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SESSION-9,10,11,12 Process analysis, Product Analysis and Development ECE AND EEE

Dec 25, 2015

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  • Slide 1
  • SESSION-9,10,11,12 Process analysis, Product Analysis and Development ECE AND EEE
  • Slide 2
  • Process Analysis
  • Slide 3
  • PROCESS ANALYSIS PROCESS PROCESS PLANNING PROCESS DESIGN PROCESS SELECTION PROCESS STRATEGY
  • Slide 4
  • Process A process is a sequence of activities that is intended to achieve some result, for example, to create added value for the customers
  • Slide 5
  • Process Planning Concerned with planning the conversion processes needed to convert the raw material into finished products.
  • Slide 6
  • Process Design Concerned with the overall sequences of operations required to achieve the product specifications
  • Slide 7
  • PROCESS TYPES:
  • Slide 8
  • PROCESS SELECTION AND STRATEGY PROCESS SELECTION: Refers to the way production of goods or services is organized. PROCESS STRATEGY: An organization's approach to selection of the process for the conversion of resource inputs into outputs. Key aspects in process strategy include: Make or buy decisions Capital intensity and Resource flexibility
  • Slide 9
  • PROCESS STRATEGY Make or Buy is the 1 st step of process planning. Factors considered in make or buy decisions: Available capacity Expertise Quality consideration Nature of demand Cost Capital Intensity: is the mix of equipment and human skills in a production process. Resource Flexibility: it is the ease with which equipment and works can handle a wide variety of products, levels of output, duties and function.
  • Slide 10
  • VERTICAL INTEGRATION It is the amount of production and distribution chain, from suppliers of the components to the delivery of products and services to customers, which is brought under the ownership of the firm. The degree to which a firm needs to be vertically integrated determines how many production process needs to be planned and designed to be carried out in-house or by outsourcing. Vertical integration is based on make or buy decisions. Where make is more integration and buy means more outsourcing
  • Slide 11
  • TYPESOF VERICAL INTEGRATION Backward integration: moving towards the sources of raw material. Forward integration: the firm acquires the channel of distribution
  • Slide 12
  • ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
  • Slide 13
  • Process Flowcharting Defined Process flowcharting is the use of a diagram to present the major elements of a process The basic elements can include tasks or operations, flows of materials or customers, decision points, and storage areas or queues It is an ideal methodology by which to begin analyzing a process
  • Slide 14
  • Flowchart Symbols Tasks or operations Examples: Giving an admission ticket to a customer, installing a engine in a car, etc. Decision Points Examples: How much change should be given to a customer, which wrench should be used, etc.
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  • Cond Examples: Sheds, lines of people waiting for a service, etc. Examples: Customers moving to a seat, mechanic getting a tool, etc. Storage areas or queues Flows of materials or customers
  • Slide 16
  • Few more Processes Single-stage Process Stage 1 Stage 2Stage 3 Multi-stage Process
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  • Cond A buffer refers to a storage area between stages where the output of a stage is placed prior to being used in a downstream stage Stage 1Stage 2 Buffer Multi-stage Process with Buffer
  • Slide 18
  • Terms Used Blocking Occurs when the activities in a stage must stop because there is no place to deposit the item just completed If there is no room for an employee to place a unit of work down, the employee will hold on to it not able to continue working on the next unit Starving Occurs when the activities in a stage must stop because there is no work If an employee is waiting at a work station and no work is coming to the employee to process, the employee will remain idle until the next unit of work comes
  • Slide 19
  • Cond Bottleneck Occurs when the limited capacity of a process causes work to pile up or become unevenly distributed in the flow of a process If an employee works too slow in a multi-stage process, work will begin to pile up in front of that employee. In this is case the employee represents the limited capacity causing the bottleneck. Pacing Refers to the fixed timing of the movement of items through the process
  • Slide 20
  • Process Performance Metrics Operation time = Setup time + Run time Throughput time = Average time for a unit to move through the system Cycle time = Average time between completion of units Throughput rate = 1. Cycle time Efficiency = Actual output Standard Output
  • Slide 21
  • Product Analysis
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  • FLOWCHART PRODUCT PRODUCT DESIGN PRODUCTIO N DESIGN
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  • PRODUCT It is anything that can be offered in the market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption
  • Slide 24
  • PRODUCT DESIGN Concerned with form and function of a product. It refers to the arrangement of elements or parts that collectively form a product.
