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In Preparation HIGHER JUDO by Dr. M. Feldenkrais This is the first book in a series of three volumes designed for students who already pos- sess some elementary knowledge of Judo, and who wish to make themselves familiar with the more advanced actions. Dr. Feldenkrais has made a serious study of Judo, and has attained Black Belt efficiency. In Higher Judo he explains how Judo practice can educate and train a person to become inde- pendent of his heritage. He stresses that size, weight an~ strength are not major concerns to a Judo expert. It is universally' recognized that Judo promotes a sense of balance and self-confidence, and cultivates an ability to overcome brute force and inherited weaknesses, but the reasons for these effects have long been left unexplored. In this book, Dr. Feldenkrais discusses the inter- mingled working of gravitation with the bones, muscles and nerves of the body and explains the relationship between the body and the concious or unconcious mind. The book contains three hundred line draw- ings which serve to illustrate each movement described in the text. ~UDq ", THE ART OF DEF ENCE [I AND ATTACK . fELDENKRAIS W~RNE " ~ __ --'-;""f

S7 ~UDq - Feldenkrais mp3s, Feldenkrais exercises, Feldenkrais · 7~ S7 10 1Cf 1~5 13~ 1~1 In Preparation HIGHER

Oct 28, 2018



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In Preparation


byDr. M. Feldenkrais

This is the first book in a series of threevolumes designed for students who already pos-sess some elementary knowledge of Judo, and whowish to make themselves familiar with the moreadvanced actions.

Dr. Feldenkrais has made a serious studyof Judo, and has attained Black Belt efficiency.In Higher Judo he explains how Judo practicecan educate and train a person to become inde-pendent of his heritage. He stresses that size,weight an~ strength are not major concerns to aJudo expert.

It is universally' recognized that Judopromotes a sense of balance and self-confidence,and cultivates an ability to overcome brute forceand inherited weaknesses, but the reasons forthese effects have long been left unexplored.In this book, Dr. Feldenkrais discusses the inter-mingled working of gravitation with the bones,muscles and nerves of the body and explains therelationship between the body and the conciousor unconcious mind.

The book contains three hundred line draw-ings which serve to illustrate each movementdescribed in the text.






" ~ __ --'-;""f

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, "~J

Here is a textbook on Judo that

will give a sound basic knowledgeof the subject. It covers the whole

field of Judo in the sense that

every kind of technique used is

represented by some outstandingexamples.

The beginner will find that he is

being guided by an experienced

hand and that he is getting clearand reliable information.

The work should also proveinvaluable to more advanced

students and instructors who have

not had the opportunity of learn-ing Judo at its source and will find

here hints, advice and explan-ations they have not been able tofind elsewhere.

/ '>

. -""'I



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In PreparationHIGHER JUDO





V.. ," '


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r-- -



Revised Edition I944Reprinted . I94iReprinted . I950Reprinted . . I95I

A FEWyears ago I proposed to Messrs. FrederickWarne & Company to publish in English oneof my earlier books on Ju-Jitsu, the Frenchedition of which was honoured by an intro-duction by Professor Jigoro Kano. They madethe counter-suggestion that it would be moredesirable to write a book, a complete treatiseon Judo, specially intended to assist the studentto acquire a practical knowledge of this art.The extent of Judo and the difficulty of teach-ing the art by a book are responsible for thefact that even the original language has not acomplete manual on Judo, but many excellentworks treating more or less extensively onparts of it. Professor Kano himself told mewhen I last met him in Paris that he hoped tolive at least until he could compile such a workfor the future generations.

My publishers' suggestion decided ProfessorMikonosuke Kawaishi (fifth Dan) and myselfto materialize the work we planned long ago.

5Printed in Great Britain

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We spent almost two years preparing thephotographs, and had the satisfaction of obtain-ing some illustrations showing both of us inaction which I am not afraid to call unique.

We have covered the entire field of Judo,including counters, combinations, and all theKatas. We have also added the best and mostingenious tricks of ancient Ju-Jitsu; specialattention has been devoted to self-defence tricks

as taught in Dojo and to their application inreal fighting with and without weapons.

The occupation of Paris unfortunatelybrought to an abrupt end our long and in-structive collaboration since I founded theJiu-Jitsu Club de France. Now I have writtenthis first book single-handed. Most of theillustrations, however, are made from photo-graphs where the incomparable skill and graceof Mr. M. Kawaishi are to be seen.

I also wish to express my thanks to Mr.A. F. Stuart for the care he has taken in pre-paring the illustrations from the photographs.
















6 7








." 144




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I HAVEaimed at producing a textbook on Judothat will give a sound basic knowledge of thesubject. It covers the whole field of Judo inthe sense that every kind of technique used isrepresented by some outstanding examples.

The beginner will find that he is beingguided by an experienced hand and that he isgetting clear and reliable information. Thework should also prove invaluable to moreadvanced students and instructors.

Those among the latter who had not theopportunity of learning Judo at its source willfind here hints, advice and explanations theymay have been unable to find elsewhere. Judois an art, and only with a clear understandingof its technique and a true insight into itsprinciples can one attain a higher level andgreater skill.

The novice should not try to master all thedetails of the throws and holds from the verybeginning. The best way at first is to practise


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the tricks in their essentials. Then read theinstructions again, looking for more detailand perfection. The knowledge and skill soacquired will enable one better to appreciatefurther dev.elopments, which might be over-looked or considered superfluous by theinexperienced. This way of proceeding isstrongly recommended, as it will make traininghours interesting right from the start.

Modern Judo has been built up by ProfessorJigoro Kano out of the ancient Ju-Jitsusystems.The essential aim of these was to overwhelm

"the opponent. Judo is planned to make menfit both in body and mind, making use of allthe knowledge of attack and defence accumulatedin nearly twenty centuries by Ju-Jitsu experts,methodically arranged into a single system andbased on a single principle. Judo includesJu-Jitsu and is superior to it in every respect.The word " Ju-Jitsu " itself has been super-seded by "Judo," so that "J u-Jitsu" hasbecome obsolete in Japan, though still usedelsewhere.

The meaning of the words " Ju-Jitsu " and" Judo" emphasizes the explanation I havejust given. The word" Ju- Jitsu " is derivedfrom "J u," meaning "gentle," "soft" or"giving way," "Jitsu" meaning "art," so



that " Ju-Jitsu " means the " gentle art," the"soft art," or " the art of giving way." As" Do" means "principle," "Judo" means" the principle of giving way" or " the prin-ciple of the gentle art." The word " art " isnot conspicuous in " Judo," but it is understood.

Judo is far more than a method of attackand defence, though it is the effectiveness ofJudo as a means of defence that has made itfamous. For Judo is the art of using the bodyin general. It is planned to improve generalwell-being and a sense of rhythm, and developsco-ordination of movement as no other methodor sport can possibly do.

The senses of time and space are so muchbettered by Judo practice that soon everydisciple becomes aware of a certain improve-ment and progress in whatever occupation,hobby or sport he may have followed previously.

Indeed Judo should be considered as a basicculture of the body, much as matriculation isnecessary before starting serious work in anyof the sciences. Young boys and girls pre-pared by a few years' Judo practice will notonly be magnificently equipped for any physicalemergency in life, but will also find themselvespossessing an alert, strong, and well-trainedbody. Judo training will prove to be an


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invaluable preliminary to such artistic pro-fessions as dancing or acting, as well as to anysport or occupation where physical fitness andgrace of movement are essential.

Professor Kano describes Judo as the art ofthe highest or most efficient use of mental aswell as physical energy directed to the accom-plishment of a definite purpose or aim. Onemay wonder why stress is put on the wordmental. The reason is that in Judo the bodyis educated to respond faithfully and materializethe mental image of the desired act. There

. are no aimless,mechanical,unintelligent move-ments in Judo as in gymnastics. There isalways an opponent in front of you and theexercise consists always in using the body tothe accomplishment of a definite purpose or aim.

Here is another point that makes Judopractice absorbingly interesting. It trains thebody into submission to the personality. Theviolinist's fingers are trained to purposefulmovements and are utterly submitted to hiswill. They express his personality when hehas attained complete mastery over them. Sodo the feet to the dancer. So does the whole

body to the Judo expert. To call Judo anart is not to use a far-fetched phraseology.

The constant presence of an opponent gradu-I2


ally develops a special attitude of ever-readinessto meet any emergency. Observation andwatchfulness are trained py the constant atten-tion to the opponent's actions. The powersof judgment and imaginative enterprise arebrought into play when seeking to find theweak point in the opponent's position andcontriving instantly the means of taking im-mediate advantage of it. Judo develops quickdecision and prompt action, without whichno opportunity of attack or defence is of anyavail.

The ever-increasing speed and smoothnessof movement taught in Judo make the bodygraceful, alert and strong. The musculardevelopment resulting from Judo practice isharmonious and physiologically sound. Wedo not, indeed, make use of special arbitrarymovements unless abnormal defaults or under-

developments of particular muscle groups areto be corrected. The body is left alone toadapt itself in a natural way. This and thealmost inexhaustible variety of movementsmake hypertrophy or under-development ofcertain muscular groups impossible.

There is a great deal to say about the fightingspirit (in the best sense of the words) fosteredby Judo. The irascible, quarrelsome character


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is indeed gradually weeded out, and none ismore reluctant to get into a squabble than aJudo expert. He does not make use of hisskill against you for the same reason that youdo not avail yourself of your physical superiorityto a child. But when fighting is unavoidablehe will stick to it with the tenacity of an Irishterrier, ignoring pain, never losing his temper,and certain to win. For constant attention

is paid in Judo, simultaneously with the teach-ing of attack and defence in the most efficientway, to the paramount aim of enabling men

. and women to have perfect control over mindand body.



To learn Judo you need (I) a teacher, (2) acostume, and (3) a mat.

eI) This book was written to enable you tolearn Judo with a friend whom we refer to asan opponent throughout, instead of as a teacher.Judo teachers are not easy to find, and expertssay that spending two years finding a good oneis saving time. This book claims to replacethe good teacher as far as Judo can be learnedwithout personal contact with a master.

(2) We practise Judo in a costume calledJudogi, which is seen in the illustrations ofthis book. The belt is not only a means ofholding together the buttonless jacket, but alsoan indicator of grade according to its colour. 1

Any costume consisting of jacket, trousersand belt is good enough for the purpose oflearning Judo, provided they have no buttons,

1 See page 166, Grades.IS

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no pockets, and are strong enough to standthe hard use to which they will be subjected.It is clear that any costume ample enough notto hinder your movements, with nothing on itto scratch your skin, with sewn-up pockets ifnecessary to prevent eventual twisting of fingers,will provide a sufficient garment to start Judo.Trousers are a precious auxiliary in groundtechnique only.

People are generally clothed, and it is logicalto learn the art of defence in the conditions

which are most likely to occur and to knowhow to take advantage of them. Special notehas been made, however, as to how to tackle anude opponent.

(3) Judo is taught in a special hall calledDojo, the floor of which is covered with aquilted mat made out of assembled Tatamis-a kind of thick rectangular straw carpet.Dojo means Buddhist monastery. This evokesthe idea of immaculate cleanliness, solemnity,respect and seriousness. This association isqueer to people who do not know the standardsof Samurai morale and the background of theirfighting spirit. Judo as well as Kendo (a kindof fencing with double-handed swords) haveto them a moral meaning, to us-just methodsof attack and defence.




