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Slavery during the Antebellum Period

Dec 30, 2015

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Slavery during the Antebellum Period. By Tatiana Dalton and Geneva Cann. Cotton Gin. A machine that quickly separates  cotton  fibers from         cotton seeds. This was previously done by hand, so it         was a very popular and successful invention. Invented by the American, Eli Whitney. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Slavery during the Antebellum Period By Tatiana Dalton and Geneva Cann

  • Cotton GinA machine that quickly separatescottonfibers from cotton seeds. This was previously done by hand, so it was a very popular and successful invention.

    Invented by the American, Eli WhitneyMade the South even more dependent on slaveryCotton became the most profitable cropMany slaves needed to produce cotton

  • Slavery and the Economy of the South:1824, cotton cultivation in the Southwas tremendous and the South depended on slavery to finance their lives.Politicians feared that abolishing slavery would destroy the South's economy We usually picture a plantation as having hundreds of slaves on it, but in fact, three-fourthsof white Southerners did not even own slaves; of those who did, 88% owned twenty or fewer!

  • Living Conditions of Slaves

  • Treatment of Antebellum-era SlavesSlaves still thought of as propertyStatus maintained by violenceEven non-slaveholding southerners promoted this view of blacksWorked as hard laborers, skilled artisans , and domestic workersDomestic work generally preferred - however, greater scrutiny, less privacyWomen - extra task of taking care of the family, weaving, cooking, etc.Poor conditions on plantationsInadequate diet and living quartersClimate difficulties - disease, infant mortality

  • Slave CultureSlaves on a plantation formed a communityMarriages between slavesAfter work - meetings to socialize, tell stories, make secret plansSinging and music another form of expressionKept their true selves away from whites, "underground"

    Religion a source of inspirationChristianity, Islam, African religionsMoses, "day of reckoning"Parents taught children tricks of surviving in a white-dominated world

    Hunting, gathering, herbal medicines to supplement diet

  • Nat Turner's Slave RebellionVirginia, 1831-slaves revolted, killing whites and freeing slavesResulted in white retaliation, killings of many blacks

  • Antislavery Organizations and Ante-Bellum ReformThe American Colonization SocietySought to send freed blacks to an African colonyProved to be inefficientThe American Antislavery SocietyFounded by William Lloyd GarrisonThe LiberatorThe Liberty PartyMade up of NorthernersThe party's candidate for president - James BirneyA split between abolitionists: moral crusading vs. political action

  • Abolitionists and ChildrenAbolitionists viewed children as morally pure, and therefore viewed children as natural opponents of slavery Produced antislavery toys, games and alphabet books

  • Other Antislavery ActivistsBlack AbolitionistsHarriet Tubman, David Ruggles, Sojourner Truth, an William Still organized efforts to help fugitive slaves to freedomFrederick Douglass: antislavery journal- The North StarViolent AbolitionismWalker and Garnet: slaves should rise up, take action against their masters

  • Harriet Tubman and the Underground RailroadTubman, known as "Moses" coordinated with white families willing to house runaways"Safe houses" were identified by a lit lantern hanging on a post outsideJourney to freedom could take from 2 months to one year

  • Political:Slavery in the north had disappeared by 1820Ban of importation of slaves (1808)High tariffs threaten southern cotton production (South Carolina suffered economic decline in 1820s), cotton prices were loweredJackson becomes president in 1828, supported the south and slaveryThe North opposed Jackson, wanted to end slavery

  • The Amistad

  • The Missouri Compromise1819-1820Missouri's bid for statehood complicated byits tolerance of slavery (Northerners opposed)Would upset sectional balance of free vs.slave statesBalance allowed Southerners to preventunwanted legislationTallmadge AmendmentProposed Conditions of Admission:No further introduction of slaves into MSChildren of MS slaves to be emancipated at 25 Amendment shot down by Northerners

    Clay's Proposal (Combination of three bills)Missouri a new slave stateMaine a new free stateNo more slavery in Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36AFTER COMPROMISE: 30 YEARS OF SECTIONAL BALANCE AND LIMITED CONFLICT OVER SLAVERY

  • The Compromise of 1850THE ISSUES:Territory gained in war with Mexico

    Washington, D.C.

