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Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description framework Jean-Louis Binot 19/02/2020 Semantic Data 1
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Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

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Page 1: Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

Semantic Data

Chapter 3 : The semantic web

resource description framework

Jean-Louis Binot

19/02/2020Semantic Data1

Page 2: Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

Course content outline

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Page 3: Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

Sources and recommended readings

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Agenda

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Why not HTML or XML ?2

Resource description framework3

The semantic web stack1

RDF Schema4

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The semantic web standards (W3C consortium)

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Page 6: Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

Agenda

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Why not HTML or XML ?2

Resource description framework3

The semantic web stack1

RDF Schema4

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Why not just HTML ?

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Might XML be a better solution ?

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Why not just XML : an example

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lecturer)

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Agenda

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Why not HTML or XML ?2

Resource description framework3

The semantic web stack1

RDF Schema4

Page 11: Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

Basic ideas of the Resource Description Framework (RDF)

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Page 12: Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

Resources

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Properties

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Statements

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The RDF data model is based on directed labelled graphs

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Page 16: Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

Triples with URIs

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RDF serialization - Turtle

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Namespaces and reference vocabularies

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Namespaces ./.

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Types of triple elements

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✓ ✓ ✓

✕ ✕ ✓

✓ ✕ ✓

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Literals and datatypes

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Page 25: Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

Blank nodes

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Use of blank nodes for structured data

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Instances and typing

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Page 28: Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

Syntactic sugar

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Page 29: Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

The Mona Lisa example in Turtle

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Reification

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The Mona Lisa example in RDF/XML

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RDFa example

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A review snippet from Google

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Triples generated from the review snipet

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Formal semantics of RDF

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Semantics of RDF graphs

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∃ ∧

Page 39: Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

Semantics of RDF graphs ./.

◼ I I I I

◼ I I

◼ ⊨

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The interpolation lemma

◼ ⊨

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Interpolation lemma: example

❑ ⊨

❑ ⊭

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Page 42: Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

Agenda

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Why not HTML or XML ?2

Resource description framework3

The semantic web stack1

RDF Schema4

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Motivation for RDFS

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Example of a simple RDFS ontology

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RDFS

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RDFS basic ideas

http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#>

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RDFS main constructs

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Construct (construct type) Syntactic form Description

Class (a class) C rdf:type rdfs:Class C (a resource) is an RDF class

Property (a class) P rdf:type rdf:Property P (a resource) is an RDF property

type (a property) I rdf:type C I (a resource) is an instance of C (a class)

subClassOf (a property) C1 rdfs:subClassOf C2 C1 (a class) is a subclass of C2 (a class)

subPropertyOf (a property) P1 rdfs:subPropertyOf P2 P1 (a property) is a sub-property of P2 (a property)

domain (a property) P rdfs:domain C domain of P (a property) is C (a class)

range (a property) P rdfs:range C range of P (a property) is C (a class)

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Defining classes and instances

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Defining classes and instances ./.

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More on RDFS classes

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Subsumption

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Class hierarchy and instances

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Example of hierarchy with corresponding triples

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Defining Properties

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Range and domain of properties

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Range and domain inference rules

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Specialization of properties

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Complex cases for range and domain of properties

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Multiple range or domain statements

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RDFS Semantics

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Revisiting the example from chapter 1

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(example after Paulheim, Semantic Web Technologies)

Page 63: Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource ...montefiore.ulg.ac.be/~binot/INFO8005/Theory/Semantic-data-ch3.pdf · Semantic Data Chapter 3 : The semantic web resource description

Revisiting the example from chapter 1

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(example after Paulheim, Semantic Web Technologies)

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More on the limitations of RDFS

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(after Antoniou and Van Harmelen 2004)

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Summary

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Annex : RDF/RDFS entailment patterns

If S contains: then S RDF(S)_entails :

rdfD1 a p "v"^^d . a p _:b . _b rdf:type d .

rdfD2 a p b . p rdf:type rdf:Property .

rdfs1 any IRI a in D a rdf:type rdfs:Datatype .

rdfs2p rdfs:domain x .

a p b .a rdf:type x .

rdfs3p rdfs:range x .

a p b .b rdf:type x .

rdfs4a a p b . a rdf:type rdf:Resource .

rdfs4b a p b . b rdf:type rdf:Resource .

rdfs5p rdfs:subPropertyOf q .

q rdfs:subPropertyOf r .p rdfs:subPropertyOf r .

rdfs6 a rdf:type rdf:Property . a rdfs:subPropertyOf a .

rdfs7rdfs:subPropertyOf q .

a p b.a q b .

rdfs8 c rdf:type rdfs:Class . c rdfs:subClassOf rdf:Resource .

rdfs9c rdfs:subClassOf d .

a rdf:type c.a rdf:type d .

rdfs10 c rdf:type rdfs:Class . c rdfs:subClassOf c .

rdfs11c rdfs:subClassOf d .

d rdfs:subClassOf e .c rdfs:subClassOf e .

rdfs12 rdf:type rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty . p rdfs:subPropertyOf rdfs:member .

rdfs13 d rdf:type rdfs:Datatype . d rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:Literal .

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References

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THANK YOU

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