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Selective Laser Melting versus Electron Beam Melting

Jul 15, 2015

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  • tat actuel des fabrications additives pour les applications mtalliques Atelier CNES 18/19 Novembre 2013, Toulouse, France

    Olivier RIGO

    Carsten ENGEL

    25.11.13 1 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • Special thanks

    Le Fonds Europen de Dveloppement Rgional et la Rgion Wallonne investissent dans votre avenir.

    25.11.13 2 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • Sirris | Metal Additive Manufacturing

    25.11.13 3

    Index

    Sirris short overview

    Generalities:

    Metal Additive Manufacturing

    Technology comparison: LBM vs EBM

    Metallurgical aspects

    Mechanical aspects

    Case studies

    Contact

    sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • Sirris | Driving industry by technology

    130 experts & hight-tech infrastructure

    Collective centre of the technology industry Non profit organization Industry owned

    4,700 industrial interventions (advice, projects, services) within 1,700 different companies whose 75% are SMEs 24M EUR turnover

    Mission: Increase the competitiveness of companies of the Agoria sectors through technological innovations

  • Sirris | 23 years of Additive Manufacturing

    AM centre Leading position in EU 16 engineers and technicians 17 high-tech additive technologies in house Most complete installed base in EU Driving technology companies in applications

    Technologies: Stereolithography (normal & hi-res) Paste polymerisation for ceramics and metals (Optoform) 3D Printing of plaster and metal powder Laser sintering of polymeric powder (PA,): P360 P390 Objet Connex 500: bi-material Laser sintering of metal powder (parts and mould inserts) Electron Beam Melting (Arcam A2) 3D Printing of wax (Thermojet) Vacuum Casting of Alu, Bronze, Zamak Laser Cladding (EasyClad) Laser Beam Melting (MTT) Bi-material FDM system [email protected] system (for students) MCOR technology (color 3Dprinter)

    25.11.13 5 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • Sirris | Metal Additive Manufacturing

    25.11.13 6

    Index

    Sirris short overview

    Generalities:

    Metal Additive Manufacturing

    Technology comparison: LBM vs EBM

    Metallurgical aspects

    Mechanical aspects

    Case studies

    Contact

    sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • Generalities: Metal Additive Manufacturing

    25.11.13 7 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

    Direct

    Fabrication

    system

    Laser

    E-Beam

    Print head

    Nozzle

    Post-

    processing

    Indirect

    Binder

    Debinding

    + sintering

    Post-

    processing

  • Generalities: Metal Additive Manufacturing

    Electron Beam Melting (EBM)

    Laser Beam Melting (LBM)

    Metallic powder deposited in a powder bed Electron Beam Vacuum Build temperature: 680-720C

    Metallic powder deposited in a powder bed Laser Beam Argon flow along Ox direction Build temperature: 200C

    25.11.13 8 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • Generalities: Metal Additive Manufacturing

    25.11.13 9 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

    Electron Beam Melting

  • Generalities: Metal Additive Manufacturing

    25.11.13 10 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

    Electron Beam Melting

  • Benefits and drawbacks - EBM

    Benefits Drawbacks

    Few developed materials, only conductive materials possible

    Tricky to work with fine powder

    Powder is sintered -> tricky to remove (e.g. interior channels)

    Long dead time between 2 productions (8 hours for cooling A2, A2X, A2XX systems)

    Sintered powder = good for thermal conductivity = less supports

    Suitable for very massive parts

    Less supports are needed for manufacturing of parts

    Possibility to stack parts on top of each other (mass production)

    Process under vacuum (no gaz contaminations)

    High productivity

    No residual internal stress (constant 680-720C build temperature)

    Very fine microstructures (Ti6Al4V), very good mechanical and fatigue results (Ti6Al4V)

    Expensive maintenance contract

    25.11.13 11 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • Generalities: Metal Additive Manufacturing

    Electron Beam Melting (EBM)

    Laser Beam Melting (LBM)

    Metallic powder deposited in a powder bed Electron Beam Vacuum Build temperature: 680-720C

    Metallic powder deposited in a powder bed Laser Beam Argon flow along Ox direction Build temperature: 200C

    25.11.13 12 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • 25/11/2013 Sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

