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SELF-RELATEDNESS AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Gerrit Glas g.glas@dimence.nl Autumn School Heidelberg 24-28 October 2011
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Self-relatedness and psychopathology

Feb 23, 2016

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Self-relatedness and psychopathology. Gerrit Glas g.glas@dimence.nl. Autumn School Heidelberg 24-28 October 2011. Outline. Background Research on the concept of emotion (esp. anxiety) The concept of selfrelatedness Terminology: not selfreferentiality - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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De wil filosofische aspecten

Self-relatedness and psychopathology Gerrit Glasg.glas@dimence.nlAutumn School Heidelberg 24-28 October 2011

1OutlineBackgroundResearch on the concept of emotion (esp. anxiety)The concept of selfrelatednessTerminology: not selfreferentiality Three layers in the conceptualization of psychopathology Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyThe perspective of selfregulationThe functional perspectiveApplicationsConcept of disorderNeurosciencePsychopathology 2Selfrelatedness and psychopathology2Background concept of emotionTension between clinical (psychotherapeutic) and scientific approachesScientific approach to emotionEmotion as state with components (physiological, motor, verbal output)Emotion as cognitive interpretation (schema theory)Emotion as action tendency (dispositional approach)Clinical approachEmotion means something about the person in a particular situationThey say as much about the situation as about the personAnger after an insult (nastiness of the other person or expression of something else that is going on in me or both to a certain extent?)3Selfrelatedness and psychopathology3Background concept of emotionEmotions have a self-referential structure:Emotions neither output of a machine, nor just events in a private inner worldEmotions refer not only to an outer situation or to an inner process; by saying something about the situation they also and at the same time reveal something about the person who has the emotionUnderstanding emotion requires understanding of the situation and of the particular way this person relates to that situation: double structureCompare gestures: similar double structure but element of referring back to the person less prominent and more emphasis on the activity instead of receptivityAffectivity: we are affected and the way we are affected does express something about us (something we sometimes dont like)Magical transformation of the world (Sartre)However: self-referentiality is not self-reflexivity!

4Selfrelatedness and psychopathology4Does psychopathology have the same double (reflexive) structure?

And, if not, is there still room for a self-relational perspective?

Two questions5Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyDoes psychopathology have the same double (reflexive) structure?

Answer: no, many forms dont have

And, if not, is there still room for a self-relational perspective?

Answer: yes

Two answers6Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyRelative independenceMany forms of psychopathology have a relative independence (cf: liver function)Thought confusion (formal)Clouding of consciousness (metabolic, toxic) Panic attacks (typical attacks)Some forms of endogenous depression End stages of addictionRepetitive behaviour in severe OCDStress reactions (arousal, heightened sensory awareness)And so on.7Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyRelative independenceThe confusion (panic, depression, et cetera) does not in itself say something about the person

The confusion (panic, depression, et cetera) does say something about the person in a trivial sense, i.e., that he/she is in a certain state

However, in dealing with the confusion (panic, depression et cetera) the person does say a lot about him or herself.

In this dealing with there is again self-referentiality8Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyThree layersLevel 1: Being in a certain state

9Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyI am in a certain stateI10Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyThree layersLevel 1: Being in a certain state

Level 2: Relating to that state

11Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyI relate to that stateI12Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyThree layersLevel 1: Being in a certain state

Level 2: Relating to that state

Level 3: By relating to that state revealing something about oneself13Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyBy relating to that state I reveal something about myselfIThe self14Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyin timeIThe self15Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyI self relatednessThe selfI - others- the world existence as such transcendent reality Functions/modes.. in relation with others and the world 16Selfrelatedness and psychopathology16Understanding psychopathologyLevel 1: signs and symptoms

Level 2: interpretation of these signs and symptoms by the patient and his/her environment

Level 3: life historical perspective; holistic;dynamical; existential 17Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyLevels of understanding psychopathologyIThe selfLevel 1Level 3Level 218Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyThe adapted frameworkPersonDisorderABA = influence of personality on relatedness of the patient to the disorder example: dependence; narcissistic vulnerability

B = influence of disorder on relatedness of the patient to the disorder example: hopelessness in depression19Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyWhat does this have to do with self-relatedness? (is the concept of relatedness not sufficient?)

How does self-relatedness relate to psychopathology?20Selfrelatedness and psychopathologySelfrelatedness - conceptsThe I = the person who speaks, experiences and actsHolistic conceptPrimitive (P.F. Strawson)Concept at the level of everyday languageThe selfThe part of oneself the person is (implicitly or explicitly) referring to by speaking, acting, experiencingThere are many selves21Selfrelatedness and psychopathology21The self - dimensionsTemporal: character traits ; dispositions short lasting states Active receptive (passive)AgencyBasic self-awarenessExperientialBody memoryBasic moodsAffective dispositions22Selfrelatedness and psychopathology22The self - dimensionsSecond order capacitiesSelf-regulationIntegrationReflexive mediation (Ricoeur)

23Selfrelatedness and psychopathology23Layers in self-regulation (Murphy 2006) Selfregulation with a fixed goal

Selfregulation by re-setting of targetsBeing able to form images of targets and scenariosBeing able to (mentally) represent abstract goals

Evaluating ones own evaluationHomeostasis

Frustration tolerance

Long term change prevails over short term executive functioning

Altruism 24Selfrelatedness and psychopathology24Selfrelatedness functional perspective I - self

Functions/modes

Physical- spatiotemporal positioning

Biotic- homeostasis over time

Affective - emotional attunement; attachment

Cognitive - planning, selection, flexibility

Social- positioning oneself in a social universeLegal- larger responsibilities (institutional) Aesthetic- imaginative play in a social context

Pistic- dedicatedness; ultimate concerns25Selfrelatedness and psychopathology25Selfrelatedeness dimensions; modes I - self

Functions/modes

Physical

Biotic

Psychic

Cognitive

Social

Legal Aesthetic

PisticThe self (receptive side; attunement; regulation)- Core sense of self, including basic self-awareness Sense of agency Experiences that form the basis of body memory (Damasio) basic mood affective dispositions Second order capacities: self-regulation integration reflexive mediation (Ricoeur)

Receptive/active26Selfrelatedness and psychopathology26What does this have to do with self-relatedness? (is the concept of relatedness not sufficient?)