For the purpose of practical Judo, however,any mat or flat surface of sufficient softness willdo. Any available material is good if it willhelp you to build up a flat and even surface.The mat is perfect if you can strike it fairlyhard with your elbow or knuckles withoutbeing discouraged from trying again. It shouldbe a square, measuring about 15 feet each way,covered with a one-piece stretched cover. Astretch of lawn soft enough to stand the above-mentioned test is ideal.

17 B

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To learn Judo properly you must study itseriously from the very first lesson. You mustlearn to perform your throws and holds withoutbeing hindered by the thought that youropponent might hurt himself when thrown tothe ground. Moreover, he should not be-if you want him for another lesson. So letus start from the beginning by learning break-falls (Ukemi) and thus make falling a pleasure.This is not a joke; it will not be long beforeyou will be throwing yourself to the groundjust for the pleasure of breaking the fall.




Breakfall Backwards

Lie flat on your back, slightly bending theknees, with the soles of the feet on the ground.Lift your head off the ground and look atyour belt. This position of the head mustbe borne in mind at the beginning so that itbecomes a habit with you; it will spare yourhead from hard contacts with the floor or themat. Now tap the ground with both arms.


You will soon find that this is producing ajerky shake in your head, because you aretapping either with your hands only or with theparts near your elbows. You must tap theground with the palm, and that part of thearm which normally touches your body, asshown in Fig. I. Try it yourself as manytimes as necessary until you get a very loudsmacking sound when striking the ground.When you have mastered it there will be no


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more jerks in the head. This tapping is calledHa-Uchi, from Hane (wing) and Utsu (flap orstrike), as this movement suggests a fowl flapp-ing its wings.

Now sit up with your legs thrown out androll backwards while beating the ground withboth arms as you have learned to do. Trythis as often as necessary until you can do it

without the slightest incon-venience. You must time yourhitting the ground so that it isneither too soon nor too late.Just try again and you will findthe right moment yourself. Assoon as you have mastered thisreally easy exercise get to yourfeet as shown in Fig. 2. Besure to bend your legs as muchFIG.2. .

bl has pOSSl e so as to touc yourheels with your buttocks if you can; thenroll on to your back, tapping forcibly withboth arms as before.

Stand up to your full height, bend to theposition shown in Fig. 2, and roll on yourback, tapping as previously (Fig. 3)' Try afew times to make the three movements succeedeach other smoothly as if they were one.

Note the position of the arms when hitting20


the ground; they ought to form an angle of30° to 45° with the body.Increase this angle to 60°or more if your chest andshoulders are broad andheavy. There should be nouseless extra movements ofthe legs or hips as somebeginners insist upon doing.You will not need this break-fall before the third lesson,but be sure to know it well by that time.



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Breakfall Sideways

You probably noticed that you learned tobreak the fall starting with the lowest position,so that you could not hurt yourself as youmight have done had you let yourself falldirectly from the standing position. The most

delicate woman can learn thisbreakfall without the slightestrisk.

Now that you have learnedcorrect tapping, all the otherbreakfalls are really mattersof detail.

Sit up with your legs thrownout and roll to your right side,tapping the ground with the

FIG.4. right arm only. Try this fivetimes. Repeat the same move-

ment to the left side, tapping with your leftarm.

Squat in a position as in Fig. 4 with theright foot somewhat in front of the left, androll to the right side about five or ten times.Change the position of the feet and repeat thesame to your left side.

Stand up in a normal upright posture, yourfeet slightly apart. Bring your right foot in




front of the left, and allow yourself to fall tothe ground, as in Fig. 5,and tap with your righthand.

In the beginning youshould not actually throwyourself to the ground, butproceed cautiously. Bendyour left knee while movingthe right foot as described,so that the fall is gradual,and learn to tap with thewhole of the arm, the handhitting the ground at the same time as your



body. Fig. 6 shows the correct position ofthe body when it touches the ground.



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Fundamental Position (Shizen-Tai)

In Judo contests there is no restriction as tothe way of gripping your opponent. You maystart attacking even without taking hold ofhim. Nevertheless, there are some positionspreferred to others for instructional purposes,just as in boxing; there the left guard is

usually adopted, but you maytackle the other way if you prefer.

Fig. 7 shows the natural right-hand posture generally used. Gripthe opponent's left collar lapel withyour right hand and with your lefthand grasp his right sleeve justabove the elbow. Closer examina-tion of Fig. 7 will give you moredetails. The body should be carriederect. Do not cross your legs when

moving. In other words, use the foot carry-ing the greater part of the weight of the bodyas the leading foot, and the other (trailing foot)follows in the track of the first without actuallycoming up to it before the next step is made.Good boxers move in the same way. It is asimple movement, but rather difficult to putinto words. It is called in Japanese " tsugi-ashi."





First Leg Throw (O-Soto-Gari)

Starting in the position shown in Fig. 7,take a short step backward withyour left leg, at the same timepulling very gently the oppo-nent's sleeve with your left hand.If you jerk or pull sharply, theopponent will stiffen his bodyand resist. If you pull gentlyand smoothly, just making himfeel the tug of your body mov-ing backwards, he will followyou, putting his right foot for-ward (Fig. 8). Thus you have FIG.8.performed the " fitting movement " (Tsukuri)

for the first leg throw (0-80to-Gari). This throw consists inhooking the opponent's ad-vanced leg with your right legso that the bend of your kneetouches that of the opponent(Fig. 9), and pulling the sleeveyou are holding with your lefthand outwards to your left while

FIG.9. twisting your right hip tQhdpthe movement of your left hand,

pushing and lifting at the same time with your2S

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right hand. The co-ordinate movement ofyour arms and leg is originating from the..!!Vist..of the hi\J. which is essential though over-looked in most books outside Japan. Withoutthis movement, which secures you a betterbalance than that of your opponent, the throwwill be slow and ugly to look at.

Your opponent, when falling, has to releaseyour right sleeve and breakthe fall with his left hand,as shown in Fig. 10. Youhave to release your oppo-nent's left lapel, otherwiseyou will be pulled downto the floor by the fallingweight of his body, but youmust continue holding hisright sleeve with your left

will soon learn the reason for

FIG. 10.

hand. Youthis.

Novices object to releasing the hold on thelapel when falling, suggesting that, clinging totheir hold, they might bring down the opponentwith their falling weight. This may be true,but it is dangerous in practice, as not onlywill he be unable to tap with his left arm, buthe will have to undergo a severe shock againstthe ground doubled by the opponent's weight




over his chest, which in a real contest mightcause injury.

Repeat this throw a dozen times, very slowlyat the beginning and then faster and faster.This does not mean that you have to hurry ;hurry leads to confusion. Real speed isobtained when all the separate movements ofyour limbs are fused into one harmonious,smooth and graceful motion. This is acquiredby repetition of the throw in an impassive moodwith a relaxed mind and body. A relaxed bodydoes not, however, mean keeping your musclesabsolutely loose; it only means that theyshould not be stiffened unnecessarily all thetime. They are stiffened as much as necessaryfor the action (Kake) itself at the very momentit is done. This applies to all you will learnthroughout this book. When you have mas-tered this throw, let your opponent take yourplace while you learn the breakfall. Note alsoKa~ meaning the actual attacking, and Tsukuri,meaning the fitting action for that attack.

Now try the throw on the opponent's leftleg. You start in the same position as before(Fig. 7), gripping the opponent's left lapelwith your right hand and his right sleeve withyour left hand. Take a short step backwardswith your right foot while pulling your opponent


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gently by the lapel to make him advance hisleft leg. Twist your left hip to the right,bringing the bend of your left knee behind thatof the opponent and, pulling with your righthand outwards to your right, assisted by theleft hand which pushes and lifts the opponentby his right arm, you bring him down.

He must release his hold with his right handand use it to break his fall while you releasethe hold of your left hand so as not to be pulleddown by the impetus of his falling weight, butmaintain, this time, your hold on his lapel.Again let the opponent try the throw whileyou learn the breakfall to the right.

Beginners are inclined, when attacked ontheir left side, to release their grip on theopponent's sleeve and to put their hand onthe ground. Care must be taken not to releasethis grip and put your left hand on the ground,because you may twist your wrist. Whenattacked, just let go of the lapel and tap withyour right hand on the mat, your left handclinging to the opponent's sleeve.

Be sure not to kick the opponent's leg whenhooking it. You must not kick when practisingJudo. We kick and hurt the opponent onlyin real defence, using Atemi. Some instructorsuse the Kekayahi form of this throw and insist




on giving a sharp kick backwards. This ismixing obsolete forms of Ju-JitslJ with Judo.You must upset the opponent's balance beforeusing Kake; the kick is thus unnecessary. Ifyou rely on the kick for upsetting his balance,you will not only be disappointed, but maybreak his leg or twist his knee, a result whichcan be obtained without learning Judo. Judomeans mastering your opponent by your ownperfect self-control.



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First Hip Throw (Uki-Goshi)

Grip your opponent's leftlapel with your right hand,and his right sleeve aboveand behind his elbow withyour left hand. Pull gentlywith your right hand. Hewill advance his left leg. Putyour left great toe in frontof his (Fig. II), let go ofthe lapel and slip your right

FIG. II. arm under his left armpitaround his waist. Pivot to

the left on your left toes so as to bring yourright hip underneath the oppo-nent's stomach, your knees beingslightly bent. Make sure yourright foot is not too far fromyour left foot (Fig. 12).

Press the opponent's waistagainst yourself with your righthand on his right haunch andjust straighten your knees, twist-ing your shoulders and headwell to the left (Fig. 12) andpulling his sleeve with your lefthand. Your opponent is lifted FIG.12.



off the ground and tilted over your righthip as shown in Fig. 13 andthrown to the floor as inFig. 14.

Note the position of the feetin Fig. 12. Your right footshould always be within thatof the opponent, never on theoutside of it, a common faultwith novices. Putting yourright foot too far to the rightlessens the lifting power ofyour hips and impairs yourbalance once the opponent isoff the ground. Fig. 15 showsthe respective areas within

which the left and rightfeet should be placed.

Try ten lifts on your

opponent, just get-ting him off the

throwing, let him down31

FIG. 14.

ground and, without


FIG. 13.



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on to his feet again. Change positions andgive him a chance.

Now repeat the same thing, actually throwingyour opponent. Remember to turn yourshoulders and your head well to the left, asshown in Fig. 12, and lift your opponentsolely by straightening your legs, not byleaning forward, as you may have the intentionof doing. When you feel your opponent tiltedover your hip, loosen your right arm and lethim break his fall, tapping hard with his leftarm.

. Again change positions and learn to breakthe fall in your turn. Ten repetitions are therule-the more the better. Be sure to taphard to prevent your loins from hitting theground too roughly.

This throw should not be associated with

the wrestler's hip throw, as it might be atfirst glance. The wrestler throws his armround his opponent's waist much as we do,but leans forward and uses his weight andrush to throw him. In Judo you must liftyour opponent by straightening your legs only,and only a little physical exertion is necessaryto lift even a very heavy opponent. Any girlwill learn, in one or two lessons under experttuition, to lift and throw a man of 15 to 17


- ,


stones or more. The straightening of onlyslightly bent 1 knees is, in this case, the mostefficient use of your strength.

1 The reason for only slightly bending the knees is givenby the following algebraical equation:

Let P = lifting power of the hips when straighteningthe knees (see Fig. 16).

F = a force which applied at each knee would pro-duce the same effect as the complicatedmuscular effort of the leg. (F shown ondiagram (Fig. 16) as resulting from differentforces, fl and f2.

