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Sarfraz group.......presentation observation

Jun 17, 2015




  • 1. A method of data collection in which the situation or individual of interest is watched and therelevant facts, actions and behaviors are recorded.

2. The researcher observes the behavior without influencing describe behavior as it naturally assess relationships among variables present 3. Observationscan be conducted with thehelp of In recent research, Observations are conducted with the help of 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.Sigmund Freud Jean Piaget Ion Pavlov Lev Vygotsky John Watson Albert Bandura B.F Skinner 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.Naturalistic observation (non-participant) Participant-observation Structured observation Unstructured observation Covert observation Overt observation Field experiments/Controlled Observations 6. Observing a phenomena that cannot be created in lab, for practical or ethical reasons Method is expensive Effects can only be observed when such events occur naturally 7. Researcher is passive recorder A psychologist observes the confrontation between two rival neighborhood gangs from the window of an abandoned building. 8. Example: effect of early childhood isolation on later psychological development. We cant isolate children to study them But we can use naturalistic observation when we discover such cases. 9. (1993) descriptions of feral children (raised outside human cultures) (1977) case studies of children subjected to unusual isolation by parents (e.g., Genie) (1965) observation of institutionalized children, Showed effects of deprivation of stimulation during infancy and early childhood 10. Observerjoins a group for the purpose of studying group members Researcher is insider and intervene in situations Researcher can be biased 1. 2.How is it different from ethnography? Potential cost to objectivity= Stockholm syndrome 11. UsuallyCheck Lists focus on predetermined categories study only the factors of interest easy to analyze data saves time Replication depends upon following exactly the same procedures 12. For example Piagets studies Watson experiemnts 13. Categories are not predetermined Focus on new emergent issues Researcher do not predict anything in advance Observer can be biased Difficult to analyze Time and sources consuming 14. Also calledResearcher do not identify himself and mixes in situation Researcher easley understands the participants Purpose is to achieve access to behaviors 15. Also called undisguised observation Researcher identifies himself and explains the purpose of observation Participants knew that they are being observed and can change their behavior 16. Researcher manipulates one or more variables in a natural setting to determine effect on behavior One end of the intervention non-intervention continuum 17. For example Crusco & Wetzel (1984)waitresses worked as allies, tip amount was dependent variable Compared No Touch condition with Shoulder Touch conditions Men tipped more than women Both men and women tipped more after being touched at some point during their meal. 18. Phenomena can be studied in real context Data collected is very accurate in nature and also very reliable. Best to study human nature 19. Problems of the past cannot be studied Participant feel uncomfortable being watched Time consuming method and hence expensive Requires specific skills Researcher has to wait until the appropriate event occurs

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