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SOSC 102 U Mid-term Review. Sex and Gender: gender difference are socially constructed (J. Lorber) Fetus Gender markers: such as naming and dress Baby

Dec 21, 2015



  • Slide 1
  • SOSC 102 U Mid-term Review
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  • Sex and Gender: gender difference are socially constructed (J. Lorber) Fetus Gender markers: such as naming and dress Baby BoyBaby Girl BoyGirl Gendered parenting, schooling and peer pressures Gender as stratification: gender ranks men above women of the same race and class SEXISM ManWoman Masculinity Feminine Sex differentiation: classify people into categories based on their sex Gender Ideology: a set of widely shared assumptions about the way the sexes are and what the relations between them are and ought to be
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  • Sexism, Homophobia and Racism (M. Kimmel) M. Kimmels study on the construction of manhood in America The complex of WE vs. THE OTHERS Who are WE?: the real men; the men with masculinity) Who are the others? : women, gay men, and men who do not share the same masculinitymen of different racial backgrounds What motivates the men to other other men? The manhood is constituted by masculinity. But the idea that masculinity only belongs to a distinct group of people leads to anxiety. Therefore, those self-proclaimed real men would try to prevent the others from achieving masculinity.
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  • Gender and Work: Sexual Division of labor (an overview) Masculinity Feminine WORK Higher social prestige, higher pay, and greater opportunities to be promoted (longer job ladder) Worldwide, 75% of working women are in 7 occupations nurses, secretaries/typists, housekeepers, bookkeepers and cashiers, building caretakers and cleaners, caregivers, sewers and tailors. Mans workWomans work Aggressive, self- motivated, independent Subordinate positions Sex labeling of occupations and jobs Sex inequality at work
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  • Sexual Division of Labor (an historical retrospect: Europe) Pre-industrial Europe Mans workWomans work Agricultural Work: both sexes work in the fields, with men concentrated in the jobs such as plow, threshold, harvest, build houses, hew timer, harrow etc; women concentrated in the jobs such as weed, harvest, raise animals, make bread, beer, cloth and clothing. Craftsmen guilds: artisans Womens workshops (not voluntary workers)
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  • Sexual Division of Labor (an historical retrospect: Europe) Transition to Industrialization Mans workWomans work Cottage industry: women, children and other family members manufactured goods at home The making of labor force: people work for pay or actively seek paid work Industrial Revolution Paid work became a standard of work while work at home (such as cooking, cleaning for family members, raising children, etc.) became unpaid work classified as nonemployed
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  • Sexual Division of Labor (an historical retrospect: China, the Nantong case) Raw cottonYarnCotton Cloth spinweave Mens work Womens work Sexual division of labor within a peasants household, 16th. C.-19th. C. Raw cotton Yarn (spun in local factories or foreign imports) Cotton Cloth Sell to factories weave Womens work Men and womens work Sexual division of labor within a peasants household, the late 19 th and early 20 th. C.
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  • Sexual Division of Labor (an historical retrospect: the U. S.: 1) Frontier Economy, 17 th. C Mans workWomans work Work of both sexes often overlapped, with mens focusing more on agricultural work Men outnumbered women in the labor force at large Women concentrated in few occupations that were not attractive to men (low pay and poor working conditions) Commercialization, 18 th. C European immigrants: small family businesses (only widows could become independent female entrepreneurs); African-American people: slavery labor Industrialization, 19 th. c
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  • Sexual Division of Labor (an historical retrospect: the U. S.: 2) 1900 W. W. II: 1941-1945 The 1960s: Civil Rights Movements and Women Movements Enactment of Civil Rights Act in 1964 The Great Depression, early 1930s
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  • Indexes of Occupational Sex and Race Segregation, 1900-2000 Padavic and Reskin (2002: 73)
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  • Occupational-level Sex Segregation at Work (U. S. today) 1.Secretaries 3. Cashiers 5. Registered nurses 6. Elementary school teachers 7. Nursing aides 8. Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks 9. Waitress 10. receptionists 3. Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations 4. Truck drivers 5. Janitors and cleaners 6. Carpenters 7. Cooks 8. Computer systems and analysts and scientist 9. Labor 10. supervisors, production occupations. 1 Managers and administrators 2 2. Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupation 4. Index of occupational sex segregation: the proportion of female (or male) workers who have to change to an occupation in which their sex is underrepresented for the sexes to be evenly distributed across occupations and hence, fully integrated. 0=fully integrated; 100=only men or women employed
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  • Occupational-level Sex Segregation at Work (U. S. today) Trend in occupational sex segregation: feminization but not masculinizationshifts in sex-typed jobs mostly involve women replacing men as the majority, but not the other way around Other forms of sex segregation at work: Job-level segregation: sex segregation within occupations Establishment-level segregation: the differing distributions of women and men who pursue the same occupations across different establishments
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  • Sex Differences in Promotion JohnMary College graduates High school graduates: Mary would get more chances to be promoted Top Manager Post-graduate degrees Get Married Have pre-school kids E. g. : Both John and Mary are ambitious to pursue their career achievements
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  • What should Mary do. Other situations that Mary might have more chances Larger organizations have more resources to offer promotion opportunities Higher percentage of womens share of top leadership jobs If companies fill managerial jobs by promoting people from the insider pool, a strong representation of women in non- managerial position would increase female employees share of managerial jobs Line positions (predominantly mens work) have greater opportunities than staff positions Mary Private Enterprises Public Sector Choices among different sectors. Start her own business?
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  • Sex Segregated Internal Labor Market Courtesy Clerk: (Sex Integrated) Store Manager (3.1% female) Produce Department Manager (4.7% female) Produce Department: Clerk (19.1% female) Grocery Department Manager (7.6 % female) Assistant Grocery Department Manager (16.8 % female) Bakery/Deli Department: Clerk (93.7% female) General Merchandise Department: Department Head (clerk position) (91.8% female) Grocery Department: Clerk (49.9% female) The structure: Job Ladder The opportunities: Sex differences in social networks An explanation: Human-capital Theory Homosocial reproduction Glorified secretaries?
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  • What do you want in your life? Work Family
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  • Work-family Conflict Work Family Time Shortage Child care, elderly care, obtaining meals, cleaning, shopping, and laundry, etc. Scheduling Demands Work-family spillover An ideal worker should put work above all other commitments and activities. Can we just purchase the service to save time? Can work from home be a solution? Sacrifice promotion opportunities for family? Work overtime to pay the domestic helpers?
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  • ? Can your pursue your dream life yourself? Or supporting policies are required?