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SIFAT KOLOID TANAH & KTK SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt
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SIFAT KOLOID TANAH & KTK

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SIFAT KOLOID TANAH & KTK. SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated. ppt ‎. █Ca 2+ +2K +  Ca 2+ + █2K +. These equilibria are complex, involving all exchangeable species. The above is an example binary exchange reaction for which an equilibrium constant can be - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Page 1: SIFAT KOLOID TANAH & KTK

SIFAT KOLOID TANAH&

KTK

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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- charged sites of a colloid

Cation Exchange

Equilibrium between cations in solutionand adsorbed on colloids

Ca2+ + 2K+ Ca2+ + 2K+

█Ca2+ +2K+ Ca2+ + █2K+

These equilibria are complex, involving all exchangeable species. The above isan example binary exchange reaction for which an equilibrium constant can bewritten as KK-Ca = [Ca2+][K+

ad]2 / [K+]2[Ca2+ad]. If you’ve had 2nd semester chemistry

or remember high school chemistry it should make sense.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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+ charged sites

Anion Exchange

Like cation exchange

SO42- + 2Cl- SO4

2- + 2Cl-█SO42- +2Cl- SO4

2- + █2Cl-

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Are adsorbed cations and anionsimportant to plant nutrition?

Does ion exchange replenish the soilsolution with nutrient ions?

Does ion exchange slow themovement of charged contaminants?

Since a decrease in solution concentration of a nutrient cation or anion by plantuptake or leaching tends to cause release of the same type ion into solution from

colloids (this is accompanied by replacement on the colloid by a different type cation

or anion), the adsorbed ions are a reservoir of nutrients. Much greater quantity soadsorbed than in the soil solution.

If a portion of a substance in the soil is distributed between solution and solid (adsorbed to) phases, its mobility must be

less than if it were all in solution.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Is a soil with a lot of adsorbed ionsmore fertile than a soil with very fewadsorbed ions?

Does a charged contaminant movemore slowly in a soil with a highcapcity to adsorb ions than in a soilwith a low capacity to adsorb ions?

Yes to the first, assuming these were nutrient ions and certainly yes to the second.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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KTKThese are the units in which the concentration of

exchangeable cations in a soil are expressed, particularly cmol(+) kg-1. The others are probably archaic but notice that they are numerically the

same.

Miliekuivalen (meq)/100g tanah

An equivalent is a mole of reactive units, in this case, charge.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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In principal, this is a straightforward matter but there are complications in practice.

The basic idea is that you use cation exchange to force all initially adsorbed cations into solution,

separate solution from soil (like filter) and measure the concentration of all cations in solution.

This requires use of a cation in solution that is not very common in the soil and it requires a high

concentration of it. Look back at the example cation exchange reaction and notice that if the concentration of K+ was very high, the extent to which Ca2+ would be displaced

into solution would be greater than if the concentration of K+ were modest.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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However, there is a problem with determining acidic cations like H+ and Al3+ in this way.

A portion of these cations is very strongly held by adsorption onto colloids so that even a very high

concentration of displacing cations won’t drive the exchange reaction to completion. However,

alternatives exist to deal with this.

For base cations, ammonium, NH4+, is the typically

cation used to displace them.AEC is done the same way but with a displacing

anion, of course.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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CEC is sum

Acidic + basic cation charges / kg

cmol (+) / kg

Depends on

Types of colloidsAmounts of colloidspH

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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It should make sense that different colloids likely have different CECs (and AECs).

Thus, the relative amounts of different colloids determine the CEC.

However, the charges on colloidal particles partly depend on the concentration of H+ in

solution (i.e., pH, which is –log[H+])

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Types

Layer aluminosilicatesAmorphous aluminosilicatesAl and Fe oxidesOrganic (humic)

These are the general types of soil colloids. The layer aluminosilicates are crystalline, however, amorphous ones have limited and interrupted crystal structure.

Strictly, besides oxides there are related non-siliceous minerals, like hydroxides and oxy-hydroxides, including

ones besides just Al and Fe forms.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Layer Aluminosilicates

Alternating sheets of Si tetrahedra and Al (or Mg) octahedra

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Carry electrostatic charges due to

Isomorphic substitution

pH-dependent ionization or protonation

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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What charge (+ or -) does the crystal carry? Balanced by cations?

Is this source of charge permanent?

Isomorphic substitution

Al3+ for Si4+ in tetrahedral layer

Mg2+ for Al3+ the octahedral layer

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Substitution of a lower valence cation for a higher valence cation during the formation of the crystal results in a deficit of positive charge relative to negative charge carried

by the O and OH in the structure.

