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South Asia Unit 8 Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal
Pakistan Sri Lanka
Physical Features - Rivers Brahmaputra Ganges Indus
Physical Features - Other Deccan Plateau Himalayas Mt. Everest
Western & Eastern Ghats Indo-Gangetic Plain
Physical Terminology Subcontinent-a landmass that is like a
continent, only smaller. (ie the Indian subcontinent). Estuary-a
broadened seaward end of a river, where the rivers currents meet
the oceans tides. Landlocked-having no outlet to the sea. Nepal,
Physical Terminology Monsoon-a seasonal wind, especially in
South Asia. Summer monsoons are wet; winter monsoons are dry.
Cyclone-a violent storm with fierce winds and heavy rain; the most
extreme weather pattern of South Asia. What we know as a hurricane.
Storm Surge-high water level brought by a cyclone that swamps
low-lying areas Alluvial (plain)-land that is rich farmland,
composed of clay, silt, sand, or gravel deposited by running water.
For example, when a river floods and the waters recede, they leave
Physical Terminology Archipelago-a set of closely grouped
islands. Example Indonesia & Philippines Atoll-a ring-like
coral island or string of small islands surrounding a lagoon.
Example - Maldives
Water and Climate Change Glaciers in the Himalayas are melting
so fast that they could eventually disappear entirely. Melting
glaciers provide crucial domestic and irrigation water to hundreds
of millions of South Asians, so their disappearance would be a
disaster. Over the short term, flooding may intensify as rivers
carry more glacial meltwater. Meanwhile, coastal areas are highly
exposed to sea level rise as polar ice melts.
2011 W.H. Freeman Publishers
One of the thousands of Himalayan glaciers that is melting
faster than normal. The Indus, Ganga, and the Brahmaputra rivers,
are all fed partially by meltwater from glaciers. Flooding along a
river in southern Bangladesh. Increased flows in rivers as well as
more severe cyclones and hurricanes have led to widespread flooding
in recent years. Classes in northwestern Bangladesh are held in
boats equipped with solar power and computers. The boats can
provide schooling even during flooding.
Economic Globalization-actions or processes that involve the
entire world and result in making something worldwide in
scope.Globalization-actions or processes that involve the entire
world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Microcredit-a small loan available to poor entrepreneurs, to help
small businesses grow and raise the standard of
living.Microcredit-a small loan available to poor entrepreneurs, to
help small businesses grow and raise the standard of living.
Outsourcing-a decision by a corporation to turn over much of the
responsibility for production to independent
suppliers.Outsourcing-a decision by a corporation to turn over much
of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.
A swimming pool at Infosys, an information technology company
based in India that employs over 100,000 people worldwide. A worker
at a call center where customers anywhere in the world can call for
technical or other assistance. A porter in rural Nepal carries a
heavy drainpipe up a mountain road using a head strap.
Economic Cottage Industries-manufacturing based in homes rather
than in a factory; commonly found prior to the Industrial
Revolution. Subsistence Activities-activities in which a family
produces only the food, clothing, and shelter they themselves need.
Sweatshop-a workplace where people work long hours for low pay
under poor conditions to enrich manufacturers.
2011 W.H. Freeman Publishers
A man uses a tractor to work his rice field near Dhaka,
Bangladesh. Recent rural migrants work in Dhaka as low-paid
laborers pushing carts loaded with freight. A slum in Dhaka that
houses many recent migrants from rural areas.
Population and Gender A strong preference for sons has produced
a gender imbalance throughout most of South Asia. Cultural norms
enable sons to bring greater wealth and status to families. Hence,
many wealthier families choose to abort female fetuses, while
poorer families many commit female infanticide. The result is an
adult population where men significantly outnumber women.
2011 W.H. Freeman Publishers
An Indian wedding. Dowries and other expenses traditionally
borne by the brides family make male children especially sought
after. A sign at an Indian hospital advertising a low sign to
curtail the abortion of female fetuses. Men in Mumbai, India, where
the gender imbalance means that many men go unmarried or remain
bachelors late into life.
