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Semantics and pragmatics

Feb 21, 2016




Semantics and pragmatics. Part 1. Sense Unicorn. Reference Cat. Word relationships. Night/knightphonologically (/n/) Lift/liftedmorphologically (roots) Write/paintsyntactically (transitive) Pot/pansemantically (sister terms). Hyponymy & Sister terms. Dog & Poodle - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Semantics and pragmatics

Semantics and pragmaticsPart 1SenseUnicornReferenceCat

Night/knightphonologically (/n/)Lift/liftedmorphologically (roots)Write/paintsyntactically (transitive)Pot/pansemantically (sister terms)Word relationshipsDog & PoodleAll poodles are dogs = X is always included as a part of YDog and poodle are hyponymsSister TermTwo or more terms that are on the same level within a hyponymous hierarchy

Hyponymy & Sister terms

Build your own hyponymSynonyms

Two words that share the exact same reference.

What is the antonym to emasculate?: to make (a man) feel less masculine : to deprive (a man) of his male strength, role, etc.: to make (something) weaker or less effective

Whats the difference between a complementary pair and gradable pair?Discuss with your neighbor-

How _____ is he/it?AntonymsSemantics at the sentence levelEntailmentAll dogs barkSallys dog barksMutual EntailmentIan has a female siblingIan has a sisterPropositionsThe meaning of a sentence (or any other multi-word expression) is a function of the meanings of the words it contains, and how these words are syntactically combined.Sally loves Polly.Polly loves Sally. Principle of compositionalityShramped flonked flo britter.Shramped flonked the britter.Shramped kicked the britter.Roberto kicked the britter. Roberto kicked the ball.Roberto kicked the bucket.Semantics and SyntaxThink of 3 idiomatic expressions in English. Invent 1 new idiomatic expression in English.

Idioms in Spanish/other languages?Pan comido (piece of cake)Llevar lea al monte (to carry coals to Newcastle)

Idiomatic expressions

Part 2Sentence: There is a platypus in the bathtub.

Utterance: The event that occurs when a sentence is spoken.The same sentence could have an infinite number of utterances.Properties of utterances include: time, place, volume, the speaker

Sentence vs. utteranceDeictic wordsThose things that hold the place of other things in a thing when someone says it.

What does (can) this sentence mean?Can you take the trash out? Context and meaningLinguisticWhat precedes a particular utterance in a discourse.Do you like green beans?Yes. Yes, I do.

SituationalNonlinguistic information that allows for an utterance to be understood. It smells.

Social Relationships between interlocutorsKinds of context

The difference is intuitive. Judgments of felicity may differ from one speaker to another.

What do you do for a living?Im a linguistic professor at Ohio State.What do you do for a living?I have a job.Felicitous & InfelicitousSteven Pinker (The cooperative principle)The Cooperative principleMaxim of QualityMaxim of RelevanceMaxim of QuantityMaxim of Manner

ViolationsGrices Maxims