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Scars and masses

Mar 06, 2016

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Shaping the skin of the earth

  • ARS AND ASSES

    Sc21

    SCANDIUMSCANDIUM

    Sc21

    SCANDIUM

    Sc21

    MANGAN

    M24

    MANGAN

    M24

    Sc21

    SCANDIUMSCANDIUM

    Sc21

    SCANDIUM

    Sc21

    MANGAN

    M24

    MANGAN

    M24

    INGRID AAS

    SHAPING THE SKIN OF THE EARTH

  • Scars are areas of fibrous tissue that replace normal skin after injury. A scar results from the biological process of wound repair in the skin and other tissues of the body. Thus, scarring is a natural part of the healing process. With the exception of very minor lesions, every wound results in some degree of scarring.

    Due to the human body, landscape is a complex system, that can be scared. The mining landscapes are left as scars after periods of mining. The mining companies makes their cut in the skin of the earth, and the landscape starts to bleed. An active mine is an open wound. After the mining period the landscape is left as a wound that is starting to heal.

    In geographical terms- what is a scar? Scars in the landscape can also be caused by nature itself. Erosion is the process by which materials are removed from the surface and transported to another location. It works by hydraulic or aeolian actions and transport of solids (sediment, soil, rock and other particles) in the natural environment, and leads to the deposition of these materials elsewhere. It usually occurs due to transport by wind, water, or ice; by down-slope creep of soil and other material under the force of gravity. Water enters the cracks, and if it freezes, expands. As the water expands, so do the cracks. A cliff on the side of a mountain, is an example of a scar created by nature itself. The biggest difference due to the human made scars is that they is created over a longer period of time. Then the ecosystem can develope in the same rate.

    Grand Canyon is one of the biggest examples of a nature made scar. Nearly two billion years of the Earths geological history was exposed to the Colorado River and its tributaries cut their channels through layer after layer of rock while the Colorado Plateau was uplifted. Since that time, the Colorado River continued to erode and form the canyon to its present-day configuration.

    What the natural and manmade scars have in common is that they stay in the landscape over time. People have become significant earth movers, outpacing all sources of natural erosion. Should it not be our task to help the nature to get back to its equilibrium? And should we not have any roles for this kind of eath shaping?

    A SCARED LANDSCAPE

  • A SCARED LANDSCAPE THE GLOBAL LANDART PROJECT The perforated global landscapePeople have become significant mass movers, reshaping the the skin of the earth. When we look at the amount of scars and masses in motion, we can see a global landscape in change.

    In one way the landscape could be seen as one big sculptural project, forming the skin of the earth.

  • CHANGING THE MAP

    In contrast to the carefully negotiation of land uses and rights to resources, new scanns are now forming the high north. New technology, geophysical measurements, is changing the map and the landscape is seen as geological resources under-neath the surface. Ore is mined out along the linear beds on the hillsides. The open cuts is running in the same direction as the geologic patterns. Scars and derelict quarries remain today as evidence of exhaustion, both of human bodies and of geologic seams. Linear roads are traceble in the bottom of the valley. Sometimes the roads are following the gap cuts in the ridge lines that is created by rivers.

    CHANGING THE MAP

    NEW SCANNINGS

    Like a scann of a body

  • DESIGNED LANDSCAPE

    45

    37 : ANGLE OF MASS DEPOSIT

    EARTH IS CUT, DUMPED, SHAPED DURING MINING PROCESS. TESTING LIMITS OF GRAVITY AND EROSION

    BJRNEVATTEN MINE

    KIRKENES LANDFORM

    Steep angle takes up less land and requires less topsoil. Dozer gouges cover the hillside to slow erosion and capture sediment until vegetation is established.

    51 IN 10

    1 IN 3

    1 IN 2

    1 IN 1

    18

    25

    52 : ANGLE OF A CUT

    1M

    1M

    45 M

    Deformation of the ground, testing the rules of gravity. How deep can you dig a hole?

    CHANGING THE MAP

    NEW SCANNINGS

    Like a scann of a body

  • The mining process is gradually transforming the landscape. Turning the ground under the surface has set its mark on the landscape. The landscape is reacting to the deformation of the masses and whats going on underneath the surface. The ground has become unstable and there will be dramatic consequenses if no one takes action. The ground have been overextracted so the ground is no longer stabil. As a part of a moving landscape the city of Kiruna is now sinking and lakes is about to drain. What will happen to the ground in 50 years?