FIG. 16.

h = the difference of level of the point of applica-tion of P before and after straightening theknees, i.e. the distance along which P worksduring the movement.

d = the distance along which F works during thesame movement.

Work is measured by the product of the force and the33 c

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distance along which the force works. Thus the valuesof work of the forces P and F are respectively Ph and Fd.

As there are two knees the law of conservation of workis consequently

Ph = 2Fd Hence:d

P =2x-xFh

When the knees are slightly bent d is, as can roughlybe deduced from the diagram, about six or seven timesgreater than h. That is to say a force of only 1 stoneapplied to the knee, which is within the scope of a childI2 years old, will be lifting

P = 2 X ~ X 1 = 14 stones it /1, ~If the knees are bent too far h increases more rapidly

than d, so that the ratio ~ decreases while one continuesbending the knees to become equal to 1 when the kneesare at right angles, where you will need 1 stone at F tolift only 1 stone at P. Hence the remark about onlyslightly bending the knees.


First Immobilization Hold (Kessa-Gatame)

You will remember that when throwing youropponent, you have been advised to maintainthe grip of one of your hands on the opponent'ssleeve, with your left hand when you werethrowing him to your left (see Figs. 10 and 14)and on his lapel, with your right hand whenhe was thrown to your right. One reason whywe do so follows; others will become apparentin due course.

FIG. 17.


Throw your opponent to your left by thefirst leg throw. Should the throw be clearenough, you have secured a point in the contest.You may then break off and start again. Ifnot, you may continue attacking, trying toimmobilize, or hold down, your opponent.You have a fine chance if you are still grippingthe sleeve as you should be. Kneel down onyour right knee while throwing your right armround your adversary's neck (Fig. 17) and,


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supporting your body on your left foot andright hand (or forearm), put your right leg inthe position shown in Fig. 18. Turn yourhead to the left, away from the opponent, andtuck your chin into your chest, lowering yourhead as far as you can.

Notice how the opponent's right arm ischecked and prevented from being of any use

to him. This holdis secured whilekneeling downwhen, withoutslackening you rgrip on theopponent's rightsleeve, just aboveand behind hiselbow, you bringhis wrist under

your armpit. Push his elbow upwards withyour clenched hand and press your forearmagainst your body. Note also the grip of theright hand on the opponent's jacket.

Let your opponent lie flat on the ground,secure the hold as described, and let him try

to get out by any means without, of course,touching your face. He may push your throatwith his hands or forearm if he can. Now let


FIG. 18.



your opponent hold you down and try in yourturn to get out. You will find it verydifficult, though your opponent's hold is surelynot without faults. Anyhow, you will learnmore about this hold in our next lesson, inwhich you will find answers to the questionsyou may be wanting to ask after your firsttrial. Start anew three times and let youropponent do the same.

Should you have followed the instructionscarefully you must be fairly tired by now.Have a hot shower if possible. If only a coldone is available, do not stay under it too long.Cold showers after great physical efforts areharmful, although this practice is encouragedand indulged in by many athletes. Workproduces heat in the human body as in anyother machine. This heat has to be dissipated.Perspiration is actually carrying it away, to-gether with part of the products of the burntfuel of the human motor. A hot shower will

open the pores of the skin, dilate all vesselsand promote the cleansing of the body byeasier perspiration. You feel relaxed and com-fortable in a few minutes.

A cold shower produces a constriction of allvessels and pores and perspiration is stopped.It is true it braces you up as any stimulant


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will, but your muscles stiffen and the elimin-ation of the toxins will be done by your lungsand kidneys, so the harm is not apparent.Still, you stop Nature doing its work in theway it has chosen. Give a fair trial to a hotshower after hard strain and you will certainlylike it.

A last word. The day after your first lessonyou may feel stiff all over your body, especiallyat the neck. It is usual to feel so; even well-trained athletes have stiff muscles when theytake up Judo. A day's rest may be advisableafter the first lesson.





AN accomplished Judo exponent generally com-mences any serious practice with fifty breakfalls.For our second lesson, however, we need onlystart off with thirty-ten falling backwards,and ten each falling to the right and left sides.The other twenty, which we are about to learn,are ten breakfalls rolling forward over the leftshoulder and ten over the right. Until wehave mastered these forward rolls we shallcontent ourselves with practising the threebreakfalls we know.


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well, but use your forearm instead. Strangledwith the left, put your right hand against theelbow joint of the strangling arm, your lefthand over your right, and, with a fair effort ofboth arms and loins, ~lip your right elbow tothe ground in such a position as to make thewhole stress of the opponent's elbow bear as acontinual compression on the bones of yourright forearm. Use the strength of your arms

FIG. 36.

to keep balance only. As soon as you feelyour opponent hesitating, strain your neck andarms and bring his elbow over your head toyour left, while your head meets the movementmoving to the right.

Repeat the hold five times each side, resistingas described, but tapping immediately you feelyou ought not to resist further.

. This is a most interesting trick and of vitalimportance in the art of self-defence. If youdo not feel stiff after the last lesson, repeat the




first immobilizing hold until tired, and thenhave a hot shower.

You will be ready for another lesson the dayafter to-morrow.


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Third Leg Throw (Hiza-Guruma)

From the recognized starting position pullgently the opponent's sleeve with your lefthand while stepping slightly backwards withyour left leg. The opponent advances hisright foot and throws his weight on to his leftleg for the next step. At thismoment press your right saleagainst the outside of his leftleg somewhat under his knee,pulling hard on the left lapel(Fig. 37). Being unable tosupport his balance since hisleft leg is prevented fromadvancing, he stumbles andfalls to your right side on theground.

Note how near your left foot to the opponent's right footand that it is placed somewhat to the rightof it.

Failure to accomplish this throw is often dueto the fact that novices push their opponent'sleg in front instead of pressing it on the outsideof the fibula. Another common fault is usingthe inner border of the foot instead of the

actual sole as shown in Fig. 37.63



Do the usual number of breakfalls, fifty alto-gether, with twenty rolls over the right shoulderand none over the left, until the right sidebreakfall is good enough. Some people learnit easily, in one lesson sometimes; others willrequire many lessons before the roll is performedwith a smooth and graceful motion.

You have learned two leg throws, attackingthe opponent's advanced ankle. Here is athird one.


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Try the throw ten times and then repeat iton the opponent's right leg. Then attack hisleft leg again, paying more attention to theauxiliary lifting motion of the left hand. Notethe well-balanced position of the assailant, theway he carries his body, the posture of hipsand shoulders. His left knee is very slightlybent, trunk leaning backwards, allowing for thelong reach of the opponent's right foot.

There are other forms of Hiza-Guruma.



Some hints on the First Immobilizing Hold(Kessa-Gatame)

Throw your opponent by De-Ashi-Barai, thesecond leg throw, and secure the first immobiliz-ing hold you have already learnt. Do yourealize why we assume such a position, insteadof kneeling on the opponent's chest, or sittingon it in the way women mount horseback, orsimply lying over his body? The man secur-ing the hold obviously does not use the wholeof his weight to bear on his opponent, and thisseems to be illogical when he should be tryinghis best to hold the other down. The explana-tion is that by using any of those " natural "ways of tackling an opponent on the groundyou cannot hold down a man stronger andheavier than yourself, while Kessa-Gatame per-mits of holding down an opponent you couldnot hold in any other way. Let us examineclosely Fig. 18 and see how it works.

Your opponent may try to get up from arecumbent position on his back in any of thefollowing ways :

( I) By putting his left hand on the groundto support the body while sitting up. This iseasily checked by stiffening your left leg withits sole on the ground far behind and pressing

6S B

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JU.D 0

the opponent's shoulder to the ground withyour chest. The leverage is so much in yourfavour that there can be no question of hissitting up this way.

(2) By pressing his left hand against yourback and powerfully lifting his hips, with hissoles placed on the ground so as to throw youto the right corner over his shoulder. Again,your right leg being stretched out forward andyour trunk leaning slightly backwards (at thesame time keeping tight hold with your arms),you create a leverage sufficient to discourageany further attempt on his part.

The leverage created by your leg in eithercase places your opponent in the position of aman wanting to jump with a pole far too long.No matter how strong his legs may be hecannot leave the ground holding at one end apole 30 feet long while the other end is thrustfar ahead into the ground.

(3) By grabbing your belt or the upper rimof your trousers at your left haunch and witha powerful effort of the hips and pull of hisleft hand, making you roll over his chest on tohis left or left corner over shoulder.

It is in order to make this movement difficult

that we do not put the entire weight of the bodyon the opponent's chest. Any man of average



strength can roll and push over to his left alog of wood of fifteen stones placed on hischest, but he cannot turn and lift you from theground while the greater part of your weightis away from his axis of rotation. Just moveyour loins away from his chest, stretching theleft leg, and the momentum necessary to moveyou is far beyond the power of any man, except.perhaps of an exceptionally strong and experi-enced wrestler, in which case we have othermeans to check him, as we shall soon see.

(4) He may try to slip out his right arm,turning to his right and tugginghis right shoulder.Press your left elbow against your body, yourleft hand tightly holding his sleeve behindthe elbow, exactly in the position shown inFig. 18; no man is able to overcome the gripthus created around the imprisoned arm andslip it out. -If necessary lower your head andbring your right thigh under the opponent'selbow, as a wedge, to prevent him from turningto the right.

A free body, a ball for instance, can movein six different directions, i.e., forwards, back-wards, to the right, to the left, upwards anddownwards. A man standing on his feet orsitting on a chair cannot move downwards;and when lying on his back there are only four


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directions left, as motion upwards can hardlybe taken into consideration.

We have thus exhaustively examined thefour possible main movements and the meansto check them.

Secure the hold and let your opponent trythe four movements in succession. You willfind no difficulty in holding him down at yourconvenience. Now let him try to get free by.any means he likes. If you stiffen your body,a much stronger opponent may, by wriggling,tugging and pushing, occasionally break yourbalance, also you will be wasting energy andtiring yourself needlessly. Just be ready todefend as best you can the point where thecounter will be launched, and, with the bodyand mind relaxed, be ready to move and assumethe appropriate positions. As in modern war-fare, to beat an opponent stronger than yourselfyou must have confidence in your own greaterskill and mobility.


Second Immobilizing Hold (Kata-Gatame)

The first immobilizing hold is used byexperts just to e~able them to secure the secondor other holds. They will maintain the positionfirst held for thirty seconds and will be contentwith this only if they cannot do better. InJudo, according to the efficiency principle, youmust not waste time, and the second immobiliz-

FIG. 38.


ing hold will, in most cases, help you to win'in a fraction of a second. Another advantageis that it can be used against a nude opponent.

Discreetly allow your opponent to free hisright hand. He will soon be pushing yourchin with it. Push his elbow (Fig. 38) and,suddenly withdrawing your head, bring hisarm over your right shoulder. Lower yourhead at once (Fig. 39) so as to prevent himmoving back his arm. Hook your hands


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with the knuckles of the right hand upwards,the hard and narrow edge of the radius at yourright wrist is thus pressed against the opponent'snape at a point where it bears on the cervicalnerve, an unbearable position which bringshim to immediate submission.

Now try again, pushing histilting your chin backwards' to

elbow andavoid any


exactly as shown in Fig. 40. Twist your leftshoulder backwards, pulling your right handhard with the left, your head pushing that ofthe opponent.


