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Sistematika Penelitian 28 April 2012

Aug 30, 2014

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Sistematika PenelitianAria Kekalih

Program K3 Binawan

Usulan PenelitianPada akhir Program Kekhususan peserta diharapkan mampu menyelesaikan proposal penelitian Sistematika Proposal Penelitian meliputi: 1. Pendahuluan 1.1 Latar Belakang 1.2 Identifikasi Masalah 1.3 Tujuan Penelitian 1.4 Hipotesis 1.5 Manfaat penelitian 2. Tinjauan Pustaka diakhiri dengan Kerangka Teori dan Kerangka Konsep 3. Metoda Penelitian 4. Daftar Pustaka:

Penilaian Usulan Penelitian

Masalah yang akan diteliti Tujuan penelitian Kerangka penulisan Pendekatan dan metoda penelitian yang akan digunakan Kepustakaan

SKRIPSIKarya tulis akademik hasil studi mendalam yang dilakukan secara mandiri dan berisi sumbangan baru bagi perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan atau menemukan jawaban baru bagi masalahmasalah yang sementara telah diketahui jawabannya atau mengajukan pertanyaan-pertanyaan baru terhadap hal-hal yang dipandang telah mapan di bidang ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi dan kesenian yang dilakukan calon di bawah pengawasan para pembimbingnya.

PENELITIAN

Orisinalitas Menghasilkan sesuatu yang baru (konsep atau produk) Dilakukan dengan metoda penelitian yang sesuai tujuan (desain, sampel, analisis) Menggunakan metoda pengukuran yang up to date dan akurat Azas manfaat

Why do we conduct research?We conduct research to obtain knowledge, explore unknown aspects and find out solutions for many of our problems. Research leads to invention, innovation and creation of artifacts which are useful to make the living happier. It is an explorative expedition into the areas of human ignorance. Research bring light into the darker side of our intellectual voyages.

Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter.The primary aim for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. Research use the scientific method Research is a systematic, dilligent inquiry or examination of some field of knowledge undertaken to establish fact or principles; it involves collecting and analyzing data

Categories of ResearchI. Empirical and TheoriticalEmpirical: Based upon observation and experience Theoritical: Based upon theory and abstraction

Both complement each other :in developing and understanding phenomen in predicting future events in the prevention of harmful events

Health Research mainly follow empirical approach Empirical research:Quantitative:

Quantative Qualitative

population of interest charateristics (variables, individual, units in population) variability of these characteristics

Measurement of variables Estimation of population parameters (distribution and variability of observation in the population) Estimating the extent to which chance play a role (Statistical testing)

II. Basic and Applied ResearchBasic Research= Pure Research involve a search for knowledge without a defined goal of utility or specific purpose Applied research: a problem oriented research and is direted toward the solution of existing problemIn general there is a need to have a healthy balance between the 2 types

Basic research needs more affluent and technologically advanced resources

Basic research (fundamental or pure research) has as its primary objective the advancement of knowledge and the theoretical understanding of the relations among variables. It is exploratory and often driven by the researchers curiosity, interest, and intuition. It is conducted without any practical end in mind, although it may have unexpected results pointing to practical applications. The terms basic or fundamental indicate that, through theory generation, basic research provides the foundation for further, sometimes applied research. There is no guarantee of short-term practical gain.

III. Occupational Research Triangle

Operational interlink between Basic research Deals primarily with basic research involving process at cellular/molecular level Occupational Health services research Deals with issues in the environment surrounding man which promote changes at cellular level Behavioural research Deals with interaction of man and the environment in a manner reflecting the beliefs, attitudes, and practices of the individual in society

The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy): Exploratory research, which structures and identifies new problems Constructive research, which develops solutions to a problem Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence

Research is a quest for knowledge through dilligent search or investigation or experimentation aimed at discovery and interpretation of new knowledge

Scientific method is a systematic body of procedures and techniques applied carrying out investigation or experimentation targeted at obtaining new knowledge A course of critical enquiry leading to the discovery of fact or information which increases our understanding of human health and disease

Scientific methodGenerally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:

Formation of the topic Hypothesis Conceptual definitions Operational definitions Gathering of data Analysis of data Test, revising of hypothesis Conclusion, iteration if necessary

Charateristic of Research Research originates with a question or a problem Research requires a clear articulation of a goal Research follows a specific plan of procedures Research usually divides the principle problem into more manageable sub-problems Research is guided by the specific research problem, questions or hypothesis Research accepts certain critical assumptions, i.e. underlying theories or ideas about how the world works Research requires the collection and interpretation of data in attempting to resolve the problem Research is a cyclical or more exactly spiral or helical

Typical Steps in Research1. 2. 3.

