 Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka.

Dec 26, 2015

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  • Slide 1
  • South Asia Unit 8 Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka
  • Slide 2
  • Physical Features - Rivers Brahmaputra Ganges Indus
  • Slide 3
  • Physical Features - Other Deccan Plateau Himalayas Mt. Everest Western & Eastern Ghats Indo-Gangetic Plain
  • Slide 4
  • Physical Terminology Subcontinent-a landmass that is like a continent, only smaller. (ie the Indian subcontinent). Estuary-a broadened seaward end of a river, where the rivers currents meet the oceans tides. Landlocked-having no outlet to the sea. Nepal, Bhutan
  • Slide 5
  • Physical Terminology Monsoon-a seasonal wind, especially in South Asia. Summer monsoons are wet; winter monsoons are dry. Cyclone-a violent storm with fierce winds and heavy rain; the most extreme weather pattern of South Asia. What we know as a hurricane. Storm Surge-high water level brought by a cyclone that swamps low-lying areas Alluvial (plain)-land that is rich farmland, composed of clay, silt, sand, or gravel deposited by running water. For example, when a river floods and the waters recede, they leave alluvial deposits.
  • Slide 6
  • Physical Terminology Archipelago-a set of closely grouped islands. Example Indonesia & Philippines Atoll-a ring-like coral island or string of small islands surrounding a lagoon. Example - Maldives
  • Slide 7
  • Water and Climate Change Glaciers in the Himalayas are melting so fast that they could eventually disappear entirely. Melting glaciers provide crucial domestic and irrigation water to hundreds of millions of South Asians, so their disappearance would be a disaster. Over the short term, flooding may intensify as rivers carry more glacial meltwater. Meanwhile, coastal areas are highly exposed to sea level rise as polar ice melts.
  • Slide 8
  • 2011 W.H. Freeman Publishers
  • Slide 9
  • One of the thousands of Himalayan glaciers that is melting faster than normal. The Indus, Ganga, and the Brahmaputra rivers, are all fed partially by meltwater from glaciers. Flooding along a river in southern Bangladesh. Increased flows in rivers as well as more severe cyclones and hurricanes have led to widespread flooding in recent years. Classes in northwestern Bangladesh are held in boats equipped with solar power and computers. The boats can provide schooling even during flooding.
  • Slide 10
  • Economic Globalization-actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.Globalization-actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope. Microcredit-a small loan available to poor entrepreneurs, to help small businesses grow and raise the standard of living.Microcredit-a small loan available to poor entrepreneurs, to help small businesses grow and raise the standard of living. Outsourcing-a decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.Outsourcing-a decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.
  • Slide 11
  • A swimming pool at Infosys, an information technology company based in India that employs over 100,000 people worldwide. A worker at a call center where customers anywhere in the world can call for technical or other assistance. A porter in rural Nepal carries a heavy drainpipe up a mountain road using a head strap.
  • Slide 12
  • Economic Cottage Industries-manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory; commonly found prior to the Industrial Revolution. Subsistence Activities-activities in which a family produces only the food, clothing, and shelter they themselves need. Sweatshop-a workplace where people work long hours for low pay under poor conditions to enrich manufacturers.
  • Slide 13
  • 2011 W.H. Freeman Publishers
  • Slide 14
  • A man uses a tractor to work his rice field near Dhaka, Bangladesh. Recent rural migrants work in Dhaka as low-paid laborers pushing carts loaded with freight. A slum in Dhaka that houses many recent migrants from rural areas.
  • Slide 15
  • Population and Gender A strong preference for sons has produced a gender imbalance throughout most of South Asia. Cultural norms enable sons to bring greater wealth and status to families. Hence, many wealthier families choose to abort female fetuses, while poorer families many commit female infanticide. The result is an adult population where men significantly outnumber women.
  • Slide 16
  • 2011 W.H. Freeman Publishers
  • Slide 17
  • An Indian wedding. Dowries and other expenses traditionally borne by the brides family make male children especially sought after. A sign at an Indian hospital advertising a low sign to curtail the abortion of female fetuses. Men in Mumbai, India, where the gender imbalance means that many men go unmarried or remain bachelors late into life.
  • Slide 18
  • 2011 W.H. Freeman Publishers
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • Slide 21
  • Social Aryans-semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who invaded Northern India, subjugating the existing inhabitants and instituted the caste system. Caste System-the Aryan system of social classes in India and one of the cornerstones of Hinduism in which each person is born into a caste and can only move into a different caste through reincarnation. Reincarnation-the belief that when one dies their soul is re- born.