Space will not permit us to give the reasonsfor' every detail as we should like, but if youstudy the figures closely, and carefully imitatethe postures of the combatants, you will find

FIG. 41,

FIG. 40.

actual contact with his hand. The movement

gains in smoothness and promptitude in thisway.

See that your head is lowered sufficiently.If this is neglected the opponent may be ableto show some resistance, pushing his elbowagainst your neck. If this happens, it is toodifficult to correct the position of your head,so twist your hips to bring your legs into theposition shown in Fig. 41, and press your head


them by experience. Great care has indeedbeen taken to reproduce every essential detailin the figures and close imitation will perfectyour study.

Clasp your hands as shown in Fig. 40, and,70

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against your opponent's right temple. Pullwith your left hand and he will tap at once.

Another way to gain a rapid victory, startingfrom the first immobilizing hold, is describedin the following paragraph.


\\ Fb::st Head LockI


Lift up your head, so that your opponentwill be sure to push your chin with his freeleft hand or forearm, touching the face beingexcluded in Judo practice. This is what youwant him to do. Clasp your hands exactly asshown in Fig. 42, press his chest, leaning yourshoulders towards his left groin, and lift hishead from the ground. The extension of thevertebrre of the neck forces him into submission.Note the well-balanced position of the legs.Giving way to your opponent's pushing move-ment, the harder he pushes your chin theharder his head is pulled into the bent position.You are doing Judo-using the opponent'sstrength against himself. In actual fighting, orin a serious bout, you can bend your arms soas to press the right shoulder over the opponent'snose and mouth to block them and stop hisbreathing.

Blocking the air passages should follow andnot precede the pressing on the chest and thebending of the opponent's head, as this lattermovement induces complete expiration and aman cannot continue in this state for morethan a few seconds without inhaling, althoughhe may be able to stop breathing for a minute


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Third Hip Throw (Koshi-Guruma)

The third hip throw is in principle a refine-ment of the second (Kube-Nage), which canbe best secured, as you already know, whenthe opponent is .made to advance. Koshi-Guruma can be used in the same way, andalso when the opponent is turning, advancingor retiring.

Gripping the opponent'sleft lapel and right sleevewith your right and left handsrespectively, move slightly toyour right, trying the secondleg throw (De-Ashi-Barai') onhis left ankle. Let him elude

your right foot while you con-tinue moving to your right.The opponent is naturallyleaning forward to facilitatethe lifting of his left foot and bringing itover your attacking leg. At the very momenthe is turning to his left to face you, his leftfoot touching the ground, turn on your lefttoes placed far to your right (Fig. 43) and bringyour right leg in front of that of the opponent.

Your left toes, moving to your right, shouldbe placed as far as possible to the opponent's



or so, provided he already has air in his lungs.This detail is more of an auxiliary against apowerful man, very much stronger than your-self. In most cases, if your right hand ismoved high up on his nape, as near as possibleto the occiput, as shown in Fig. 42, the painat the neck is absolutely unbearable.


FIG. 42.

You must make sure not to jerk the oppon-ent's head, as by doing so you might sprain hisneck and seriously injure him.

These last two holds can be used in actual

fighting as well as in Randori or in competi-tions.




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left on a straight line running through hisgreat toes. Bend your leftknee while turning and lean(Fig. 44) well to your left sothat you can straighten yourright leg (with little weighton the foot) and hip as muchas shown in the figure.

Continue twisting yourbody to the left (Fig. 45),pulling the gripped sleev~and, assisted by the right

hand, bring the opponent on to the mat (Fig.46). Try again, exercising the turning on the

FIG. 44.

FIG. 45.


your different movements are made into asingle smooth and swift motion. You willsoon obtain a sharp and clear fall to thedelight of both of you. And, of course, letthe opponent take your place.

As the name indicates, Koshi-waist, Guruma-wheel, the opponent should be made to rollover the lower part of your waist or hips, asshown in Fig. 45.

Note the position of your right leg across theopponent's legs as well as the position of yourloins. Your right leg must be touching bothyour opponent's legs. Your weight is almostcompletely supported by your left leg, with thetoes well turned to the left. Examine theillustrations very closely for the position ofthe hands.

Ten minutes' Randori will now help you topractise all the movements you have learned.Remember that your opponent in Randori isthere to help you to perfect your Judo byimproving his own. Try to beat him by skilland not by strength. Observe that when yousucceed in a fine throw, having" struck" atthe right moment, and ,.,kilfully,your opponentappreciates it almost as much as you do your-self. But if your success is due only to yoursuperior bulk and power, he will stiffen his


FIG. 46.

left toes, the opponent standing motionless withhis left foot advanced. Try a dozen times till


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body and mind, and your Randori will degen-erate into a personal squabble. That is notJudo.

Because size and natural power cannotbe acquired, people who lack them may notenjoy sport which depends upon strength onlyand not skill, but in Judo skill, correct timing,and good position are within the reach of every-body, provided one cares to give the necessarytime and application to acquire that knowledge.



YOUR breakfalls should now be quite satis-factory, provided you have followed my adviceand have been doing fifty of them at the be-ginning of each lesson. If your breakfall for-ward over the right shoulder is smooth enough,transfer the movement to your left.

In the three leg throws you have learned wefound the opponent moving forward very muchas in an ordinary walk. We watched himadvance one of his legs, then we "fitted"(Tsukuri) his balance and performed the" attack" (Kake), which consists always ofpulling the opponent appropriately with thehands, one leg sweeping or pressing in theleg direction opposite to the hands. All threethrows, O-Soto-Gari, De-Ashi-Barai, and Hiza-Guruma, may apparently be applied to theopponent, moving straight backwards. So faras the position of the legs is concerned, anadvanced foot after every step backwards willdo just as much, but a greater muscular effort


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Fallin~ Forward (Chugairi)

Put your right foot well forward and yourhands near to it as shown in Fig. 19, and before

FIG. 19.

trying to roll over, make sure that your rightknee ~s outside the right elbow,which is slightly bent and turnedslightly ahead in the directionyou are going to roll. Makesure, also, not to put your headbetween your arms. Pay atten-tion to these details in order tomake the fall a smooth roll overthe right elbow and shoulder(Fig. 20), which movement willgently guide your body in a curveto the ground. If you keep yourhead exactly as shown in Fig. 20

it will not touch the ground. Now roll overas shown in Fig. 21, tapping with the left


FIG. 20.



hand at the moment your body is assuming aposition as shown in Fig. 22. Practise this adozen times, being careful notto turn your hips to the right, acommon fault with beginners,as the full weight of the bodywould then fall on the rightbuttock, and the resulting break-fall would be clumsy and quitedifferent from the rolling break-fall you are learning to do.

You should generally use theimpetus of the rolling body inorder to get to your feet with-out effort. Bend your left legas shown in Fig. 22, leaving the left kneepinned to the ground, and your tapping will

FIG. 21.

FIG. 22.

help you to attain an upright position. Fig.23 shows the end of the movement.


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Observe the straight line of the body at thehips; this is the secret of the graceful falls

made by Japanese instructors.Bending the body at thispoint makes the roll ugly andclumsy.

Repeat falling over the rightshoulder twenty times. Thisbreakfall takes some time tolearn, but as you will not needit yet awhile, you can, inthe meantime, practise itthoroughly, so that when it isneeded you are ready to

make use of it. Do not try the breakfall tothe left until you have mastered the fall to theright.

FIG. 23.




Randori means free exercise. The two oppo-nents try to improve their skill in throwing,choking, and holding down, in other wordsforcing each other to a state where submissionis the only possible alternative. They may useany trick they like provided they neither kick,touch the opponent's face, nor twist fingersand toes.

The object of Randori is not necessarily tobeat the opponent, but to acquire skill andexperience in Judo. It should not be a questionof who wins so much as how it is won. With

your mind untroubled as to whether you arewinning or losing, with your body relaxed,your movement smooth, you will soon findyourself attempting throws, holds and locksyou would not otherwise think of using,through lack of experience. This is, therefore,the main object of Randori-you may not atany given moment be mastering your opponent,but you will be storing for the future theexperience you cannot do without.

Randori is practised from the very outsetbetween master and student, but of coursefree practice between beginners is not advisablewithout some knowledge of what to do. Here


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are a few suggestions, but first learn to bow.Fig. 24 shows the way we do so. You must


Five-Minute Randori

Start from the fundamental position. Pullthe opponent's sleeve and attack by the firstleg throw (O-Soto-Gari). Let the opponentescape the throw by lifting his right foot offthe ground and stepping back over your attack-ing right leg. By doing so he has his left footadvanced. This is an opening for the firsthip throw (Uki-Goshi). Throw him by this.Repeat the two movements ten times and thenlet your opponent do the attacking.

Now start by pulling on your opponent'sleft lapel. Attack by O-Soto-Gari with yourleft leg. He should escape by stepping back-wards with his left leg over your hooking leg.His right foot is advanced; attack by the firstleg throw on this leg. He escapes. Go backto the hip throw. Repeat ten times.

Repeat the same and follow your opponenton the ground, securing Kessa-Gatame, the firsthold-down. If your opponent can free him-self from the hold, let him at once secure thesame hold on you. Three repetitions will do.

FIG. 24.

bow before and after Randori, also beforestarting a bout and to finish it.

44 45

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Second Leg Throw (De-Ashi-Barai)

From the fundamental posture, pull youropponent's right sleeve to make him advancehis right foot (Fig. 25), stepping backwardswith yours. You have probably realized that

in the first leg throw youwere standing mostly on yourleft foot and you could hookwith your right leg. Thesecond leg throw enables youto attack an advanced rightleg when it happens to findyou supporting your bodymostly by the right leg (Fig.25), without bringing yourweight on to the other leg.

F (While being engaged in thisIG. 25.

. last operation your opponentwill have already stepped forward with hisother foot.)

Hook with your left sole the opponent'sright ankle from behind, push 1 it in the

1" Pull" would be the right word. The Judo expertuses his feet almost as hands. Here he is pulling theopponent's ankle towards himself. European people can-not use their feet so nimbly at the beginning and they" push" the opponent's ankle in the direction of his toes.





direction of his toes and with your body lean-ing backwards pull on his sleeve as shown inFig. 26. Your right handlifts and pushes equally toyour left and helps to upsetyour opponent's balance. Caremust be taken to follow theopponent's ankle with thehooking sole after it is sweptoff the ground until his balanceis actually broken.

Note the position of thelegs in Fig. 25. When step-ping backwards with yourright foot you should en-deavour to put it on the ground so that it is

FIG. 26.

FIG. 27.

more or less on a straight line runningthrough it and your opponent's feet. The


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movement of your hands is producing aforce acting in the opposite direction fromthat produced by the sole of your foot. Inall leg throws the opponent is forced to swinground much as a log of wood pulled by a ropeat each end would be (see Fig. 28).

The log is naturally lifted from the ground,so should your opponent be. Of course, youcannot obtain such a good result at the begin-ning; only experts in Judo can produce such

FIG. 28.

a clear stroke by the perfect and simultaneousmovement of legs and arms. Now continue,repeating the movement ten times, and afteryour opponent has done the same, practisethis second leg or ankle throw (De-Ashi-Barai')on the left leg.

Be sure to touch (not kick) your opponent'sankle only with the sole of your foot. Novicesgenerally kick, and with the inner border of thefoot, which is painful to both of them, andmoreover reduces the force of the movement




considerably. A second point to bear in mindis the direction of the pull on the sleeve andthe action of the right hand. Again novicesgenerally push down instead of pulling thesleeve. The right hand helps the left but liftssomewhat, while urging to your left.