2011 W.H. Freeman Publishers
Social Aryans-semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who invaded
Northern India, subjugating the existing inhabitants and instituted
the caste system. Caste System-the Aryan system of social classes
in India and one of the cornerstones of Hinduism in which each
person is born into a caste and can only move into a different
caste through reincarnation. Reincarnation-the belief that when one
dies their soul is re- born.
Hinduism One of the worlds oldest religions; dates back 5,000
years. Ethnic religion concentrated in India Monotheistic; many
deities represent an aspect of the divine spirit, Brahman. Karma:
accumulated sum of ones good and bad deeds. Determines how you will
live your next life.
I. Hinduism in South Asia It is estimated that between 11 and
14 percent of the worlds population are followers of the Hindu
religion. Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world. The
vast majority of Hindus some 750 million live in India, where they
account for 85% of the population. Hindus also comprise a
significant portion of the population in Nepal (89%), Fiji (41%),
Trinidad (25%), Surinam (28%), and Bhutan (25%). There are around
1.5 million Hindus in the U.S. (.5%) of the total population. Most
have arrived since 1965.
II. B Largest polytheistic religion Hindus have many, many gods
and goddesses, each who represent an aspect of Brahman (the
Universe). Through their stories in Hindu religious texts, Hindus
learn moralistic parables about the right actions and ways of doing
things. Powerful god/desses include Brahma (not Brahman, BTW) Shiva
Brahma, Shiva & Vishnu
Stories of the Gods In religious books like the Vedas, these
stories of adventure often have a inner religious meaning. They
remain popular stories to make into films, much like Biblical
movies in the West. Bollywood
III.A- Basic Ideas in Hinduism: Hinduism believes that God
(Brahman) is in all things, and all things are in God. Brahman
manifests (separates) into different Gods/desses. All Gods are
Brahman (Henotheism). Each one of us is Brahman.
Dharma (the Path) Each person alone has his/her liberty to
pursue truth in their own way (Dharma- the Path). Hinduism does not
believe that any religion (& any other religious books) will
ensure salvation to everyone. You must find your own dharma. One
should live and act with ones own dharma and the scriptures. Those
who trust religion look for new meaning in them, while others look
elsewhere for answers to their questions (science, for
III.C-Reincarnation Reincarnation (Transmigration of the Soul),
is the Hindu concept that the soul is transferred into another body
after death. This is the ever- revolving wheel of life, death, and
rebirth. A persons karma determines the kind of body (any living
being) into which he or she will inhabit in the next life. Through
pure acts, thoughts, and devotion, one can be reborn at a higher
level. Likewise, bad deeds can cause a person to be reborn at a
lower level. The unequal distribution of wealth, prestige, and
suffering are thus seen as the natural result of Karma. One of the
religious justifications for the caste system in India.
Modern Hindus of America Are the most educated of all religious
groups in the United States (48% of adult Hindus in the USA hold
post-bachelors degrees). Almost half make $100,000 or more a
So, do Hindus worship cows, or what? No, they do not. Hindus
honor all living things as part of Brahman Cows are seen as giving,
mother-like creatures (milk, leather, dung). Monkeys, by the way,
are honored as animals of strength and power.
Famous Hindus or Hindu Converts JD Salinger- writer, Catcher in
the Rye Carolos Santana- Guitarist, musician George Harrison-
Beatle Julia Roberts- Actress
So, whos the guy with the elephant head? Ganesh, son of Vishnu
Lost his head to Shiva Like many Hindu Gods, has multiple
arms/heads/legs (a specific attribute of this God- more limbs, more
attributes!) God of removing obstacles Very popular amongst
Muslims of South Asia Islam arrived in South Asia in 712.
Muslim kingdoms ran much of South Asia until 1803, when the British
take over the area as part of the British Empire.