    SELF SHAPING EARTH

    CUT I

    N TH

    E SK

    IN O

    F THE

    EAR

    TH

    LAKES IS DRAINING, GOING INTO THE GROUND

    CRACKING AND MOOVING SURFACE

  • Anthropocene: Have humans created a new epoch of geological time?

    Some geologists now believe that human activity has so irrevocably altered our planet that we have entered a new geological age. This proposed new epoch is dubbed the Anthropocene. Yet some experts say that defining this human age is much more than about understanding our place in history. Instead, our whole future may depend on it.Humans have made a dramatic impact on the skin of the earth. We are living in some other age, one shaped primarily by people. From their trawlers scraping the floors of the seas to their dams impounding sediment by the gigatonne, from their stripping of forests to their irrigation of farms, from their mile-deep mines to their melting of glaciers, humans were bringing about an age of planetary change. The human made landscape is reaching a scale due to the geological natural made landscape.

    ANTHROPOCENE SELF SHAPING EARTH

    KIRKENES 2,3 KM

    1,3 KM

    The mineral law- Do we have legislations for these landscape interven-tions (size and form)? Do we have suitable rules/politics for this reshap-ing of landscape? Kap.8- 43. Konsesjonspliktige uttak (operating licenses)Samlet uttak av mineralforekomster p mer enn 10 000 m3 masse krever driftskonsesjon fra Direktoratet for mineralforvaltning.... Driftsomrdet skal fastsettes i konsesjonen....Konsesjonen kan tidsbegrenses (The total extraction of mineral deposits of more than 10 000 m3 of mass requires operating license from the Directorate of Mining .... The operating area shall be determined in the license .... the license can have time limitations)

    Kap.6- 31. Utvinningsomrdet (production area) Departementet kan gi forskrift om utvinningsomrdet, herunder om form, strrelse og merking (The Ministry may issue regulations concerning the recovery area, including the form,size and labeling)

    MIR

    MIN

    E RU

    SSIA

    525

    M D

    EEP

    EMPI

    RE S

    TATE

    BUI

    LDIN

    G 38

    1 M

    These are the only restrictions in the Mineral Act that is saying anything about the shape and size related to the mining operation. As long as you have license to extract more than 10 000 m3 off mass, the mineral act says nothing about the maximum mass extraction. In principel this means that you then can dig a hole as deep as you want, as long as it is mineral discovery in the ground! The mineral law today does not ensure what happens within the approved operation area. The purpose of the Act is to promote and ensure a responsible management and use of mineral resources. When expanding the territories in the north, Norway with its mineral act, should be in control of the big cuts and mass moovement on the landscape.

    HOW DEEP AND BIG CAN YOU DIG HOLE? WHAT WILL HAPPEN TO THE HIGH NORH?

  • FOR EVERY TONNE OF COPPER EXTRACTED 99 TONNES OF WASTE

    MATERIAL MUST ALSO BE REMOVED!

    About 97% of the ore is crushed to less than 0.1 mm size and must be deposited, while the remaining about 3% is a copper-containing concentrate which is distributed to smelters

    abroad for further processing.

    2,8 mill ton konsentrat pr r

    450,000 tons of material are removed from the mine daily.

    FOR EVERY TONNE OF COPPER EXTRACTED 99 TONNES OF WASTE

    MATERIAL MUST ALSO BE REMOVED!

    About 97% of the ore is crushed to less than 0.1 mm size and must be deposited, while the remaining about 3% is a copper-containing concentrate which is distributed to smelters

    abroad for further processing.

    2,8 mill ton konsentrat pr r

    450,000 tons of material are removed from the mine daily.

    45.000 tons of material are removed from the mine daily

    MASSES ON THE MOOVE What to do with the waste?Prepairing the mineral strategy for exploration of the north;

    Questioning the mineral law?

    Mine reclamation is the process of restoring and healing the scars and erase the signs from the mining operation. Although the process of mine reclamation occurs once mining is completed, the preparation and planning of mine reclamation activities should occur prior to a mine being permitted or started. Mine reclamation minimizes the environmental effects of mining and creates useful landscapes that meet a variety of goals ranging from the restoration of productive ecosystems to the creation of industrial and municipal resources. To heal the scars is not easy but someone got to do it. The mineral act have a weakness when it comes to the securing the landscape and the environment. Norway is one of the few contries that are not allowed to deposit the waste back into the mine. The reason for this is to secure the pos