Answer: Psychopathological states influence the way we relate to ourselves (our states included) (concept of disease not confined to level 1 constructs!)There are many selves and, therefore, many forms of psychopathologically self-relating 27Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyFurther consequencesAd 1 (concept of disease not confined to level 1): Being depressed in a depressed way Example: demoralizationAd 2 (many selves to relate to): Situation-bound anxieties (social phobia) can be related to a situational (=social) self, to character (the way one deals with the phobia; avoidant personality); and to existential concerns (the person exists as disappearing subject)28Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyHow does selfrelatedness relate to psychopathology?29Selfrelatedness and psychopathologySelfrelatedeness dimensions; modes I - self

Functions/modes

Physical

Biotic

Psychic

Cognitive

Social

Legal Aesthetic

PisticThe self (receptive side; attunement; regulation)- Core sense of self, including basic self-awareness Sense of agency Experiences that form the basis of body memory (Damasio) basic mood affective dispositions Second order capacities: self-regulation integration reflexive mediation (Ricoeur)

Receptive/active30Selfrelatedness and psychopathology30Psychopathology and the selfThe selfPsychopathologyCore sense of selfbasic self-awarenessSense of agencySchizophrenia Experiential basis of Body memoryDisorders of body schema; anorexia nervosa? Basic moodDysthymia Affective dispositionsAnxiety disorder incl PTSSSecond order capacitiesSelf-regulationImpulse control disturbances; addictionIntegrationPersonality disorder (cluster B)Reflexive mediation Lack of insight3131The functional perspective and psychopathology Functions/modesPsychopathology (executive functioning)Physicalspatiotemporal positioning Neurological disorders (Parkinson; dizziness) BiotichomeostasisDerailed HPA axis (depression)Affective emotional attunement; attachmentDisorders of attachment; psychopathy; anxiety disorderCognitiveplanning, selection, flexibilityFrontal lobe dysfunction in dementias, OCD and schizophreniaSocial

positioning oneself in a social universeAutism spectrum disorder, schizoid PD Legallarger responsibilities (institutionalBehavioral disturbancesAesthetic(self-)expression in imaginationHysteria; OCPD Pisticorientation toward transcendent realityLack of self-transcendence (Cloninger)3232Thank you for your attention

E-mail: glasg@xs4all.nl

33Selfrelatedness and psychopathology3334Selfrelatedness and psychopathologyApplications - the concept of disorderGenetic abnormalitiesNeurocognitive defectsClinical phenotypeSocial and cognitive impairmentsEnvironmental effectsBiologicalEmotionalEducationalSocial Compensating effectsIntellectualSocialComorbidity Concept of disorder could in principle refer to each of these levels35Selfrelatedness and psychopathology35Applications - neuroscienceMoving away from a computationalist (modular) approach toward a connectivist, embodied cognition approach Perception-action cyclesHierarchy of intersecting cycles that include the environment (Fuster, Walter)Example: learning of contingencies in emotion recognitionvocal sound and lipsfacial expression and inflection of voiceemotional value of these expressions emerges over time in an adequate context3636Applications - enactive approach to psychopathology Knowing is not mirroring; it is not just respresenting the world; it is a result of engagement with the world The process of knowing (the mind) is an emergent phenomenon of complex interactions between the subject and the world Therefore: meaning is contextual (example: chair)These interactions are primarily bodily (= shared bodily practices) and acquire emerging (=new and qualitatively distinct) properties in the course of a persons developmentTherefore: the mind is embodied; meaning is in the body (gestures, actions, behaviour)Self-relatedness and psychopathology 3737Empathy the common viewResemblanceBodily postureEmotional expression Inference with respect to the otherbased on body-mind assocation in oneselfSubject, perceiverObject; the person that is perceivedSelf-relatedness and psychopathology 3838Empathy the enactive viewWe know others by acquaintance and by sharing practicesSubject, perceiverObject; the person that is perceivedSelf-relatedness and psychopathology 3939Selfrelatedness functional modesFunctions/modesPhysicalBioticAffectiveCognitiveSocialLegalAestheticPisticPrimacy of - the world others spiritual realitiesCallingResponse I - self

4040I self relatednessThe selfI - others- the world existence as such transcendent reality Functions/modesSelf-relatedness conceptual framework4141Evan ThompsonEnactivism: input and output are interconnected (vs. sandwich model)

The brainweb organizes itself and its interactions with the environment in parallel

Global processes subsume their components so that they are no longer clearly separable as components(423)Evan ThompsonCausation nothing else than an organizational constraint of a system with respect to its components (interconnectedness; relatedness among processes)

Relational holism instead of top-down causation

Isomorphism between the levels Self-relatedness and psychopathology 44Selfrelatedness and psychopathology44Self-relatedness and psychopathology 45Selfrelatedness and psychopathology45Self-relatedness and psychopathology 46Selfrelatedness and psychopathology46