Thus, the charge is – and it is permanent to the crystal structure.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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\ \ Al – OH Al – O- + H+ / /

\ \ Al – OH + H+ Al – OH2

+ / /

pH dependent charges

Besides permanent chargethere are functional groupson the surfaces of colloidsthat can ionize or protonateto give rise to - / + charge.Here is a common example,

surface Al–OH groups. Under conditions of higher

soil pH (i.e., low concentration of H+), they

tend to dissociate as in the top reaction.

But when the pH is low, theO tends to be protonated byH+ from solution, giving a +

site.There are lots of functional

groups, both on mineral and organic colloids that do

this. SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Three typesof layer silicates

1:1

2:1

2:1:1

Tetrahedral sheetOctahedral sheet

Having said a bit about electrostaticcharges, let’s look at the common

layer aluminosilicate minerals. Theseare they.SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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2:1 layer silicates

Unit consists 1 octahedral sheet between 2Si tetrahedral sheets

Certain types expand

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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2:1 Types

This is a cutawayshowing interlayer

space betweentwo units of a

2:1 type mineral.In this case, thestack of crystalunits are shown

to be able to expand, imbibingwater in betweenadjacent crystals.

Some 2:1 do this,others don’t. Those can are

responsible for macroscopic

shrinking and swelling behavior.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Three types of 2:1 minerals

Smectite

Vermiculite

Illite

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Smectite

Units weakly held togetherby cations

Expand whenadsorb waterbetween units

2:1 Types

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Big CECHighly plastic and swelling

Does this soil have a lotof smectite in it?

2:1 Types, Smectite

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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2:1 Types

Vermikulit

KTK lebih besar lagi

Lebih banyak Substitusi isomorfik

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Most of the isomorphic substitution insmectite is in the octahedral layer andthese expand.

The CEC of vermiculite is bigger and alot of it is due to substitution in thetetrahedral layers.

Does vermiculite expand as much assmectite?

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Very little, in fact. Apparently, the higher density of negative charge located very near

the surface of the crystal face (tetrahedral sheet) leads to higher electrostatic attraction

for cations in the interlayer space. The mutually strong attraction by two

adjacent crystals for these cations greatly limits the extent to which water enters the

interlayer space and causes expansion. Make sense?

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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No because

Strong affinity for cations that bridgetetrahedral layers

Limited-expansion

2:1 Types, Vermiculite

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Illite

Isomorphic substitution in Si tetrahedral sheet

Geometry favors adsorption of K+ at interlayer positions

Holds units tightly together This is much the same thing as withvermiculite, however, the presence ofK+ leads to especially strong bridgingof adjacent crystals. See next slide.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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These are different representations of the silica tetrahedral sheet. Noticethe hole-like features that some call siloxane cavities. K+ has just theright ionic radius to fit into these. Thus, electrostatic attraction between

it and the isomorphic negative charge (much of it in the tetrahedral sheet)leads to very strong bridging between one crystal unit of illite and itsneighbor. Thus, illite does not expand.SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Nonexpanding

Smaller surface area than smectite orvermiculite

CEC much less than other 2:1 minerals

2:1 Types, Illite By the way, surface area is measuredfrom gas adsorption.

Whereas smectite has open interlayerspace, illite does not. Thus, much of the planar area of the tetrahedral layers in illiteis not exposed to the gas.

Further, the K+ in the interlayer space is notexchangeable. Thus, the high amount of negative charge (high extent of isomorphic substitution) cannot be measured bysumming the charge of cations releasedby CEC determination.SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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1:1 layer silicates

1 Si tetrahedral sheet1 Al octahedral sheet

Adjacent units H-bonded together

Os from the tetrahedral sheet ofone crystal H-bond with the –OHs

of the octahedral sheet of theneighboring crystal.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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If adjacent crystal units are H-bondedtogether, do 1:1 minerals expand?

Little plasticity or swelling

Small CEC

Little isomorphic substitution

And since there is little isomorphic substitution, most of the CEC is due to pH-dependent charge that arises

from ionization of edge –OHs.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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2:1:1 minerals

Additional octahedral sheet (2:1:1) contains Mg

Nonexpanding and fairly low CEC

Less common than the others.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Review

- charged sites of a colloid

Cation Exchange

Equilibrium between cations in solutionand adsorbed on colloids

Ca2+ + 2K+ Ca2+ + 2K+█Ca2+ +2K+ Ca2+ + █2K+

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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CEC is sum

Acidic + basic cation charges / kg

cmol (+) / kg

Depends on

Types of colloidsAmounts of colloidspH

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Types

Layer aluminosilicatesAmorphous aluminosilicatesAl and Fe oxidesOrganic (humic)