  • Slide 22
  • Hinduism One of the worlds oldest religions; dates back 5,000 years. Ethnic religion concentrated in India Monotheistic; many deities represent an aspect of the divine spirit, Brahman. Karma: accumulated sum of ones good and bad deeds. Determines how you will live your next life.
  • Slide 23
  • I. Hinduism in South Asia It is estimated that between 11 and 14 percent of the worlds population are followers of the Hindu religion. Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world. The vast majority of Hindus some 750 million live in India, where they account for 85% of the population. Hindus also comprise a significant portion of the population in Nepal (89%), Fiji (41%), Trinidad (25%), Surinam (28%), and Bhutan (25%). There are around 1.5 million Hindus in the U.S. (.5%) of the total population. Most have arrived since 1965.
  • Slide 24
  • II. B Largest polytheistic religion Hindus have many, many gods and goddesses, each who represent an aspect of Brahman (the Universe). Through their stories in Hindu religious texts, Hindus learn moralistic parables about the right actions and ways of doing things. Powerful god/desses include Brahma (not Brahman, BTW) Shiva and Vishnu
  • Slide 25
  • Brahma, Shiva & Vishnu
  • Slide 26
  • Stories of the Gods In religious books like the Vedas, these stories of adventure often have a inner religious meaning. They remain popular stories to make into films, much like Biblical movies in the West. Bollywood
  • Slide 27
  • III.A- Basic Ideas in Hinduism: Hinduism believes that God (Brahman) is in all things, and all things are in God. Brahman manifests (separates) into different Gods/desses. All Gods are Brahman (Henotheism). Each one of us is Brahman.
  • Slide 28
  • Dharma (the Path) Each person alone has his/her liberty to pursue truth in their own way (Dharma- the Path). Hinduism does not believe that any religion (& any other religious books) will ensure salvation to everyone. You must find your own dharma. One should live and act with ones own dharma and the scriptures. Those who trust religion look for new meaning in them, while others look elsewhere for answers to their questions (science, for instance).
  • Slide 29
  • III.C-Reincarnation Reincarnation (Transmigration of the Soul), is the Hindu concept that the soul is transferred into another body after death. This is the ever- revolving wheel of life, death, and rebirth. A persons karma determines the kind of body (any living being) into which he or she will inhabit in the next life. Through pure acts, thoughts, and devotion, one can be reborn at a higher level. Likewise, bad deeds can cause a person to be reborn at a lower level. The unequal distribution of wealth, prestige, and suffering are thus seen as the natural result of Karma. One of the religious justifications for the caste system in India.
  • Slide 30
  • Modern Hindus of America Are the most educated of all religious groups in the United States (48% of adult Hindus in the USA hold post-bachelors degrees). Almost half make $100,000 or more a year.
  • Slide 31
  • So, do Hindus worship cows, or what? No, they do not. Hindus honor all living things as part of Brahman Cows are seen as giving, mother-like creatures (milk, leather, dung). Monkeys, by the way, are honored as animals of strength and power.
  • Slide 32
  • Famous Hindus or Hindu Converts JD Salinger- writer, Catcher in the Rye Carolos Santana- Guitarist, musician George Harrison- Beatle Julia Roberts- Actress
  • Slide 33
  • So, whos the guy with the elephant head? Ganesh, son of Vishnu Lost his head to Shiva Like many Hindu Gods, has multiple arms/heads/legs (a specific attribute of this God- more limbs, more attributes!) God of removing obstacles Very popular amongst Hindus
  • Slide 34
  • Muslims of South Asia Islam arrived in South Asia in 712. Muslim kingdoms ran much of South Asia until 1803, when the British take over the area as part of the British Empire.
  • Slide 35
  • Muslims in South Asia Today Both Pakistan and Bangladesh are predominantly Muslim (Pakistan 95%, Bangladesh- 90%) Pakistan is the 2 nd most populous Muslim nation, and 6 th largest in the world.