4.

5.6. 7. 8.

9.

Establishing a research question / hypothesis Finding background information Planning and conducting a specific research methods Collecting and studying data Analyzing the data Formulating and establishing a conclusion Looking for areas of further research Stating the values associated with the research knowledge Publishing the research work for the others to view

Sistematika IlmiahTeori dan Fakta Masalah Penelitian

Fenomena

Hipotesis Operasionalisasi Variabel Penetapan Model Penelitian Observasi Empirik Pengolahan Data Kesimpulan

Benang Merah

Sistematika PenelitianKAJIAN TEORI / DATA / EBM induktif PENGUJIAN HIPOTESIS St. parametrik St. non parametrik RR OR Confidence Interval deduktif PENYUSUNAN HIPOTESIS Meta Analisis Eksperimen Cohort Case Control Cross Sectional

Menganalisis Hasil

Penelitian

Merancang Penelitian

Empiric Research CycleGap between das Sein & das Sollen

Literature StudyResearch Question(?)/ Hypothesis Methods / Design Data Collection and Analysis Conclusions

In the Real World

Inference In the sample

Study ProtocolAims as guidance for the investigator in the whole process of planned research Different formats or styles, depending on intitutions: should be followed rigidly

I. II. III. IV. V.

Introduction Literature Review Methods References Appendices

Judul Penelitian Bab I. Pendahuluan1.1 Latar Belakang 1.2 Identifikasi Masalah 1.3 Tujuan Penelitian 1.4 Hipotesis 1.5 Manfaat penelitian

Bab II. Tinjauan PustakaTinjauan pustaka diakhiri dengan Kerangka Teori dan Kerangka Konsep

Bab III. Metoda PenelitianDesain Tempat dan waktu Populasi dan sampel Kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi Besar sampel Cara Kerja Identifikasi variabel Definisi operasional variabel Menejemen dan analisis data Masalah etika

Bab IV. Hasil Penelitian Bab V. Pembahasan Bab VII. Daftar Pustaka Lampiran

Diakhiri dengan Simpulan Saran

Benang Merah

Research ProblemA research problem focuses on the issue(s) or set of relationship that a researcher would like to study Examples:Factors affecting the development of diabetic foot ulcer (and wound healing) The role of ChenoDeoxyCholicAcid in Cholestatic Sepsis The importance of structured exercise in Haj pilgrimate with pes planus

F I N E R ?Bagian yang sangat penting dari suatu penelitian

Syarat untuk Masalah PenelitianFeasible: mampu laksana subyek cukup, dana cukup, waktu, alat, keahlian

Interesting : menarik bagi peneliti Novel: Sesuatu yang baru Ethical: tidak bertentangan dengan etika. Komisi Etik FKUI

Relevant:Bagi ilmu pengetahuan, tatalaksana pasien, Bagi kebijakan kesehatan Untuk dasar penelitian selanjutnya dsb.

Sifat Suatu Penelitian BaruMembantah penemuan terdahulu Mengonfirmasi/ memverifikasi penemuan terdahulu Melengkapi, mengembangkan, hasil penelitian terdahulu

Menemukan sesuatu yang baru

Definition of Originality1. Saying something nobody has said before 2. Carrying out empirical work that has not been done before 3. Synthesizing something that has not been put before 4. Making a new interpretation of someone else material or ideas 5. Taking a new technique and applying it to a new area 6. Taking an existing technique and applying it to a new area 7. Being cross disiplinary and using different methodologies 8. Looking at topics that people in the chosen disiplines have not looked at before 9.