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Software Project Management

Nov 02, 2014





  • 1. Project ManagementFundamentals

2. Today PMI Fundamentals Project Organization Project Selection Project Portfolio Management Procurement Management Statement of Work (SOW) Project Charter 3. Review Project and Program 4 Project DimensionsPeople, process, product, technology Rapid Development StrategyAvoid classic mistakes, development fundamentals, riskmanagement, schedule-oriented practices Trade-off Triangle Process. One size does not fit all. 36 Classic Mistakes 4. Trade-off Triangle Know which of these are fixed & variable for every project 5. Project Phases A.K.A. 6. Project Success Rates The 2001 Standish Group Report showed Decided Improvement in IT Project Success Rates from the 1995 report. Time overruns: 63% compared to 222% Cost overruns: 45% compared to 189% Required features: 67% compared to 61% 78,000 U.S. projects successful vs. 28,000 28% of IT projects succeeded compared to 16% 7. Project Success Rates ..2Why the Improvements? Average cost reduced by half Better tools for monitoring and control More skilled PMs, more process, more user involvement And The fact that there are processes is significant in itself. 8. Why Do Projects Succeed? How to identify a projects success potential What metrics could you look at?Project sizeProject durationProject team sizePeople technical skillsPeople communication skills 9. Why Do Projects Succeed? Executive support User involvement Experienced project manager Clear business objectives Focused scope Standard software infrastructure Firm basic requirements Formal methodology Reliable estimatesStandish Group CHAOS 2001: A Recipe for Success 10. Why Executive Support? Top management can help to: Secure adequate resources Get approval for unique project needs in a timely manner Receive cooperation from people throughout the organization Provide leadership guidance 11. Stakeholder Triad 1. Function RepresentativeThe business personOr SME: Subject Matter Expert 2. Executive SponsorProjects visionary & championAlso the General, Fall Guy, and MinesweeperNot the PM, Santa Claus, or the Tech Guy 3. Project ManagerThe LinchpinMust be multi-lingual 12. 15 PM Job Functions Define scope of projectEvaluate project requirements Identify stakeholders, Identify and evaluate risksPrepare contingency plan decision-makers, and escalation proceduresIdentify interdependenciesIdentify and track critical Develop detailed task list milestones (work breakdown structures)Participate in project phase Estimate time requirements review Develop initial projectSecure needed resources management flow chartManage the change control Identify required resourcesprocess and budget Report project status *Northwest Center for Emerging Technologies, "Building a Foundation for Tomorrow: Skills Standards for Information Technology,"Belleview, WA, 1999 13. PMBOK Structures PM by A) Processes B) Knowledge Areas Processes. 2 types 1. PM processes: describing and organizing the work of the project 2. Product-oriented processes: specifying and building the projects product 14. PMI Framework Source: Project Management Institute 15. The 5 PMI Process Groups 1. Initiating 2. Planning 3. Executing 4. Controlling 5. Closing Note: these can be repeated for each phase Each process is described by: Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 16. PMI Process GroupsSource: Project Management Institute 17. PMI: Process Links 18. PMI Phase Interactions Design Phase InitiatingPlanningProcesses ProcessesImplementation Phase InitiatingPlanningControlling Executing Processes ProcessesProcesses Processes Controlling Executing ClosingProcesses ProcessesProcessesClosingProcesses 19. PMI: Initiating Process Inputs Outputs Product Description Project charter Strategic plan Project Manager Project Selectionassigned Criteria Constraints Historical Information Assumptions 20. PMI: Planning Process Devising and maintaining a workable scheme to accomplish the business need that the project was undertaken to address Scope Planning Risk PlanningScope Definition Schedule DevelopmentActivity DefinitionQuality PlanningActivity SequencingCommunicationsActivity DurationPlanningEstimating Organization PlanningResource PlanningStaff AcquisitionCost EstimatingProcurement PlanningCost Budgeting Project Plan Development 21. PMI: Executing Process Coordinating people and other resources to carry out the plan Information Project Plan Execution Distribution Scope Verification Solicitation Quality Assurance Source Selection Team Development Contract Administration 22. PMI: Controlling Process Ensuring that project objectives are met by monitoring and measuring progress and taking corrective measures when necessaryOverall ChangePerformance Reporting Control Risk Response Control Scope Change Control Schedule Control Cost Control Quality Control 23. PMI: Closing ProcessFormalizing acceptance of the