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Sheep and Goats in Developing Countries - World · PDF fileA WORLD BANK TECHNICAL PAPER Sheep and Goats in Developing Countries Their Present and Potential Role Winrock International

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  • A WORLD BANK TECHNICAL PAPER WTP-15

    Sheep and Goats in Developing Countries Their Present and Potential Role

    Winrock International FILE COPY

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  • A WORLD BANK TECHNICAL PAPER

    Sheep and Goats in Developing Countries Their Present and Potential Role

    Winrock International

    The World Bank Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

  • Copyright c 1983 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / THE WORLD BANK 1818 H Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A.

    First printing December 1983 All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America

    This is a document published informally by the World Bank. In order that the information contained in it can be presented with the least possible delay, the typescript has not been prepared in accordance with the procedures appropriate to formal printed texts, and the World Bank accepts no responsibility for errors. The publication is supplied at a token charge to defray part of the cost of manufacture and distribution.

    The views and interpretations in this document are those of the author(s) and should not be attributed to the World Bank, to its affiliated organizations, or to any individual acting on their behalf. Any maps used have been prepared solely for the convenience of the readers; the denominations used and the boundaries shown do not imply, on the part of the World Bank and its affiliates, any judgment on the legal status of any territory or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.

    The full range of World Bank publications, both free and for sale, is described in the Catalog of Publications; the continuing research program is outlined in Abstracts of Current Studies. Both booklets are updated annually; the most recent edition of each is available without charge from the Publications Sales Unit, Department T, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A., or from the European Office of the Bank, 66, avenue d'Iena, 75116 Paris, France.

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title:

    Sheep and goats in developing countries.

    (A World Bank technical paper, ISSN 0253-7494 ; ) Bibliography: p. 1. Sheep--Developing countries. 2. Goats--Developing

    countries. I. Winrock International Livestock Research and Training Center. II. Series. SF375.5.D44S54 1983 338.1'763'0091724 83-23315 ISBN 0-8213-0272-8

  • - iii -

    ABSTRACT

    The objectives of this study are to assess the role of small

    ruminants (sheep and goats) in the food production systems of developing

    countries, examine their advantages and disadvantages, analyze the

    constraints limiting their further contribution to the welfare of small

    farm/low income rural producers, prescribe measures for overcoming these

    constraints, and make recommendations related to potential donor involve-

    ment in support of the development of sheep and goat production. Small

    ruminants are viewed as an integral, but not dominant component of complex

    agricultural systems. Particular emphasis is placed on sheep and goats

    in mixed herds grazing dry rangelands and in small mixed farm systems in

    medium to high rainfall areas. An analysis of major constraints --

    ecological, biological, policy, and socio-economic -- leads to recommenda-

    tions on the need for a balanced production system approach for research,

    training and development programs, and for a combination of support

    activities such as herd health programs, and formulation of favorable

    credit, marketing and pricing policies for small ruminants and their

    products.

  • -iv-

    ABSTRAIT

    La presente etude vise a evaluer le r6le des petits ruminants (moutons

    et chevres) dans le cadre des systemes de production alimentaire des pays en

    developpement, A examiner leurs avantages et inconv6nients, A analyser les

    obstacles qui les empechent de contribuer davantage a la prosperite des petits

    exploitants et des producteurs ruraux a faible revenu, A indiquer les mesures

    susceptibles de surmonter ces obstacles et enfin A formuler des recommandations

    sur la maniere dont des donateurs d'aide pourraient eventuellement contribuer A

    l'accroissement de la production ovine et caprine. Les petits ruminants sont

    consideres comme faisant partie int6grante de syst6mes agricoles complexes, sans

    toutefois en constituer l'el6ment predominant. Une importance particuliere est

    accordee au paturage combin6 de moutons et de chevres dans des zones de pacage

    seches et dans de petites exploitations mixtes situ6es dans des r6gions A

    pluviometrie moyenne a forte. Une analyse des principaux obstacles -

    6cologiques, biologiques, politiques et socio-economiques - aboutit A des

    recommandations quant A la necessit6 de fonder les programmes de recherche, de

    formation et de d6veloppement, sur un systeme de production equilibre, de

    combiner des activites de soutien telles que les programmes zoosanitaires, et de

    formuler des politiques favorables de cr6dit, de commercialisation et des prix

    pour les petits ruminants et leurs produits d6rives.

  • v

    EXTRACTO

    Los objetivos de este estudio consisten en evaluar la funci6n de los

    pequefios rumiantes (ovejas y cabras) en los sistemas de producci6n de alimentos

    de los paises en desarrollo, examinar sus ventajas y desventajas, analizar las

    limitaciones que impiden su mayor contribuci6n al bienestar de los productores

    rurales con pequefias explotaciones y bajos ingresos, prescribir medidas para

    superar estas limitaciones y formular recomendaciones relativas a la participa-

    ci6n de posibles donantes que apoyen el desarrollo de la producci6n de ovejas y

    cabras. Los pequefios rumiantes se consideran un componente integral pero no

    dominante de sistemas agricolas complejos. Se da especial importancia a las

    ovejas y cabras en los rebafios combinados que pacen en los terrenos de pastos

    secos y en pequenios sistemas agricolas mixtos en zonas de precipitaciones medias

    y altas. Un analisis de las principales restricciones ecol6gicas, biol6gicas,

    politicas y socioecon6micas deriva en recomendaciones sobre la necesidad de un

    enfoque equilibrado de sistemas de producci6n en relaci6n con programas de

    investigaci6n, capacitaci6n y desarrollo y una combinaci6n de actividades de

    apoyo tales como programas de salud animal y la formulaci6n de politicas favora-

    bles de cr6dito, comercializaci6n y fijaci6n de precios para los pequefios

    rumiantes y sus productos.

  • - vi -

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Appreciation is expressed to Don Sutherland who developed the terms of reference and shared his considerable experience during the planning of this study. Ned Raun and Jim Yazman participated in the planning stages of the project. Dick Wheeler, Andy Martinez, Bob Hart, and other Winrock colleagues participated in preliminary discussions of organization and content. Beth Henderson, Wikorn De Boer, and John Crofoot assisted in gathering of technical information. Shirley Zimmerman and Jamie Whittington typed numerous drafts under time pressure but always with careful attention to detail and good will towards the authors.

    Project Co-leaders: A. J. De Boer, H. A. Fitzhugh

    Other Team Members: R. H. Bernsten, W. Getz, D. W. Robinson (University of California, Davis)

  • CONTENTS

    1. SUMMARY OF STUDY AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1. Summary of Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2. Summary of Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    2. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1. Study Terms of Reference, Background and Objectives . 7

    2.1.1. Terms of Reference . . .. . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1.2. Background to the Study . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1.3. Study Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    2.2. Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3. Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4. Ruminants . . . . . . . . . . .. . 10 2.5. Small Ruminants . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . 12

    3. PRODUCTION SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.1. Ecological Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    3.1.1. Desert Shrub and Woodland Shrub Ranges . . . 14 3.1.2. Tropical Savannah Ranges . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.1.3. Tropical Forest Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    3.2. Agriculture Use Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.2.1. Animal Based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.2.2. Mixed Crop and Animal . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.2.3. Crop-based Farms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    3.3. Small Ruminants in Mixed Farming Systems. . . . . . . 21

    4. SHEEP AND GOATS . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.1. Characteristics--Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . 28

    4.1.1. Small Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.1.2. Reproductive Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.1.3. Feeding Behavior .. . . . 30 4.1.4. Feed Utilizat

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