You should be able, by this time, having gotthe idea of the movement, to reverse thesemovements to the left leg-easier to do inpractice than to describe.

Now try De-Ashi-Barai" again on your oppo-nent's right ankle. Step slightly sideways toyour left when pulling your opponent's sleeve,so that you can hook his advanced right anklebefore it is placed; not too soon, but at thevery moment the opponent moves his weight on toit. This needs practice and attention, but itis great sport once you have mastered it. Thethrow is as clean as a slip on a banana-skin,or a fall when skating. This is Judo; youare exerting no great strength with your arms,but are using your body and mind efficiently.

Ten trials, please, before resuming your read-ing; then twenty more and the same numbernext time. I am sure you will not find thesetrials as tedious as they sound here. Again tryit on the other foot, then improve your break-fall while your opponent learns the throw.

49 D

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ward in the same direction as that of your

opponent.Stiffen your right hip and

leg, continue turning to the left,and emphasizing this movementwith your arm around youropponent's neck (Fig. 32), bringhim over your right thigh andto the ground.

Pay attention to the positionof th~ right hip at the actualthrow (Kake). The hip is nowunder your opponent's stomach as it was inthe first hip throw. There is a perfectly

straight line run n i n gthrough the right greattoe, knee, hip, shoulderand head of the attacker.

Fig. 33 explains theI e a din g ide a of thisthrow . Your right legis forming an obstacleover which the opponentis urged to stumble,due to the action ofturning your body, to

which his head is firmly held by your arm.This is why the right calf is brought under



Second Hip Throw (Kube-Ntlge)

Pull your opponent more gently by his lapelthan by his sleeve, retiring first with yourright leg (he will advance his left leg, Fig. 29),then step back with your left leg far behindyour right foot, half turning your body to theleft (Fig. 30). Accentuate your pull on the


FIG. 29.




@ ;~

FIG. 30. FIG. 31.

sleeve so as to bring the whole of the opponent'sweight on to his right foot (Fig. 30) while youcomplete turning your body and thrusting yourright leg in front of your opponent's (Fig. 3I).In the meantime, letting go of the lapel, throwyour right arm round your opponent's neck,the crook of your elbow on the nape of hisneck. As you may have noticed, your leftfoot has turned either on the toes or heel as

much as is necessary to have it pointing for-50



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your opponent's right knee as low as possible,so that when your leg is straightened youropponent's leg is lifted from the ground. Asthis is the leg on which he is standing, the fallis very neat. Closer examination of this figurewill give you an insight into the technique.

Try ten throws without worrying too muchabout the lifting action of your right leg. Justbe sure that your right foot is well apart fromyour left, and that your right hip and leg areas straight as possible, and bring your opponentto the ground by spinning your shoulders tothe-left. By and by you will be able to bringinto action finer movement and improvedtechnique. Note the position of the right footplaced on tiptoe.

Give your opponent a chance to learn hissecond hip-throw (Kube-Nage).



The Art of Strangling (Shime-Waza)

Judo is the only sport employing strangle-holds. This may sound brutal to the Europeanear, but I can tell from my own experience thatyou will not think so after a few weeks' practice.Attacking the throat is one of the most commonmethods of fighting in the animal world. Youcannot possibly leave out this way of Naturein an all-round science of attack and defencesuch as Judo. You are probably ticklish inthe region of the throat and perhaps you canvery easily be brought to submission by anyJudoka (Judo exponent) within a second ortwo, although you may be of considerablephysical strength. Within a few weeks, afterthe necessary training, you will be able toresist any attack on your throat, apart, of course,from that of a Judo expert proficient in strangle-holds.

Besides stopping breathing, temporarily orfinally, by squeezing the throat from without,we use other and more efficient methods of

attacking the neck. Any man can withholdbreathing for many seconds without the slightestinconvenience, so it is not lack of air that willbring submission within a fraction of a second,as will result from a correct strangle-hold. We


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shall explain the mechanism of each action aswe come to it.

There are three acutely sensitive points onthe neck where pressure produces a strongchoking effect. Let your opponent lie downon his back. Mount astride his waist, restingon one knee, with the sole of the other foot onthe ground. Press your index finger againstthe point immediately beneath the projectionof the thyroid cartilage of the larynx, ordinarilycalled" Adam's apple"; a spasmodic coughwill at once follow.

Now press your right index finger againstthe hollow formed by the left angle of theopponent's lower jaw and the big muscle run-ning from the sternum (chest bone) in thedirection of the left ear, the sterno-cleido-mastoideus, which will become apparent ifyour opponent turns his head to his right andtries to tilt it up from the ground. You arecompressing a whole bunch of vessels andnerves of vital importance: the jugular vein,the nervus vagus (pneumogastric nerve), thecommon carotid artery and the sympathetictrunk. There is also a corresponding point onthe right side of the neck.

The compression of the carotid artery stopsblood circulating to the brain; that of the




sympathetic trunk and vagus causes spasmodiccontraction of the heart, lungs and diaphragm.We cannot discuss processes beyond the scopeof this book, but a tight strangle-hold appliedto this point in the neck will make your opponentunconscious before he is aware that he is faint-ing. You must be ready to slacken your holdas soon as the opponent taps in submission.

In a few lessons your opponent will learn toknow the extent to which he can resist the holdand when to tap in time. In due course yourneck will become stronger and you will be ableto stand for a very long time holds which wouldhave killed you at the beginning.

A further strangle-hold, described below,maintained tightly for a second or so, willinduce a state of apparent death due to theshock on the sympathetic trunk and vagus.However brutal this may sound, there is noreal danger if a black-belt Judo expert knowingKatsou is present, as the patient can be restoredto consciousness as easily as he was renderedunconscious. But you will find yourself in anembarrassing situation in the Judo expert'sabsence, so be careful.

I used to be sceptical about Katsou myself.When I first applied it I was almost sure itwould not work, but experience showed me I


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was wrong. Not only is the patient readilyrestored to consciousness, but he does not feelthe slightest inconvenience afterwards, resum-ing Randori practice as if nothing had happened.In fact, he may pretend it was an agreeablefeeling to lose consciousness in this way; pain-lessly as one falls into a dream. If restorationto consciousness is due to medical intervention,headache the next day is the general rule.Katsou treatment leaves no trace whatever.


First Strangle-hold (Kata-Juji-Jime)

With your opponent recumbent on his back,you mount astride his waist, resting on your

FIG. 34.

left knee, the right sole on the ground, 1 asshown in Fig. 34. Slide your left hand under-


1 This position should be preferred to that often recom-mended, where you are advised to put both knees on theground and squeeze your opponent's waist with them, aposture in which your opponent naturally tries to throwyou off to the right or to the left by sharply twisting hisloins. You cannot do very much to keep your balance,because if he tries a series of jerky twists ending with apowerful one on that side where he feels your balancewill be most easily broken, he may probably succeed inupsetting you. The position, however, is not undesirablein general and is often used as a means of bringing theopponent between one's legs in order to secure a strongkidney-squeezing (scissor) hold? which will be dealt with


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your opponent's windpipe, as your aim is tocompel him to admit defeat, not to inflicttemporary or permanent injury. Graduallyincrease your pressure, pushing your elbowagainst his head until he taps on yourbody, when your action must cease immedi-ately. In fact, you must be expecting sub-mission and stop as soon as you feel he istapping.

Try three times, then let your opponent try.Repeat the same, substituting left for right andvice-versa.

The mechanical action of this hold is analogousto that of a strap brake on a wheel. Hence theimportance of pulling tightly on the right lapelwith your right hand so that the " strap " willnot slip round the neck. To increase pressureon the throat, the contact surface of yourforearm must be as reduced as possible. Theulnar border must then be used as it is narrow.Experts twist the fist so as to project the endof the ulna against the opponent's throat,increasing pressure to the maximum available,

'as shown in Fig. 36.To resist this strangle-hold you must prevent

or at least check the elbow of the stranglingarm from lowering down. A piece of woodpushed underneath the elbow would do very



neath your opponent's chin to secure a firmhold on the left side of his collar with yourthumb inside the collar, as near as possible tohis nape. Take hold of the right lapel, thrust-ing your right hand under it, palm upwards.

FIG. 35.

Gradually stiffen your left wrist and push itagainst your opponent's throat while pullingtightly with your right hand. Fig. 35 showshow to use the weight of your body to increasethe pressure of your left wrist. Be sure not touse all your strength at once in case you break

in due course. But it is a failure for securing the firststrangle-hold. While having one foot on the ground,your opponent cannot possibly turn you over on that sideand wiII naturally push you to the other. Being warned,you wiII easily keep your balance. Another reason whywe prefer this position is that it enables you to take thearm back in case the opponent shows too much resistanceto the strangle-hold.

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will be needed to obtain a fall, as you will thenhave to overcome the impetus or momentum ofyour opponent's body moving backwards beforeyour " pulling" produces its effect.

In the first case, when moving backwards,your pulling effort is added to that of theopp~nent moving forward on his own behalf.The opponent is actually providing all theenergy necessary to move his body while youprovide just the extra effort required to makehim move a little more than he originallyintended. In the other case, however, youwill have to stop his body moving backwardand then urge it forward, which means pro-viding a greater effort than the opponent.

As Judo teaches the most efficient way ofusing the body and mind, the difference be-tween the two cases is too great to be neglected,so that though you may be able to throw youropponent in a particular case by one of thesethrows while he is moving backward, youshould not get into the habit of attacking inthis way. Your skill will betray you whenyou will most need it-I mean when dealingwith an opponent physically much strongerthan yourself. Acting against his movementyou may have to attempt an effort beyond yourpower-you had better keep to Judo.



There is, of course, the intermediate case-the opponent is attacked when he is motionless.This may be practised. It is probable thatas a novice you were actually doing so. Allnovices stop the opponent when carrying outthe Kake. That is the reason of the failure to

produce the throw as soon as the opponentstiffens his body to resist.

Only practice will help you to realize thereal meaning of the above statements. As yourmovement becomes more natural, smooth andfluent, you will be surprised to find th~ opponentevery now and then thrown as by a spell, as ifhe obeyed your will and not your effort. Thisis Judo. You are an expert if you can repro-duce such throws whenever you wish.

Just try a few minutes' Randori and now seewhat you can do after what we have said.

Perhaps the trial was not a great success,although it may have been an improvement.Do not worry about that. Skill is not acquiredby merely understanding the technique. Youcannot play the piano by reading about it.Only from practice and exercise do you obtainreal skill, and the teacher's part is to make thatpractice more encouraging.

8x F

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Fourth Leg Throw (O-Uchi-Gari)

Grip your opponent's left lapel and rightsleeve with your right and lefthands respectively. Let himstand with his feet wide apart,the left foot slightly advanced.Advance your left foot with thetoes turned well outwards, toform an equilateral trianglewith those of your opponent(Fig. 47). Hook the advancedleg within your right leg, so thatthe crooks of your knees touch.Push the opponent with yourright hand backwards to his

left corner, while sweeping hisleft leg from under him withyour hooked leg (Fig. 48).

Loosen your grip with bothhands when you feel him losingbalance, so as not to fall overwith him. He should at the

same time loosen his grip on youand show his skill in breaking hisfall backwards, tapping forciblywith both arms. You should bothtry this a dozen times in turn.