project or phaseand bringing it to an orderly endAdministrative Closure Contract Close-out 24. PMI Knowledge Areas 25. Importance of Phases Define your management review points Phase exits or kill points Ensure continued alignment with goals Form of Validation & Verification (V&V) 26. Understanding Organizations Structural frame: Human resources frame: Focuses on roles andFocuses on providing responsibilities, harmony between needs of coordination and control. the organization and needs Organization charts helpof people. define this frame.Political frame:Symbolic frame: Focuses Assumes organizations on symbols and meanings are coalitions composed related to events. Culture of varied individuals and is important. interest groups. Conflict and power are key issues. 27. Organizational Structures Functional Engineering, Marketing, Design, and so on Profit and Loss (P&L) from production Project Project A, Project B Income from projects PM has P&L responsibility 28. Organizational Structures ..2 Matrix Functional and Project based Program Management Model Shorter cycles, need for rapid development process 29. Functional Organization Pros Cons Clear definition of authority Walls: can lack customer orientation Eliminates duplication Silos create longer decisions cycles Encourages specialization Conflicts across functional areas Clear career paths Project leaders have little power 30. Project Organization Pros Cons Unity of command Duplication of facilities Effective inter-project Career pathcommunication Examples: defense avionics, construction 31. Matrix Organization Pros Cons Project integration across Two bosses for personnelfunctional lines ComplexityEfficient use of resources Resource & priority conflictsRetains functional teams 32. Matrix Forms Weak, Strong, Balanced Degree of relative power Weak: functional-centric Strong: project-centric 33. Organizational Structure Influenceson Projects Organization Type Matrix ProjectFunctional Weak MatrixBalancedStrong Matrix Projectized CharacteristicsMatrix Project Manager'sLittle orLimitedLow toModerateHigh to AuthorityNoneModerateTo High Almost Total Percent of Performing Organization's Virtually0-25%15-60%50-95%85-100% Personnel Assigned Full- None time to Project Work Project Manager's Role Part-timePart-timeFull-time Full-time Full-time Common Title for ProjectProjectProject Project Project Project Manager's Role Coordinator/ Coordinator/ Manager/Manager/Manager/Project Leader Project Leader Project Officer Program Manager Program Manager Project Management Administrative Staff Part-timePart-timePart-time Full-time Full-timePMBOK Guide, 2000, p. 19 34. Organizational Impact Form can greatly impact your role Determine what skills youll need from which functions The new Project Office A) As centralized project management B) As coach and info. office to project teams The Enterprise PMO (EMPO) 35. Why Firms Invest in IT 36. IT Planning Process 37. Methods for Selecting ProjectsThere are usually (always?) more projects thanavailable time and resources to implement them Therefore: It is important to follow a logical process for selecting IT projects to work onMethods include Focusing on broad needs Categorizing projects Financial methods Weighted scoring models 38. Broad Organizational NeedsIt is often difficult to provide strong justification for many IT projects, but everyone agrees they have a high value It is better to measure gold roughly than to count pennies precisely Three important criteria for projects: There is a need for the project There are funds available Theres a strong will to make the project succeed 39. Categorizing IT Projects One categorization: whether project addresses a problem an opportunity a directive Another: how long it will take & when it is needed Another: overall priority of the project 40. Project Portfolio ManagementPortfolio: a group of IT projects under acoordinated management structureDifferent portfolio models are available: Economic return model NPV, IRR, ROI Cost-benefit model Can include less tangible factors Market research model For new productsEach considers relative value and resource/budgetinteractions 41. Portfolio Management A 5 level approach (from CIO magazine) 1. Create a Portfolio DatabaseProject names & descriptionsEstimated costs, timeframes, staffing Benefits Spotting redundancies Communication across organizations & teams Holistic view 42. Portfolio Management 2. Prioritize Projects Try quantifiable rankings Risk and return Still subjectivity and disagreements 3. Divide into budgets based on type To align with business needs Ex: utilities (keeping the lights on), incremental upgrades, strategic investments 43. Portfolio Management 4. Automate the repository Input of new data (new projects) Automated tracking (PM software integration) 5. Apply modern portfolio theory Ex: More advanced than most of us need 44. Procurement Manageme

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