    California - petition to become a new state

    THE COMPROMISE (proposed by Henry Clay):New territories - slavery policy to be determined by inhabitantsD.C. - slave trade abolished, slavery still allowedCalifornia - admitted as free stateFugitive Slave Act

  • The Fugitive Slave ActRequired citizens to participate in returning fugitive slaves to their mastersCase commissionersPaid twice the amount if fugitive was given back to his "master"New rules made filing a claim easier for slave owners

    Antislavery Northerners allowed for thepassage of this act in return for theadmission of California as a free state.

  • Anthony BurnsSlave in Virginia

    Escaped to Boston, followed by master

    Violence at the courthouse during hearing

    Burns sent back to VA only to buy freedom

  • Works Citedgoogle.comhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2956.htmlhttp://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trr095.htmlThe AMSCO AP US History Review Book"The Enduring Vision" textbookLiving condition photographsavailable on Flickrwww.nationalgeographic.com/railroad/hfame.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html

    Welcome to this amazing powerpoint presentation!The growth of cotton production expanded from 750,000 bales in 1830 to 2.85 million bales in 1850This machine includes a wire screen and small wire hooks that pull the cotton through the screen, while brushes remove the loose cotton lint to prevent build-up.1824, cotton cultivation in the Southwas tremendous and the South depended on slavery to finance their livesCotton was by far the leading cash crop, but slaves also raised rice, corn, sugarcane, and tobacco. Many plantations raised several different kinds of crops.Politicians feared that abolishing slavery would destroy the South's economyWe mostly picture a plantation as having hundreds ofslaves on it, but in fact, three-fourthsof white Southerners did not even own slaves; of those who did, 88% owned twenty or fewer!Slaves were considered property, and they were property because they were black.Their status as property was enforced by violence -- actual or threatenedThese houses were built mostly during the "Slave Years," another name for the Ante-Bellum period--- before the Civil War.Once "freed", many of the former slaves and their children had no where to go.-Women had to care for children and also did the cooking, weaving, and sewing.-Their diets were very bad, and were enadaquate.-The humidity and bad weather caused many horrible diseases.-Enslaved people not only had to grow crops, but they had to clear new land, dig ditches, cut and haul wood, slaughter livestock, and make repairs to buildings and tools.Poor non-slaveowning farmers - resented large farmowners witht their many slaves but wanted that lifestyle for themselves slaves provided a group of people for them to feel superior to

    Hard labor - digging ditches, picking cotton, hauling woodSkilled artisanry - blacksmiths, carpenters, mechanics, driversDomestic workers - house servants

    Inadequate living quarters - exposed to weatherInfant mortality around 66%Malaria - standing in water for long periods of time (rice)Don't trust whitesWhites are lazy and helplessHide your feelings-Was a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia in August 1831. It was led by Nat Turner. He led many rebel slaves who killed 55-65 white people, which is the highest number of deaths caused by slave uprisings in the South. The rebels traveled from house to house, freeing slaves and killing all the white people they encountered. The rebellion was put down within a few days, but Turner survived in hiding for several months afterward.-The Result was that the state of Virginia executed 56 slaves accused of being part of the rebellion. In the frenzy, many innocent enslaved people were punished. At least 100 blacks, and possibly up to 200, were killed by militias and mobs. Across the South, state legislators passed new laws prohibiting education of slaves and free blacks, restricting rights of assembly and other civil rights for free blacks (such as prohibiting formerly allowed voting), and requiring white ministers to be present at black worship services.ACS - founded 1817 Ideas appealed to antislavery reformers, politicians, + racist whites who wanted to remove blacks from society Colony est. in Monrovia, Liberia in 1822 Not practical 1820-1860 slave pop. from 1.5 to 4 million 12 thousand blacks sent to AfricaAmerican Antislavery Society Founded in part by William Lloyd Garrison o Published abolitionist newspaper The Liberator marked beginning of radical abolitionist movement-A new newspaper made in MA, The Liberator, an abolitionist paperconvincedSouth Carolina that a line had to be drawn against tariffs and possible future interference with slavery. o Advocated immediate abolition in every state w/o compensation for slaveowners o Burned Constitution (a pro-slavery document), no Union with slaveholders Abolitionists - wanted the end of slavery, criticized churches for supporting it1820s + 1830s were a period of reform (improvement of society) -Viewing children as morally pure, so they are naturally opponents of slavery, Abolitionists produced antislavery toys, games and alphabet books. "B is a Brother with a skin of somewhat darker hue, But in our Heavenly Father's sight, He is as dear as you."-This is a picture of a group of Abolitionists from Philidelphia around the 1840s.Black abolitionists - strong advocates, especially former slaves

    David Walker, Henry Highland Garnet - Northern