Now we shall pass to the dynamics of thethrow and learn how to use the fourth legthrow (O-Uchi-Gari) in motion. From thefundamental right-hand posture step slightlyto your left with the left foot where youropponent has advanced his right foot. Pull(without jerking) your opponent's lapel withyour right hand in acircular motion to yourright and sweep yourright leg round his nowadvancing left leg, hook-ing it from the inside asbefore, with your rightleg bent at the knee asshown in Fig. 48. Tryto sweep his leg off theground at the very mo-ment he is moving hisweight on to it. Do nothook with your right leg too soon and pushafterwards, as beginners persist in doing. Theaction of your right hand and leg should besimultaneous, but hooking following the pushwill still do. Do not push very hard at thebeginning, for the fall is very sharp and youropponent may bang his head against theground. There is of course no danger if he





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Fifth Le~ Throw (Ko-Soto-Gari)

Let your opponent stand with his legs wideapart, hook his right leg with your left legjust below the crook of his knee and pushwith both hands backwards. Let go of eachother for the same reason as inthe foregoing throw.

Now make your opponent ad-vance with his right foot by theusual Tsukuri, then pull with acircular outward movement of

your right hand to your right.He is stepping to your rightautomatically with legs wide apartas in the fourth leg throw(O-Uchi-Gari). Now hook hisright leg as shown in Fig. 50,pushing at the same time back-wards with both hands. Again be careful atthe beginning until you get used to the fall,for you may succeed every now and thenbeyond your expectation. This throw is easilylearned on both sides and you may do so atonce.

IS minutes' Randori. Try to move back-wards and forwards without checking thenumber of paces. Vary your attacks so as to



makes sure to tilt his head as he falls andlooks to the left as in Fig. 49.

You will transfer the movement to the otherleg when your Tsukuri and Kake on this sideseem to be satisfactory.




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bring in all the throws you have learned.Insist most of all on hip throws and do notforget the immobilizing holds and the strangle-hold which you know.

You will find that the first hip throw (Uki-Goshi) is rather difficult to use. Indeed, it is.For some lessons consider it just as an exercisefor the loins and thighs; in this respect it isinvaluable. Try to learn how to elude youropponent's left-hand push which stops youfrom throwing your right arm around h~swaist,after which the throw is really secured. Youmay take some time to find it out, for it isnot obvious.




First Shoulder Throw (Kata-Seoie)

From the fundamental right-hand posturepull gently the opponent'slapel to make him advance .

with his left leg. Put yourleft great toe in front of thatof the opponent (Fig. 5I).While turning on left tiptoe,put your right foot insideyour opponent's right foot,bend your knees slightly.Let go of the lapel with yourright hand and bring theelbow crook of this armunder the opponent's right arm (Fig. 52) just

above your left hand. Turnyour shoulders and head wellto your left so that yourback presses flatly against theopponent's waist. Straightenyour knees to lift him (Fig. 53)from the ground. Pull withyour left hand and lift withthe right arm to urge the liftedopponent to the ground (Fig.54).

Try a dozen times to merge87



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these separate movements into one singlemotion. Let the opponentdo the same, and then startagain, making sure that yourbelt comes right under youropponent's when your backtouches his waist.

Now repeat the same whilemoving around. Start turn-ing to your left the instant theopponent, pulled with yourright hand, is advancing hisleft leg, so that when you

have completed turning he has just com-pleted the step with his left leg.

Lift the opponent'sright arm with yourleft hand gripping athis sleeve and pullit, while introducingyour right elbowcrookunder it. Doingthis will help you tomake the opponentgo on his toes andstoop slightly, leaningsomewhat against your back as shown in Fig. 52.Do not transfer this throw to the other side.


FIG. 53.

FIG. 54.



Now learn the following combination. Pullthe opponent's lapel as for the first hip throw(Uki-Goshi). Let the opponent interfere withyour right arm thrusting round his waist.Change the direction of your right arm as ifyielding to the opponent's resistance and bringit under his right arm as you have just learnedand throw him by the first shoulder throw(Kata-Seoie).


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Second Strangle-Hold

Sit astride the opponent's waist, one kneeon and the other off theground, as in the firststrangle-hold. Grip hisright collar with yourright hand, slipping the'four fingers, palm up-wards, as far as possibleunder the lapel towardshis nape, and clutchyour hand with thethumb on the outside.

Cross your left handFIG.55. and grip the left side

of his collar (Fig. 55) in exactly the same way.Put your head on the ground and pull hard

FIG. 56.

at the collar, gliding your elbows along yourribs (Fig. 56). You may also put the other




knee to the ground and squeeze the opponent'sbody with both knees, putting your head moreforward on the ground (Fig. 57).

After a few lessons you will find youropponent tapping much later than he did atfirst, when he gave way merely because of hisapprehension and the unpleasant feeling ofhaving somebody's hand on his throat. Whenhe loses that apprehension he has to be com-pelled to give way.

FIG. 57.

People who do not learn Judo cannot standthis strangle-hold, but you must be able tobring even the experienced to submission.Again, you must not rely upon your strength,as it won't help you very much. If youwatch a Judo expert applying this strangle-hold you wonder why his opponent tapped, asthe expert has hardly made any effort at all.The reason is that while you may be relyingon the total amount of pressure your handsexert on an opponent's neck, the expert centres


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his effort on a small area just in front of animportant number of vessels and nerves.

Examine Fig. 58. See the position of thehands and note how pressure is brought withthe end of the radius at the wrist) or) stillbetter) with the beginning of the wrist markedwith a small arrow) exactly at the point bearingon the jugular vein) the carotid artery) thesympathetic trunk) and the vagus. You cannot

be expected as a noviceto 'be so sure of yourmovement as to affect

either of the groups justas you wish. Perhaps weshall have the occasion togo into closer study ofthis subject in a moreadvanced course of Judo

later on. For the time being these instructionsare quite sufficient.

Try a few strangle-holds by altering yourhands) Le.) with the left hand uppermost atfirst and then the right hand over the left.There should be no difference in the result)but you may find you have a preference for oneway which you should keep to in future.

Now let the opponent push the elbow ofyour hand which is uppermost in order to


FIG. 58.



slacken your grip on his throat) and then tryto get out by shaking you off his body. Hemust be careful or he may become unconsciousif he continues resisting after seeing black spotsbefore his eyes) but as time goes on and hisneck becomes stronger) the strangle-hold mustbe perfectly executed to force him intosubmission.


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Third Strangle-Hold

This is the way to tackle a reluctant andskilful opponent who has learned enough Judoto resist the foregoing hold. Suppose that theopponent's action on your left elbow (in thecase of Fig. 59) is sufficient to make your hold

unsuccessful. It is un-

likely that you will oftenmeet with such cases,if at all, but we willnevertheless proceed asif it were so. Kneeldown on your rightknee, tug hard at hiscollar with both elbowswell bent. Roll on the

ground on your rightside, making the oppo-nent interested enough

in your movement to bring him on to hisleft side. While rolling, put your left soleagainst his right groin or against the haunchbone, your hands bringing his head towardsyour chest (Fig. 60). Submission or uncon-sciousness are the only alternatives the oppo-nent has.

We have thus examined three strangle-94

FIG. 59.



Qolds very similar at first to the uninitiated,but acting at different points and forcingsubmission in three different ways.

The first causes choking through compres-sion of the trachea; the second interferes withthe blood flow of thebrain (compression ofthe jugular vein andcommon carotid artery)or by shock (compres-sion of the sympathetictrunk and vagus); thethird compresses thephrenic nerve at thecervical plexus, and, ifmuch strength is used,the cervical nerve oneach side of the nape.

I think you have hadenough of this some-what macabre disserta-

tion, so let us cheer up with a lively Randori.I am afraid, too, your arsenal is increasingrapidly. If you want to find your way moreeasily, have a rest before we launch on furtherstudies. Three Randori of five minutes eachwith intervals of one minute should bring thelesson to its end.



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Do fifty breakfalls as usual, rehearse the fiveleg throws, repeating each one of them tentimes on either side. Do the same with thethree hip throws and shoulder throws as de-scribed, without transferring these to the otherside. Ten minutes' Randori and then oneminute rest.

Now repeat three immobilizing holds oneither side with the opponent lying down.Try the three strangle-holds.



Sixth Leg Throw (Ko-Uchi-Gari)

Hold your opponent's leftlapel and right sleeve abovehis elbow with your rightand left hand respectively.Pull steadily in order tomake your opponent ad-vance his right foot while

. you step with your left footnear to it, somewhat to theoutside. Gradually, with-out jerking, pull his lapel tomake him advance his left foot in a turning

movement to your right,placing your right foot atthe rear of your left foot,which is thus freed fromsupporting your body.Press your left soleagainst your opponent'sleft ankle at the Achilles

tendon (Fig. 61). Sweepthis foot in the directionof its toes, at the sametime pushing your oppo-nent with both hands

backwards to his left corner (Fig. 62).97 G



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In order to get the sensation of a real fall,which will help you in further work, let youropponent put his feet very wide apart, morethan he would naturally do, and try the throw.Try several times and then let him bring his feettogether. .

This sixth leg throw (Ko- Uchi-Gari) isintended especially against people, generallywrestlers, who place their feet wide apart, andshould not be attempted when the feet are tooclose together. The preliminary Tsukuri atthe beginning of this description is intended toforce your opponent's feet farther apart thanthey would be normally.

Now start again and try to time your move-ment so as to sweep his left foot from under~neath him at the very moment he is placingit on the ground and shifting his weight on to it.I do not think you will find it so easy as itsounds, but it is worth while trying. Startslowly, intentionally being late with your solepressing at his ankle. Steadily increase yourspeed until you find the right moment; youcannot possibly mistake it, the throw is sodifferent from those you have been doingpreviously. The opponent is pushed off hisfeet as if he were on a slippery skating-rink.






You may now complete the classification ofleg throws we have already started :

I. Three leg throws in which you attack theadvancing opponent at his moving leg (Firstand Second Leg Throws) or rear stationaryleg (Third Leg Throw), while your handspull to help your opponent increase his move-ment forward.

2. Three throws in which you attack theopponent, who is side stepping while yourhandspush him backwards. In the light of whatyou know already, the throws in which yourhands push will be made easier by youropponent's moving backwards.

We have means thus of attacking theopponent's legs in all movements he mayundertake; and no more can be usefully saidabout leg throws in a preliminary Judo courselike the present one.


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Fourth Hip Throw (Harai-Goshi)

From the usual fundamental

right-hand posture pull youropponent's sleeve with yourleft hand. With your righthand pull his lapel upwards(Fig. 63) and place your leftfoot, with the toes turned welloutwards to your left, in frontof your opponent's feet (Fig.64). Your left toes should beplaced so as to form anisosceles triangle with them.Turn on the toes of the left

foot, bringing your right leg to cross in frontof your opponent'sright thigh (Fig. 65).Swing your legbackwards in a lift-ing motion, at thesame time twistingyour opponent toyour left with yourhands. He then losestouch with theground, and as thereis considerably more



FIG. 63.

FIG. 64. FIG. 65.



weight above the fulcrum at the upper part ofyour thigh, he is briskly tilted upside downover it (Fig. 66).

Repeat this throw ten times and try to mergeall these particular movements into one singlemotion, and then let your opponent learn thethrow while you try toperfect your breakfall.

TJ,1e Harai"-Goshi is aneat and graceful throw,and no amount of practice. . \,IS too much for It. The

greater your skill, themore opportunities youwill find to use it.