Muslims in South Asia Today Both Pakistan and Bangladesh are
predominantly Muslim (Pakistan 95%, Bangladesh- 90%) Pakistan is
the 2 nd most populous Muslim nation, and 6 th largest in the
Buddhism Offshoot of Hinduism Worlds fourth largest religion
Founder, Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha/Enlightened One): was a prince
who renounced his privileged life and the caste system to become a
monk and spread his beliefs after intense meditation and
enlightenment. Share a belief in Karma and reincarnation with
Hinduism. Guiding principles are the Four Noble Truths & The
eightfold Path. suffering exists; it has a cause; it has an end;
and it has a cause to bring about its end. Right view Right
intention Right speech Right discipline Right livelihood Right
effort Right mindfulness Right concentration
Sikhism Worlds 5 th largest religion Misconceptions Do not
believe in fasting, superstitions, ritualism, caste system. Sikhism
is a blend of Hinduism and Islam. It has its own scriptures, gurus,
and houses of worship. Sikhism is a separate faith, and is not a
branch of any other religion. Turbans are worn in many countries as
a cultural dress. However, the turban is required to be worn by a
Sikh, and it is a religious article of faith. Core beliefs
Monotheistic Respect for all Earn an honest living Share with
othersmoney, time, etc. Remember God throughout ones day Prohibits
smoking, drinking, taking any intoxicants.
Sikhism Contd. The 5 Ks Kara (iron bracelet): Good deeds Kirpan
(sword): Protection Kachera (long underpants): Self-discipline Kesh
(uncut hair): Spirituality Kanga (comb): Cleanliness
Sikhs Today Are very important in Indian society, in business,
the military and government. The current Prime Minister of India is
The Jains One of the oldest religions on Earth, dated back to
at least 2000BCE Has had considerable influence on Hinduism and
later, Buddhism Approx 12 million followers (smallest of the major
religions), with most living in India Approx 100,000 in the United
States, most arriving in the 1970s.
Origins of the Jains In the Indus Valley approx 2000BCE
Original leaders seem to be mythical. Last Guru was Vardhamana
(approx 500BCE) Arrived in southern India by 300BCE
Current Areas of Jainism
Beliefs of the Jains Seems to have developed the ideas of
Ahimsa (non- violence). Jains are strict vegetarians. Jains are
Polytheists Believe the Universe restarts every 21,000 years Has
concepts like Heaven (Siddha) & Hell (Nigoda) Believe in Karma
Believe in Moksha, which is earned through monastic life.
Social Sherpa-a person of Tibetan ancestry in Nepal, who serves
as the traditional mountain guide of the Himalayas Apa Sherpa
displays a Nepali flag at the summit of Mount Everest May 21, 2009.
The 49-year-old Nepali sherpa carrying a banner reading "Stop
Climate Change" climbed Mount Everest for a record 19th time last
Thursday, improving his own record set last year, officials said.
Political Imperialism-control of a territory already occupied
and organized by an indigenous group. Raj-the period of British
rule in India, which lasted for nearly 200 years, from 1857- 1947.
Nonviolent Resistance-a movement that uses all means of protest
except violence. Gandhi- Mohandas Gandhi was the leader of the
opposition group against British rule.
Political Partition-divided India into Muslim Pakistan and
Hindu India; resulted in a violent conflict that displaced 12.5
million and up to a million deaths. Kashmir-a region of northern
India and Pakistan over which several destructive wars have been
fought. Sultan-an Arabic word that came to mean ruler; has been
used throughout history to reflect various levels of power.
Democratization and Conflict Many conflicts in this region have
been made worse by an unwillingness on the part of governments and
warring parties to recognize the results of elections, or even to
let people vote. Meanwhile, some conflicts have been defused, at
least in the short run, by holding elections and letting former
combatants run for office.
2011 W.H. Freeman Publishers
An Afghan fighting against the Soviets in 1988. The conflict
was sparked in part by the Soviet-supported Afghan governments
antidemocratic policies. A child in Sri Lanka holds up a photo of
her missing uncle. The conflict intensified when ethnic Tamil
plantation workers were denied the right to vote. A banner in a
Nepalese town controlled by Maoists, who once waged a war against
the government but have since won an election and become a
relatively peaceful, if still unsettled, democratic political
eNvironmental Green Revolution- rapid diffusion of new
agricultural technology; especially new high-yield seeds and
fertilizers. An agricultural program launched by scientists in the
1960s to develop higher-yielding grain varieties and improve food
production by incorporating new farming techniques.
Food and Urbanization Changes in South Asias food production
systems are contributing to urbanization. Farming is being made
both more productive and more expensive with the introduction of
new seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and equipment. While some
farmers have become wealthier, many have found themselves unable to
compete and have moved to cities, where they often can find only
low-paying jobs and inadequate housing.