Top Banner

Click here to load reader

Solar Energy for Application to Desalination in Tunisia ... · PDF fileSolar Energy for Application to Desalination in Tunisia: ... • Presentation of the village ... energies and

Mar 28, 2018

ReportDownload

Documents

phunghanh

  • Solar Energy for Application to Desalination in Tunisia: Report of a Demonstration

    Project

    Karim BOUROUNI, and M.T. Chaibi

    Dr. Assistant Professor at ENIT

    U.R.

    Energtique des Btiments et Systmes Solaires

    NATO Advanced Research WorkshopNATO Advanced Research WorkshopNATO Advanced Research WorkshopEnhancing Security in the Middle East through Regional CooperatiEnhancing Security in the Middle East through Regional CooperatiEnhancing Security in the Middle East through Regional Cooperation on Renewable Energy on on Renewable Energy on on Renewable Energy

    161616---18 January 2008, 18 January 2008, 18 January 2008, The The The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), London, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), London, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), London, UKUKUK

    1 / 79

  • Assistant professor at the Industrial Engineering Department at ENIT since september 1999

    Researcher in R.U. Energetic of Buildings

    and Solar Systems

    Engineering School relied to the university

    of Tunis (Ministry of Education and Research)

    1200 Students, 160 Professors, 50 Engenieers,

    50 Professors Visitors

    Twenty laboratories and research units

    Actual Position

    Ecole Nationale d'Ingnieurs de Tunis. B.P. 37 Le belvdre 1002 TUNIS. Phone: (216) 71 874 700 - Fax: (216) 71 872 729 - Info: www.enit.rnu.tnEmail :[email protected]; [email protected]

    ENITENIT

    2 / 79

    http://www.enit.rnu.tn

  • WATER: TREATMENT

    AND DESALINATION

    AUTONOMOUS

    DESALINATION UNITSRENEWABLE ENERGIES

    COOLING SYSTEMS

    DESIGN, MODELING ANDEXPERIMENTATION OF HEAT

    EXCHANGERS

    Research Fields

    3 / 79

  • 4

    PlanPlanPlan

    1. Problematic :

    Water situation in Tunisia

    Water Desalination projects

    Energy resources

    The Rural population

    2. Water Desalination by Solar Energy in Tunisia

    Litterature Review

    Renewable Energies in Tunisia

    4 / 79

  • 5

    3. Pilots of Solar Desalination in Tunisia :

    Multiple Effect Desalination Project

    RO Project

    HD Project

    4. The Demonstration Project of Ksar Ghilne

    Presentation of the village

    Project Presentation

    Some Results

    5. Conclusions and Perspectives

    PlanPlanPlan

    5 / 79

  • 6

    Water Situation Water Situation Water Situation

    In Tunisia and Mediterranean CountriesIn Tunisia and Mediterranean CountriesIn Tunisia and Mediterranean Countries

    6 / 79

  • 7

    Tunisia Location Water Resources

    Arid to a semi arid climate, Lack of precipitation + variability in space and in time.

    North 1,300 mm per year (eg. The northwestern region of Tabarka) South receive less than 100 mm of rain per year.

    7 / 79

  • 8

    Water resources availability by region

    Region (Area%)

    Northern(17)

    Central(22)

    Southern(61)

    Total(100)

    Surface WaterMm3/y

    2185 290 225 2700

    Ground WaterMm3/y

    550 465 830 1845

    Total Water resources Mm3/y

    2735 755 1055 4545

    Total over all regions, %

    60 17 23 100

    8 / 79

  • 9

    0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%

    %

    North Center South

    Area

    Waterresources

    Regional distribution of potential water resources in Tunisia

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    SurfaceWater

    Shallow GroundWater

    Deep GroundWater

    58,5%

    15%

    26,5%

    9 / 79

  • 10

    Water resources classification according to salinity levels

    TDS 5g/l

    24%74%Surface Water

    22%19.9%Deep

    20.9%39%74%Shallow

    56,7%

    31.7%

    2%

    1.4%

    8.4%

    Gro

    und

    wat

    er s

    ourc

    e

    20 40 60 80 100%

    10 / 79

  • 11

    Salinity Salinity Salinity Salinity

    Region 5g/l

    North 211 205 119 23 558

    Center 167 191 88 35 481

    South 3 500 281 75 859

    Total 381 896 488 133 1898

    Percentage 20,1% 47,2% 25,7% 7,0% 100,0%

    Total

    Underground Water according to salinity levels (in Mm3/year)

    In the south only 0,35% of underground water is potable

    11 / 79

  • 12

    Algeria

    Morocco

    Egypt

    Libya

    Tunisia

    0

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    10000

    12000

    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030

    Water Demand (Million m3/year)

    Projection of Potable Water demand in the North African Region

    12 / 79

  • 13

    Projection of Specific Water Demand in the North African Countries

  • 14

    Water Supply situation in Mediterraneancountries

    Year

    1985 1995 2005 2015

    2000

    40060080010001200

    Water

    Supply

    Egypt

    Morocco

    Algeria

    Tunisia

    Jordan

    Lybia

    m3 (year/inhab)