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Three typesof layer silicates

1:1

2:1

2:1:1

Tetrahedral sheetOctahedral sheet

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

Page 38: SIFAT KOLOID TANAH & KTK

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Three types of 2:1 minerals

Smectite

Vermiculite

Illite

expanding, high CEC

limited expansion, higher CEC

not expanding, trapped K+

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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1:1 layer silicates

1 Si tetrahedral sheet1 Al octahedral sheet

Adjacent units H-bonded together

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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2:1:1 minerals

Additional octahedral sheet (2:1:1) contains Mg

Nonexpanding and fairly low CEC

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Formation and stability of mineral colloids

Primary minerals weather to2:1 clays which weather to

1:1 clays which weather toOxides

Thus, soils in mildly weathering climates tend to have minerals towards the top of this sequence, and soils in harshly weathering

climates (lots of water and high temperatures), tend to have minerals towards the bottom. For edification, check out Jackson-Sherman

weathering sequence.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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More on Electrostatic Charges

Permanent

You know negative charges come fromisomorphic substitution, like Al3+ for Si4+

or Mg2+ for Al3+

But what if Al3+ substitutes for Mg2+?What do you get?

There are types of octahedral sheets that contain Mg2+ as the central cation. These are called trioctahedral and those with Al3+ are called

dioctahedral. Basically, the ideally electro-neutral structure in a trioctahedral sheet requires 1½ times as many Mg2+ as there are Al3+ in a

dioctahedral sheet.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Thus, isomorphicsubstitution of the higher valence Al3+

for Mg2+ results inan excess of +

chargein the crystal

lattice,which must be

balanced by adsorption

of anions from solution.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

Page 45: SIFAT KOLOID TANAH & KTK

pH-dependent

Negative charge

Ionization of H from –OH on surface of oxides and edges of silicate clays

Al—OH → Al—O- + H+

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Ionization of –OH and –COOH on humic colloids

O O ║ ║

--C—OH → --C—O- + H+

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Muatan Listrik Positif

Protonation of –OH to give OH2+

Oxide surfaces and silicate clay edges

Al—OH + H+ → Al—OH2+

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Does CEC increase or decrease as pHincreases?

What about AEC?

Think of it this way –permanent charge is unaffected, right, but as the concentration of H+ in solution decreases (i.e., pH increases), whatever ionizable H there is on colloidal surfaces tends to ionize, creating negative sites and making the colloid more negative. So,

the capacity of the colloid to adsorb cations increases, i.e., the CEC increases.

The AEC is opposite. As the concentration of H+ in solution increases, more and more sites become protonated, increasing

the positive charge on the colloid and its capacity to adsorb anions from solution.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Charge at pH 7

Type Perm pH-dep Total

Humus 20 180 200Vermiculite 140 10 150 Smectite 95 5 100 lllite 20 6 301:1 minerals 0.4 7.6 8Oxides 0 4 4

This is somebody’s breakdown of CEC into permanent and pH-dependentcomponents. The notion that organic colloids (humus) have permanent chargemakes no sense since isomorphic substitution is not applicable. What, however, makes sense is that even at very low pHs (not to be encountered except in somedrained wetlands or contaminated sites) some of the acidic functional groups on soil organic matter are sufficiently acidic to be ionized.SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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More on CECCa2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ are basic cations

H+ and Al3+ are acidic cations

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Percentage of CEC that is made up of basiccations is called

Percentage base saturation

%BSHere’s an example calculation: Extractable cations

Ca2+ Mg2+ K+ H+

----------- cmol(+) kg-1----------- 2 1 1 1

For this case, CEC = 5 cmol(+) kg-1 and there are 4 cmol(+) kg-1 due to the basesso the %BS = 4 / 5 x 100% = 80%

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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True or False

As pH ↑ %BS ↑

True. If the pH increases, there is less acidity in the system (H+ and other acidic cations, e.g., Al3+, both in solution and adsorbed

on colloidal surfaces).Thus, since the negative charge on colloids must be satisfied by

adsorbed cations, decreased concentration of acidic cations means increased concentration of basic cations. Also, with increasing pH the negative charge on colloids increases,

compounding the effect of increased concentration of adsorbed bases.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt

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Soil A Soil B cmol (+) / kg

Basic cations 90 5Acidic cations 10 5

Which soil has the lower pH?Which soil is more fertile?

Let’s just say likely lower pH. A has a %BS = 90 and B, 50. Thus, B likelyhas the lower pH. The matter of fertility is clearer since most basic cations

are nutrients –A has 18x as many.

SUMBER: www.agronomy.lsu.edu/courses/agro2051/Chapter8AltAnnotated.ppt