    13

    Spread powder

    Recoater

    Laser beam

    Melted zones

    Previous layers

    Initial plate

    Argon

    Main tank

    The building steps

    Generalities: Metal Additive Manufacturing

  • Laser Beam Melting SLM Solutions 250HL

    25.11.13 14 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • Benefits and drawbacks - LBM

    Benefits Drawbacks

    Flexibility for new material developments

    Possibility to work with fine powders 10m (d50)

    Easy powder removing from the parts (the parts are not embedded in pre-sintered cake)

    Short dead time between 2 productions (2 hours for cooling)

    Possibility of restarting an interrupted job

    Easy visual inspection of building process during the manufacturing (either with unaided eye or with optical camera)

    Process is wall thickness dependent. (not suitable for massive parts)

    Process involving internal stresses in the parts need additional annealing

    Process requiring strong supports for parts fasten during the manufacturing (not only for heat transfer)

    Need to use build plates of the same material than the powder used in the machine (e.g.: more expensive for titanium powder)

    Cutting tool necessary (eg: a saw) in order to release the parts from the build plate

    25.11.13 15 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • Technology comparison EBM LBM

    LBM EBM

    Size (mm) 250 x 250 x 350* 210 x 210 x 350*

    Layer thickness (m) 30 - 60 50

    Min wall thickness (mm) 0.2 0.6

    Accuracy (mm) +/- 0.1 +/- 0.3

    Build rate (cm/h) 5 - 20 80

    Surface roughness (m) 5 - 15 20 - 30

    Geometry limitations Supports needed everywhere (thermal,

    anchorage)

    Less supports but powder is sintered

    Materials Stainless steel, tool steel, titanium, aluminum,

    Only conductive materials (Ti6Al4V, CrCo,)

    CENG 25/11/2013 sirris 2013 | www.sirris.be | [email protected] | 16

    *1 SLM Solutions 250HL *2 Arcam A2

  • 0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    productivity

    3D complexity

    maximum size

    Accuracy Surface finish

    mech prop -

    density

    material range

    EBM (Arcam)

    LBM (SLM Solutions

    Technology comparison EBM LBM

    CENG 25/11/2013 sirris 2013 | www.sirris.be | [email protected] | 17

    *1 SLM Solutions 250HL *2 Arcam A2

  • Sirris | Metal Additive Manufacturing

    25.11.13 18

    Index

    Sirris short overview

    Generalities:

    Metal Additive Manufacturing

    Technology comparison: LBM vs EBM

    Metallurgical aspects

    Mechanical aspects

    Case studies

    Contact

    sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • Metallurgical aspects LBM & EBM

    Electron Beam Melting (EBM)

    Laser Beam Melting (LBM)

    Metallic powder deposited in a powder bed Electron Beam Vacuum Build temperature: 680-720C

    Metallic powder deposited in a powder bed Laser Beam Argon flow along Ox direction Build temperature: 200C

    25/11/2013

    sirris 2013 | www.sirris.be | [email protected] | 19

  • Experimental procedures

    Electron Beam Melting (EBM)

    Laser Beam Melting (LBM)

    Random scanning strategy Vacuum Pre-heating of the subtrate: 680-720C

    Complex lasing strategy: 79 rotation between two successive layers Argon flow along Ox direction Pre-heating of the subtrate: 200C

    Characteristics of theTi6Al4V ELI powders

    Process Ti (wt%) Al(wt%) V(wt%)

    LBM Bal 5,9 4,2

    EBM Bal 3,3 4,4

    Reference axis for EBM and LBM

    25.11.13 20 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • Results and discussion

    Laser Beam Melting

    Perpendicular to the building direction

    Equiaxed morphology (around 50m of diameter) Width does NOT significantly change along the height

    No evolution of the thermal gradient intensity, no evolution of the grain

    width

    25.11.13 21 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • Results and discussion

    Laser Beam Melting

    Parallel to the building direction

    Elongated grains characteristic of an epitaxial growth aligned with the heat flow

    No epitaxial growth apparent

    Explanation: Tilt of the primary grains

    Suggestion: combined effect of part geometry and a modification of the direction of the maximum heat flow that had possibly been brought about by the Argon flow

    25.11.13 22 sirris | www.sirris.be | [email protected] |

  • Results and discussion

    Perpendicular to the building direction

    Equiaxed morphology as for LBM

    Electron Beam Melting (EBM)

    Parallel to the building direction

    Explanation: Random scanning trategy Thermal hom