  • Slide 36
  • Buddhism Offshoot of Hinduism Worlds fourth largest religion Founder, Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha/Enlightened One): was a prince who renounced his privileged life and the caste system to become a monk and spread his beliefs after intense meditation and enlightenment. Share a belief in Karma and reincarnation with Hinduism. Guiding principles are the Four Noble Truths & The eightfold Path. suffering exists; it has a cause; it has an end; and it has a cause to bring about its end. Right view Right intention Right speech Right discipline Right livelihood Right effort Right mindfulness Right concentration
  • Slide 37
  • Sikhism Worlds 5 th largest religion Misconceptions Do not believe in fasting, superstitions, ritualism, caste system. Sikhism is a blend of Hinduism and Islam. It has its own scriptures, gurus, and houses of worship. Sikhism is a separate faith, and is not a branch of any other religion. Turbans are worn in many countries as a cultural dress. However, the turban is required to be worn by a Sikh, and it is a religious article of faith. Core beliefs Monotheistic Respect for all Earn an honest living Share with othersmoney, time, etc. Remember God throughout ones day Prohibits smoking, drinking, taking any intoxicants.
  • Slide 38
  • Sikhism Contd. The 5 Ks Kara (iron bracelet): Good deeds Kirpan (sword): Protection Kachera (long underpants): Self-discipline Kesh (uncut hair): Spirituality Kanga (comb): Cleanliness
  • Slide 39
  • Sikhs Today Are very important in Indian society, in business, the military and government. The current Prime Minister of India is a Sikh
  • Slide 40
  • The Jains One of the oldest religions on Earth, dated back to at least 2000BCE Has had considerable influence on Hinduism and later, Buddhism Approx 12 million followers (smallest of the major religions), with most living in India Approx 100,000 in the United States, most arriving in the 1970s.
  • Slide 41
  • Origins of the Jains In the Indus Valley approx 2000BCE Original leaders seem to be mythical. Last Guru was Vardhamana (approx 500BCE) Arrived in southern India by 300BCE
  • Slide 42
  • Current Areas of Jainism
  • Slide 43
  • Beliefs of the Jains Seems to have developed the ideas of Ahimsa (non- violence). Jains are strict vegetarians. Jains are Polytheists Believe the Universe restarts every 21,000 years Has concepts like Heaven (Siddha) & Hell (Nigoda) Believe in Karma Believe in Moksha, which is earned through monastic life.
  • Slide 44
  • Social Sherpa-a person of Tibetan ancestry in Nepal, who serves as the traditional mountain guide of the Himalayas Apa Sherpa displays a Nepali flag at the summit of Mount Everest May 21, 2009. The 49-year-old Nepali sherpa carrying a banner reading "Stop Climate Change" climbed Mount Everest for a record 19th time last Thursday, improving his own record set last year, officials said. Photo/Asian Trekking
  • Slide 45
  • Political Imperialism-control of a territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous group. Raj-the period of British rule in India, which lasted for nearly 200 years, from 1857- 1947. Nonviolent Resistance-a movement that uses all means of protest except violence. Gandhi- Mohandas Gandhi was the leader of the opposition group against British rule.
  • Slide 46
  • Political Partition-divided India into Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India; resulted in a violent conflict that displaced 12.5 million and up to a million deaths. Kashmir-a region of northern India and Pakistan over which several destructive wars have been fought. Sultan-an Arabic word that came to mean ruler; has been used throughout history to reflect various levels of power.
  • Slide 47
  • Democratization and Conflict Many conflicts in this region have been made worse by an unwillingness on the part of governments and warring parties to recognize the results of elections, or even to let people vote. Meanwhile, some conflicts have been defused, at least in the short run, by holding elections and letting former combatants run for office.
  • Slide 48
  • 2011 W.H. Freeman Publishers
  • Slide 49
  • An Afghan fighting against the Soviets in 1988. The conflict was sparked in part by the Soviet-supported Afghan governments antidemocratic policies. A child in Sri Lanka holds up a photo of her missing uncle. The conflict intensified when ethnic Tamil plantation workers were denied the right to vote. A banner in a Nepalese town controlled by Maoists, who once waged a war against the government but have since won an election and become a relatively peaceful, if still unsettled, democratic political party.
  • Slide 50
  • eNvironmental Green Revolution- rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology; especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers. An agricultural program launched by scientists in the 1960s to develop higher-yielding grain varieties and improve food production by incorporating new farming techniques.
  • Slide 51
  • Food and Urbanization Changes in South Asias food production systems are contributing to urbanization. Farming is being made both more productive and more expensive with the introduction of new seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and equipment. While some farmers have become wealthier, many have found themselves unable to compete and have moved to cities, where they often can find only low-paying jobs and inadequate housing.