  • Slide 25
  • PRODUCTION DESIGN Concept of designing products from the point of view of producibility.
  • Slide 26
  • OBJECTIVE OF PRODUCT DESIGN The overall objective is profit generation in the long run. To achieve the desired product quality. To reduce the development time and cost to the minimum. To reduce the cost of the product. To ensure producibility or manufacturability (design for manufacturing and assembly).
  • Slide 27
  • FACTORS INFLUENCING PRODUCT DESIGN i. Customer requirements ii. Convenience of the operator or user iii. Trade off between function and form iv. Types of materials used v. Work methods and equipment's vi. Cost/Price ratio vii. Product quality viii. Process capability ix. Effect on existing products x. Packaging
  • Slide 28
  • Characteristics of Good Product Design i. Function or performance ii. Appearance or aesthetics iii. Reliability iv. Maintainability v. Availability vi. Producibility vii. Simplification viii. Standardization ix. Specification x. Safety
  • Slide 29
  • TECHNOLOGY USED IN DESIGN CAD -Computer Aided Design Assists in creating and modifying designs CAE -Computer Aided Engineering Tests & analyzes designs on computer screen CAD/CAM -Design & Manufacturing Automatically converts CAD data into processing instructions for computer
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  • Benefit of CAD Produces better designs faster Builds database of designs and creates documentation to support them Shortens time to market Reduces time to manufacture Enlarges design possibilities Enhances communication and promotes innovation in design teams
  • Slide 31
  • BASIC CONSIDERATION IN DESIGN Form Design: how a product looks like Function Design : how a product performs Based on Reliability and Maintainability Reliability
  • Slide 32
  • Design for Manufacturability Traditional Approach We design it, you build it or Over the wall Concurrent Design/ Engineering Lets work together simultaneously Merits of Concurrent Design: Improves quality of early design decisions Decentralized -suppliers complete detailed design Incorporates production process Often uses a price-minus system Scheduling and management can be complex as tasks are done in parallel
  • Slide 33
  • Designing for the Customer
  • Slide 34
  • 1. QFD- a process that helps a company determine the products characteristics important to the customer and to evaluate its own products in relation to others. 2. HOUSE OF QUALITY- a matrix that helps a product design team translate customer requirement into operating and engineering goals. 3. VALUE ANALYSIS- analysis with the purpose of simplifying products and process by achieving a equivalent or better performance at a lower cost.
  • Slide 35
  • PRODUCT PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
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  • Meaning of product planning and development It is the process of finding out new ideas for producing new products and then introducing them in the market. It also includes improving the existing products
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  • OBJECTIVE
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  • Characteristics of product development Product Quality Product Cost Development Time Development Cost Development Capability
  • Slide 39
  • 8 STEPS OR 6 STAGES OF PROUCT DEVELOPMENT Idea generationIdea screening Concept development Marketing StrategyBusiness analysis Product design and development Test marketingCommercialization STAGE-1 STAGE-2 STAGE-6STAGE-5 STAGE-3 STAGE-4
  • Slide 40
  • 6 stages of product development STAGE-1 Planning STAGE-2 Concept Development STAGE-3 System-Level design STAGE-4 Design Detail STAGE-5Testing and Refinement STAGE-6 Production Ramp-up
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  • Challenges of product development Trade offs Details Time pressure Creation Satisfaction of needs Team spirit
  • Slide 42
  • Measuring Product Development Performance Measures Freq. Of new products introduced Time to market introduction Number stated and number completed A
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