Among all the tricksof Judo there are a cer-tain number which aremore often used thanothers by experts in bouts and competitions.Hip throws are considered better tricks thanleg throws. Indeed, greater skill is necessaryto throw a trained opponent by a hip throw,and the throw is also a more distinct one.The opponent is lifted from the ground andflung in the air as if he were as light as a feather.If ever you see a Judo expert famous for hisHarai"-Goshiexecuting it, you will be forced



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to admire the grace of his movement. Watch-ing him will be an resthetic pleasure.

There are as many different forms of theHarai-Goshi as there are different forms ofevery throw we have dealt with. We havedescribed the standard and essential forms of

them-the true Judo forms. Generally everythrow is somewhat modified by each exponent,but, of course, these variations are only minordivergences from the standard forms we havedescribed. In Europe you may find " experts "using the throws in a way which moreresembles wrestling than Judo. They obtaintheir throws by using a great amount of strength.These people had not the chance to learn thetrue spirit of the art; they just caught theouter form of the movements. You should

be able by now to tell a real Judo expert froma " would-be" one.

Try the following combinations. From thefundamental posture attack your opponent'sleft foot by the second leg throw (De-Ashi-Rarai). Let him elude this attack by raisinghis left foot off the ground and stepping back-wards over your attacking leg. Before heregains his balance, twist your body intothe position of the throwing man in Fig.65, hardly jumping up on your left foot,




but just sufficiently to permit your turningyour toes outwards to the left as much asnecessary, and throw him by Harai"-Goshi.The throw should be much easier than before,for your Tsukuri is half done by the preliminaryattack. Repeat this twenty or thirty timeswithout stopping.

Mter your opponent has done the same, tryto attack his left leg from the inside by thefourth leg throw (0- Uchi-Gari) and againthrow him by Harai"-Goshiat the moment heis regaining his balance with his raised left legafter having eluded your attack. Twenty timeswill do.


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First Arm Lock (Ude-Hishigi or Ude-Garami)

The general term for locks is Kwansetsu-Waza, from Kwansetsu, meaning "joint" or" articulation," and Waza, meaning " art" or" way." Gyaku is less pedantic and means" reverse," " disarticulate." Most of the namesof locks contain Hishigi, meaning " crush," orGarami, meaning "break," preceded by thename of the member to which the lock is applied.

The first lock is named Ude-Hishigi-Hiza-Gatame, which means " arm-crush-knee-Iock "or " control." It is certainly precise, but ratherdifficult to remember . We shall take the

liberty of employing the abbreviation Ude-Hishigi or Ude-Garami, in the sense of ArmLock, preceded by an ordinal number.

Let the opponent lie on his back. Takehold of his right sleeve above the elbow as inthe fundamental posture. Put your right toesunder his ribs near to his arm-pit. Bend yourright knee, shifting almost your entire weighton to this foot. Hook the wrist of his right




arm with your right hand, your thumb beingpressed to your index finger as shown inFig. 67. Swing yourleft leg in a circularmotion to your leftaround his head (Fig.68) and a c r 0 s s histhroat. Stoop forward,well bending the rightknee, and sit downgradually on theground. Its weight andmomentum is thus counterbalancing yourbody and it helps you to roll down graduallyon your back without falling backwards. Dur-

ing the first attempts, becareful of this point, for ifyou were to fall you mightbreak his elbow. As an extraprecaution, do not pull withyour right hand before youare told to do so.

Your buttocks should betouching your right heel whensitting on the ground. Press

the opponent's throat down with your left leg.Twist his captured wrist so that the crook ofhis elbow looks upwards. Pull it in between





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your legs as much as you can, tilting your headoff the ground. Clip his arm with your thighs,and cautiously push the captured wrist down-wards and to your right, as if to break the elbowagainst the upper part of your right thigh atyour crutch (see Fig. 69).

Mter a few trials all these separate move-ments will follow each other easily, but greatcare should be taken not to fall backwards

FIG. 69.

and pull the captured wrist before you touchthe ground with your back.

Try this ten times and then let your opponentstand up. Hold each other's left lapel andright sleeve with the right and left handsrespectively. Let the opponent be thrown byO-Soto-Gari (First Leg Throw) against hisright leg. He is in the position of the lyingpartner of Fig. 67, and ready for the first armlock.

Sometimes he may be still holding on toyour left lapel when he falls. This does not





alter the situation at all. Just stoop forward asmuch as you are pulled, grip his right wristwith your right hand as before, and do thelock. Now you cannot push his arm to yourright downwards; do not endeavour to do so.Instead of trying to unclutch his fist, takehold of his wrist with both hands and twist itso that the inside of his arm faces upwards.Pin it tightly against your chest, and, clippingthe captured arm with your thighs, slowly raiseyour loins from the ground until he acknow-ledges his defeat.

A jerky or powerful twisting of your loinswill damage the captured arm, so be careful.In any case, if you follow the above instructionsvery carefully, your hold leaves no possibilityof escape and you will have plenty of time toproceed cautiously at the final phase of the lock.

Raise the right buttock more than the leftso that your opponent's arm leans against yourright thigh near the groin and not against yourpubis, where it may unpleasantly crush yourtesticles.

In a competition a neat throw gives you apoint, but merely bringing an opponent downto the mat is not enough to give you anadvantage. If the referee does not announce" point," when your opponent is merely dragged


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to the ground, proceed swiftly with an armlock rather than by an immobilizing hold. Itis better Judo, for it is quicker and less tiresome.

You should thoroughly master how to followup a throw by this first arm lock. The bestexercise for this combination is to throw the

opponent by the first hip throw (Uki-Goshi)and then follow up with the arm lock. Try todo this twenty times and you will soon be ableto apply an arm lock after any throw.




Third Immobilizing Hold (Kami-Shiho-Gatame)

When your opponent is lying on his back infront of you with his head nearest to you andhis legs pointing forward, as often happensafter throws like those shown in Figs. 54 or 100,collapse and let yourself down. Pressing hischest bone with your right breast or shoulder,reach with your right hand for his belt (or thestiff rim of his trousers if you are not at Judopractice), slipping your hand underneath hisright arm as shown in Fig. 70. Twist yourhead to your left and press your right ear andtemple to his chest, gripping his belt with yourleft hand on his left, in the same way as youdid with your right hand. Drag up your leftknee, trailing it on the mat, and wedge itunder his left arm, your left foot touching theground with the inner edge of the sole, the toespointing to your left.

Hold tight with your hands, spreading theelbow on the side to which the opponent triesto turn you over, carefully tucking in yourhead as shown in Fig. 70, so that he cannotslip his right hand under your chin, or clipyour head with his legs, and you will hold himdown as long as you wish.


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Note the position of the right foot of theattacker. It gives him better balance andpromotes greater mobility in adjusting hisposition should the opponent shift his legs andbody on one side or the other. In order tomake this hold effective, it is essential thatboth your bodies should be along the same axis.

FIG. 70.

It will be a good idea now if you can" con-vert " a third person to Judo. You will learnmore, for different people act differently, andalso because you will be able to have twoRandori, one after the other, which will improveyour breathing very much.

Anyhow, proceed with Randori in the stand-ing position and on the ground until you arequite tired. A hot shower as usual will closethe lesson.




JUDOis the science of economy of body energy,so while learning new throws and holds youmust not overlook those dealt with at the

beginning, otherwise you will only be wastingtime and energy acquiring knowledge of onething while forgetting something else. Alwaysbe sure you are making full use of everythingyou already know.

The expert teacher's duty is to select fromthe immense Judo repertoire the movementsmost suited to the pupil's physical condition,taking into consideration his temperament andfighting disposition. It cannot of course bedone here, but we shall give some generalrules which may help you to make up yourmind on taking up some of the tricks anddevoting more time and attention to them thanto the others.

Only teachers in Judo have a fairly averageknowledge of the whole science. In Japan, thehome of Judo, each expert is generally famous


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in one or two tricks, called his "favouritetrick." Once having preference for this trickhe will devote most of his Judo time to it.Some experts are known to have performedsuch a trick 200 times every day continuouslyfor four years before claiming mastery of it.This gives the reputable total of more than250,000 repetitions. By such constant practiceof a trick the exponent becomes a real master ;he is able to use it even after having warnedyou he is going to do so. His skill in perform-ing it is remarkable. He knows many differentTsukuri leading to it and is a1?leto beat anyoneby using his favourite throw. For the amateur,however, this is overdoing it. Too narrowspecialization of this kind has, especially forbeginners, numerous drawbacks, but the prin-ciple holds good.

The votaries of Judo can be divided intotwo classes. The first group are better in thestanding position and prefer fighting upright.They are very reluctant to fight on the groundand avoid it as much as possible. They aregenerally of a light build, very nimble, andhave strong legs. Their Judo is spectacularand pleasant to watch.

The other group are better at ground work.In serious competition they avoid the battle




until they get a chance to come into close quar-ters with the opponent on the ground, wherethey are more likely to have the upper hand.

It may be interesting to note that people ofpractical and rather materialistic inclinationsare better at ground work than people with apreference for the abstract.

If, after the first months, you feel you havemade no progress in the standing position,insist on ground work. There is nothingbetter for developing the hips and abdomen.You will lose fat, become supple and strong,until suddenly you become conscious of amarked improvement in your Judo, which willalso extend to the standing position.

The most important factor to consider inchoosing a trick for specialization is the heightof the body. Some of the throws work betterwhen the opponent is much taller than yourself,and some when he is much smaller than you.If the difference is not accentuated, all of themare equally good, though you may perhaps notfeel so. In Judo, you may even find peoplewho prefer best the trick you dislike most, andVIce versa.

Here are some throws which are easier to

perform, or work better against an opponentmuch taller than yourself:


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Second, Fourth and Sixth Leg Throws(De-Ashi-Barai', O-Uchi-Gari and Ko-Uchi-Gari), First Hip Throw (Uki-Goshi), Secondand Third Shoulder Throws (Seoie-Nage 'andKata-Guzuma ).

And now some throws easier to perform orwork better against an opponent considerablysmaller than yourself:

First, Third and Fifth Leg Throws (O-Soto-Gari, Hiza-Guruma and Ko-Soto-Gari), SecondThird and Fourth Hip Throws (Kube-Nage,Koshi-Guruma and Harai-Goshi), First ShoulderThrow (Kata-Seoie).

It is clear that a tall man should lay morestress on the throws of the second group, asmost of his opponents will more likely beinferior to him in stature. A short man should,on the contrary, give his attention to the throwsof the first group.

The classification should not be taken as anexclusive and absolute statement. Japaneseexperts are generally smaller than their foreignopponents, and still they find no difficulty inthrowing them by Harai'-Goshi, for example.You may become expert in any trick, but itwill cost you more patience and perseverancethan if you spent your time learning a throwmore suited to your physical condition. This











last assertion fails in the following two cases :a very tall man cannot become expert inSeoi'e-Nage, as it is extremely difficult againsta small opponent, while a very small mancannot excel in Kata-Seoie for similar reasons.


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More About the First Arm Lock

There is no reliable means of freeing thecaptured arm from a correctly secured armlock, but there is an easy way to avoid capturebefore the arm is secured. Just hook thefinger-tips of your hands as the acting man inFig. 78, and the novice (Judoka) will be unableto secure an effective arm lock. This defence,however, can easily be overthrown. Indeed,swinging your left leg across your opponent'sthroat as before, put the heel of it in the crookof your opponent's left elbow, roll on to yourback as usual, pushing hard with your left leg.Your arms, assisted by your leg, are generallystrong enough to pull apart his clenched hands,but you must be very, very careful not to breakhis elbow when falling backwards at full tiltas his hands unclutch suddenly.