    2025

    Tunisia is one of the most concerned Mediterranean countries by water deficiency

    13 / 79

  • 15

    The solution

    In order to : cover for any future deficit in water

    improve the quality of water

    Desalination = Adequate solution

    14 / 79

  • 16

    Water DesalinationWater DesalinationWater Desalination

    In TunisiaIn TunisiaIn Tunisia

    15 / 79

  • 17

    Desalination Process

    Phase ChangeMembranes

    Reverse Osmosis

    Electrodialysis

    MED

    MSF

    < 5 kWh/m3

    15 kWh/m3

    18 kWh/m3

    16 / 79

  • 18

    Functioning since 1984Production Capacity : 4500 m3/dayTechnique : ROWater Salinity input : 3,7 g/lWater salinity output : 0,7 g/l

    Kerkenah Iseland

    Functioning since 1995Production Capacity : 30000 m3/dayTechnique : ROWater Salinity input : 3,2 g/l

    Water salinity output : 0,2 g/l

    Gabes City

    Functioning since 1999Production Capacity : 15000 m3/dayTechnique : ROWater Salinity input : 6 g/l

    Water salinity output : 0,2 g/l

    Zarzis City

    Functionning since 2000Production Capacity : 20000 m3/dayTechnique : RO

    B. Water Salinity input : 5.5 g/l

    Water salinity output : 0,2 g/l

    Jerba Iseland The actual Total installed

    capacity = 110.000 m3/d,

    200.000 m3/d (2010) and

    500.000 m3/d (2050)

    70 desalination units

    Location : South

    3,7 % of the total water

    production in Tunisia (7% in

    2020)

    Water Desalination in Tunisia

    17 / 79

  • 19

    Uses of desalted water by activity in Tunisia (year 2005)

    Potable Water

    Tourism

    Electricity

    Industry

    Others

    57%24,5%

    4,5%

    9,1%

    4,5%

    18 / 79

  • 20

    Desalination techniques used in Tunisia

    19 / 79

  • 21

    The Cost of the desalted water in US $/m3

    Capacity (m3/day) Sea Water Brackish Water

    4000 1,3 0,7

    8000 0,9 0,4

    20000 0,7 0,25

    40000 0,65 0,22

    60000 0,6 0,2

    The Total volume of desalted water during the year 2005

    by SONEDE is 14,4 Mm3

    The total cost of the desalted water is 0,4 US $ /m3

    Invetment cost : 0,23 US $/m3

    Exploitation Cost : 0,17 US $/m3

    20 / 79

    All these desalination plants function by conventional energy

  • 22

    Energy Situation Energy Situation Energy Situation

    In TunisiaIn TunisiaIn Tunisia

    21 / 79

  • 23

    Crude Oil Resources in North Africa

    0

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    Algeria Tunisia Libya

    Crude Oil resources in

    Million of Tones

    22 / 79

  • 24

    Energy demand projections in Tunisia Energy demand projections in Tunisia (in Mtep)(in Mtep)

    Year

    1998 2001 2010

    Oil products 3,48 3,90 5,60

    Natural gas 0,51 0,62 1,30

    Electricity 0,60 0,80 1,40

    Coke 0,06 0,08 0,10

    Solar --- --- 0,10

    Total 4,65 5,40 8,50

    23 / 79

  • 25

    Evolution of the Energetic Balance in Tunisia

    Fall of the production of fossil energy.

    Growth of the local request of the petroleum products

    Since 2000,Tunisia is in energetic deficit.

    24 / 79

  • 26

    Energy Balance

    Tunisia has not important energy resources

    Energy consumption 8.5 Mtep per year

    Energy available2.9 Mtep per year

    Projection in 2010

    25 / 79

  • 27

    The Rural Population In The Rural Population In The Rural Population In TunisiaTunisiaTunisia

    Water & EnergyWater & EnergyWater & Energy

    26 / 79

  • 28

    The Rural Population in Tunisia

    2 Millions of inhabitants 20% of the population

    Dispersed population

    Average Water needs : 20 - 50 m3/day

    Water is managed by GIC Grouping with collective interest .

    Bad quality of distributes water

    Used for domestic tasks

    Cost of this Water is 0,4 US $/m3

    In Kairouan some families have to walk about 10 km to have potable water

    In Kebili the potable water is sold at place

    The cost of the potable water : 20 32 US$ / m3

    This water caused diseases (Diarrhoea until the renal calculi).

    Families are ready to pay more to have better quality water.27 / 79

  • 29

    Characteristics of water demand in Tunisia(National Statistic Study, 2004)

    For small capacity the conventional Desalination techniques are not economic

    Desalination by Renewable Energy could be a potential solution

    28 / 79

  • 30

    Desalination by Renewable Desalination by Renewable Desalination by Renewable Energies

Welcome message from author
This document is posted to help you gain knowledge. Please leave a comment to let me know what you think about it! Share it to your friends and learn new things together.