Top Banner

of 28

SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

Apr 14, 2018

ReportDownload

Documents

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    1/28

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    2/28

    Attachment emotional tie to a specific person or persons

    exists across time and space

    infants tend to form attachments with primary caregivers

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    3/28

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    4/28

    Bowlbys Early Work on Attachment

    Late infancy early toddlerhoodsafe-base attachment (6-12 mos)

    Actively seek to be near caregivers

    Seek proximal contact

    Become distressed when caregiver leaves (bond across time and space)

    Toddlerhoodgoal corrected partnerships

    Recognize motives of caregivers

    Toddler adjusts behaviors to needs and motives of caregivers

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    5/28

    Ainsworths work Strange situation (page 193, Table 6.1)

    Stranger anxietysignals attachment

    Separation anxietysignals attachment

    Attachment Status

    Secure Attachment

    Mother return: infant seeks contact; cling tightly; allows mother to comfort and soothe

    Majority of infants show secure attachment

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    6/28

    Ainsworths work

    Attachment Status

    Insecure Avoidant Attachment

    No preference for mother (avoids or shows equal

    preference for mother and stranger)

    Mother leaves infants undisturbed;

    Continue playing with stranger

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    7/28

    Ainsworths work Attachment Status

    Insecure Resistant\ Ambivalent Attachment

    Exaggerated stranger and separation anxiety

    Exaggerated need to maintain proximal contact with mother

    Some resistant to mothers attempts to soothe

    Some passive with mothers attempts to console

    Some variable in response (cycles of calm and anger)

    Variable in status

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    8/28

    Ainsworths work

    Attachment Status Parental quality and attachment (sensitive

    responsiveness) Secure Attachment

    Timely response

    Appropriate response

    Insecure disorganized or disoriented Attachments

    abusive parents or parents who suffered abuse themselves

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    9/28

    Ainsworths work

    Insecure Attachments

    indifferent parentingresponse only when necessary orwhen the parent is impacted

    indulgent parentingover stimulating; intrusive;

    unresponsive parentingneglectful

    Mothers of insecurely attached infants

    tense

    irritable

    unresponsive; little interest

    mechanical handling

    scheduled vs. demand feeding

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    10/28

    Infant Characteristics, Caregiver Characteristics

    and Attachments Easy Infants--associated with greater frequency of

    secure attachments

    Special needsassociated with insecure attachmentsFussy or difficult infants associated with higher levels of

    irritability-- tend to develop insecure attachmentswith mothers who have low levels of social support

    Model tends to be bidirectional with infantcharacteristics interacting with caregivercharacteristics to yield the attachment status

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    11/28

    Infant Characteristics, Caregiver Characteristics

    and Attachments

    Fathers role in attachment:

    fathers roles tend to reflect mothers roles in relationships with attachment statuses

    Child care and caregiver attachment:

    with quality child care, no difference in attachment given caregiver is responsive in

    sensitive and timely ways when with infant

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    12/28

    Infant Characteristics, Caregiver Characteristics and

    Attachments NICHDChild Care Report (2006):

    Quality of out of home child care related to:

    Family income, education, parenting style

    Higher quality out of home child care related to higher levels of cognitive and social development

    Effect sizes range from moderate to small

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    13/28

    Attachment and Developmental Outcomes Long-term outcomes:

    securely attached infants tend to have some early advantage over other attachment

    statuses;

    higher quality care later in childhood and adolescence can overcome early attachment

    challenges;

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    14/28

    Social Risk and Childrens Health Outcomes Larson, et al. (2008) High School education or less

    Family income

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    15/28

    Social Risk and Childrens Health Outcomes Larson, et al. findings:

    Overall, family income, minority status, & maternal mental health independently predicted

    poorer health status

    As the number of social risk factors increased the childs health status decreased

    Mechanism of effect is likely related to cumulative higher levels of stress as number of

    risks increase

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    16/28

    Eriksons first psychosocial stage:

    Trust vs. Mistrust

    Two tasks:

    establish sense that the environment is going to meet basic needs in a timely and

    appropriate manner

    establish sense that the self is an active agent in ones own outcomes

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    17/28

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    18/28

    Eriksons 2nd psychosocial stage:

    Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Toddler seeks to assert preferences beyond simple

    needs (e.g. particular type of food rather than simply

    hunger) Caregivers can provide choices of acceptable options

    to establish a sense of autonomy

    Caregivers who are not sensitive to and provideopportunities for toddlers to exercise some preference

    can create doubt within the toddler

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    19/28

    Temperament The reactivity of the infant to the environment

    Genetics plays a significant role in temperament

    Temperament is measured across nine dimensions (Table 6.5, pg 204)

    Activity level, rhythmicity, intensity of reaction, etc.

    Profile based on levels of each dimension

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    20/28

    Temperament

    Temperament Constellations: Easy: generally positive; stable rhythm of movement, sleep adapts to new situations,

    smiles

    Slow-to-Warm-Up: slow to adapt to new situations; mildly negative response; more

    intense reactions than Easy babies but less than difficult babies

    Difficult: intense negative reactions to new situations; slow to adapt; irregular patterns ofsleeping and activity overall;

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    21/28

    Temperament Based on an interaction of genetics and interactions with the environment

    Balance between temperament and environment determines outcomes

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    22/28

    Temperament Scarr:

    Passive: infants environment is frequently based on biological parents so, genetic

    tendency is reinforced by the environment

    Parents who accommodate to their infants temperament tend to have more successfuloutcomes

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    23/28

    Emotions

    In the first 12 months of life, infants tend to respond

    differentially and more sensitively to expressedemotions by caregiver

    Fear, anger, sadness, interest, joy resulted in differential responses to the visual cliff

    Infants reference the reactions of caregivers as cues for their own reactions

    From very early on, infants tend to respond to distress cries from other infants

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    24/28

    Emotions

    Toddlers:

    Sense of self as independent entity leads to:

    Self conscious emotions

    Expanded emotional repertoire

    Guilt, embarrassed, pride

    Comparison of ones own behaviors to some standard is linked to cognitive and social

    development

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    25/28

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    26/28

    Infant and Toddler Play

    Toddler Play With language, mobility, and cognitive development, toddlers move to more socially

    mediated play

    Coordinated imitationtend to repeat others actions

    Early toddler play remains focused on motion and objects (e.g. block stacking)

    As maturation occurs, more social role play begins;

  • 7/30/2019 SocioemotionalDevelopmentinInfantsandToddlers_002 DPE

    27/28

    Infant and Toddler Play

    Toddler Play

    More advanced levels of social play (negotiating roles, changing roles) tend to be related

    to more lasting friendships across childhood

    Conflicts arise!

Welcome message from author
This document is posted to help you gain knowledge. Please leave a comment to let me know what you think about it! Share it to your friends and learn new things together.