Another way to deal with an opponent incase he hooks his hands as described above is

to stand back in the position shown in Fig. 67,lower your right hand, and take hold of hissleeve at the crook of his elbow. Push withthe ulnar border of your left hand, which isclenched into a fist under his chin, and presshard on his throat. He lets. go his right handas his left attempts to interfere with your left




hand choking him. Take advantage of theopportunity and this time secure the arm lock.To prevent him clasping his hands once more,place your left heel in the crook of his leftelbow before or while rolling on to your back.Repeat this ten times.


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Second Shoulder Throw (Seoie-Nage)

This is perhaps the prettiesttrick of Judo. It is the bestthrow for the small man and

the average man. Frequentrepetition is, however, advisedto all who practise Judo. Itis unrivalled as an exercise

for developing the hips andlegs for strength and supple-ness.

From the usual fundamental

position pull the opponent toadvance his left leg. Place yourleft great toe in front of that ofyour opponent. Pivot to your lefton the toes of your left foot(Fig. 71), shifting your right legto the position shown in Fig. 72.Carefully note the position of yourright elbow and hand in this figure.Without letting go of the usualgrips of your hands on the oppo-nent's left lapel and right sleeve(with your right and left handsrespectively), let your right elbow,bent at right angles, precede your body while


FIG. 71.

FIG. 72.



pivoting to your left, and you will find your-self in the position required.

Bend your knees slightlyas in the first hip throw sothat your hips come underhis stomach. Bend yourhead and shoulders to yourleft so that your back flatlytouches your opponent'swaist (Fig. 72). Straightenyour knees, twisting yourbody to the left to tiltyour opponent upside down(Fig. 73) and fling him to the ground (Fig. 74)'

The mechanism of the throw is very similarto that of the first hipthrow. The leg move-ment is identically thesame, as well as the lift-ing of the opponent bystraightening the slightlybent knees.

When sufficientlytrained so that all themovements mergesmoothly in a single easy

motion, Seoie-Nage is more readily executedthan the first hip throw in which the position


FIG. 73.

FIG. 74.

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of the right arm has to be changed to swingit around the opponent's waist.

Novices attempt to lift the opponent withtheir right hand, which is of course impossible.You must bend your knees and lower yourbody to the left until you feel the right wristis comfortable. All the power necessary shouldbe produced by the legs and hips. The rightshoulder, over which the opponent is hurled tothe mat, and the hands play the leading partonly when his feet lose touch with the ground.

Please go back to the Uki-Goshi descriptionand read it once more before trying Seoie-Nage,and then try twenty throws. Be careful at thefirst trials, for the fall is from a fair height andyour opponent must get used to it. He maynot be too keen on being flung to the groundfor the first time, and may stiffen his musclesand fall over his head without tapping with hisleft hand on the mat, perhaps even causinginjury to himself.

Unfortunately, our space is strictly limitedso we cannot give you all the instructionsnecessary to learn this breakfall. Thereforeproceed cautiously; you will certainly findthem out for yourself by experience. See thatyour right foot is placed inside the opponent'sright foot, as in Fig. 72.





Second Form of Third Immobilizing Hold

This is the more usual form of Kami-Shiho-Gatame. With your opponent lying on hisback, his head nearest to you and his legspointing forwards, kneel down, your knees oneither side of his head, and reach with yourright hand for his belt, sliding your hand onthe mat under his arm. Let your left handsimilarly grip his belt on his left side. Turn

FIG. 75.

your face to the side that suits you best andpress your head against your opponent's chest.

The essential point in this position is to haveyour buttocks touching your heels (Fig. 75).To make this possible, turn your feet so thatthey cross each other, the upper part of yourright foot, say, in the sole of your left foot orvIce versa.

.When pressing your head against youropponent's chest you crush his face down withyour chest bone so that he is obliged to freehis nose and turn his head sideways. To pre-


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vent him from keeping it in the normal positionyour body must be close to the ground. Thisis the reason why your knees must be fullybent so that your buttocks touch your heels.

Now spread your elbows to keep balancesideways, but watch your opponent's move-ments so as to stop him trying to slip a handunder your chin.




Second Head Lock

If your legs are rather stiff you may not findthe attacker's position very enviable at the firsttrials. This should not depress you. If youfeel that you cannot hold down the opponent,get ready and give way to his efforts to turnyou on either of his sides. Help him turningyou, say to your left, and hook your feet asshown in Fig. 76. Let go of his belt with

FIG. 76.

your hands and grip his trousers near the kneesshould he try to clip your head with his legsmuch in the way you do.

Now stretch your legs forcibly, squeezing hisneck just below the ears with the harder partsof your knees. The action is the same as inthe second strangle-hold, but it is a muchstronger one and brings submission at once.You may need a fair amount of practice beforeyou can adjust your knees to the correct position,



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SOtry this head lock ten times as usual beforeletting your opponent learn it.

Sometimes the opponent may try to freehimself from the last immobilizing hold byclenching his hands together over your napeand trying to crush it. Indeed this is generallyto be expected. As soon as you are aware ofyour opponent's intention, turn your head backto the normal position, digging your chinimmediately under his chest bone so as to leanagainst his solar plexus. His pressure on yournape is merely increasing the pressure of yourchin. He may not realize at once that it is hehimself who is producing this painful and un-bearable pressure, but he will certainly giveup pressing at your nape. Watch for this andonce more turn your head back into the previousposition, or he may have a fine chance to sliphis hands under your chin, which will help himto push you off.



Fourth Strangle-Hold (Hadaka-Jime)

Let your opponent sit on the ground, hishands on his thighs. Stand behind him,kneel on one knee as we

generally do in orderto adjust our balance(Fig. 77).

Slip your right handunder his chin, yourpalm ~urned downwards.Hook your fingers andclasp your hands, the FIG.77.left palm upwards asseen in Fig. 78. Stiffen your hands, pullingyour elbows close to your body and pushing

your opponent's headforward with your rightshoulder . Your rightwrist strangles him whileyour shoulder causespainful extension at thevertebrre of the neck.

He taps very readily.FIG.78. Try this three times,

and now secure the

same hold without really strangling him, sothat he may have a chance to resist. Let him


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push you backwards to make you lose balance.. Give way to this, rolling on to your back,

disengaging your legs from supporting your

FIG. 79.

body, but still maintaining your hands readyfor action around his nape. Fig. 79 shows thebest way of doing so. As soon as possibleswing your legs around the opponent's body

FIG. 80.

above his haunches without hooking your feetas shown in Fig. 80. Or hook your feet andstretch your legs forcibly to squeeze his kid-neys, bringing simultaneously into action your


I .



strangle-hold. Either of your movements isgood enough to bring the toughest opponentto submission. With an exceptionally strongopponent it is of course the strangle-hold whichcauses him to give way and tap. It may allhappen so quickly that he has no ~ime to liftan arm to reach your body, neither is it veryconvenient for him to tap on the ground. Hisbest way is to clap his hands so that he isreleased from the strangle-hold before injuryis done.

This is a very important hold, and we shallmake ample use of it later. Try it ten timesat least and finish this lesson with twentyminutes of smooth and varied Randori to the

best of your ability.



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You have been using both mind and body,devising throws and holds against an opponentwhom by now you have almost come to lookupon as a partner . You have been playing attrying to defeat each other and your opponenthas been warned and also knew everything youmight have undertaken against him. Shouldyou be able to master such an opponent, thechances are that in a real fight you would findthe task very much easier. In fact, the eventualopponent of the street may be so easily defeatedthat you may feel rather sorry you were notable to make fuller use of your Judo.

People often ask what can be done against,say, a boxer who is almost naked. Should onebe allowed to use Atemi, i.e., be allowed to kickin our own way? I am sure that no intelligentboxer would think it worth while attacking aJudo exponent after having watched only oneAtemi lesson, especially when he realizes that.using the fist is only a small part of Atemi and




the Judo exponent can use it as much as hisopponent and have the rest of his Judo know-ledge at his disposal at the same time.

In public displays we are generally deprivedof this right of using Atemi, but no one canpossibly deny it to us when we are seriouslyattacked. Judo experts accept such challengesand generally defeat their opponent in spite oftheir abstention from their most effective anddrastic methods.

In a real fight the Judo expert has all thetrumps in his hand. The boxer is indeedmost of the time wearing some clothes andwe are not restrained to any extent as regardsthe parts of the body we hit or what parts weuse to do so. We cannot, unfortunately, sparemuch room to describe this most interestingform of Judo, but it suffices to say that we kickwith the foot when it is too far to be reachedwith the hand, that we cut with the ulnarborder of the hand, and with the elbow, theknee, the heel, the ball of the hand and so onwhen we come to fighting at close quarters.

When in public displays we generally aimat getting the opponent on the ground, forwhich purpose we have a considerable numberof ingenious but simple tricks. The boxer onthe ground is unable to use his skill, while we

129 I

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are indifferent to the position of our body sofar as being upright is concerned. We can,therefore, pull him down and get the decisionby arm lock 'or strangle-hold. As the first ismore understandable to the onlookers and mbrespectacular, it is generally to be preferred.

Here are some practical instructions as tohow to use the Judo you have learned as ameans of defence in an emergency. Muchpoise is of course necessary in such cases, foryou must not stiffen your body needlessly inspite of the tendency to do so when a man loseshis temper and is about to use his body toback up his argument. When your Judo hasimproved sufficiently to make you feel certainabout the issue of the conflict, the tendency tostiffen the body will vanish. ,

Let us see how we can use the knowledgewe have acquired in cases of emergency.



O-Soto-Gari (First Leg Throw)

Should your assailant stretch out bis handto get hold of you in any way, or reach for yourthroat, grip his right ~eeve with your lefthand and throw him by the first leg throw(O-Soto-Gari), but instead of observing the Judopolicy of not touching your' opponent's face,strike hard with the ball of your right hand atthe lower part of his face or at the chin insteadof simply gripping his lapel. If you twist yourhips, as you should if you follow the instruc-tions carefully, and make the stroke of yourhand coincide with the sweeping action of yourright leg at the back of his right knee, yourassailant wjH be thrown off his feet and hurled

to the floor with the back of his head strikingfirst.

Returning for a moment to our Judo practice,as your opponent's breakfalls ought to be satis-factory by now, you may try to throw him inthis way. But, of course, you must not betoo rough, for he may break his skull, being.unable to tilt his head off the ground in timeas he learned to do because of the push ofyour right hand at his chin, forcing it up andbringing the impact against the back of hishead.


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Another method of using the right hand inthis case is to open it with the thumb wideapart from the index finger, and hit the assailantwith the angle so formed between the fingerand thumb against the upper part of his throat.

Again, we must warn you not to use all yourstrength, even though you may feel the assailantdeserves it, for you will certainly regret it ifthe next instant you find he has a broken skullor trachea.

When practising with your partner, try tenthrows on either side and you will certainlybe astonished to find how well an apparentlyinnocent Judo trick works. The correct Judothrow is more difficult, so you should be ableto pick up this variation of the original veryeasily. '



De-Ashi-Bara"i (Second Leg Throw)

Suppose the assailant hits out with a straightleft at your face. Just push off his fist to yourright with your right hand, clutching at once atthe sleeve as shown in Fig. 81. His left footis advanced, so if you move slightly to yourright while pushing off his fist you are in anideal position to push hisleft foot in the direction ofits toes, hooking it frombehind with your right foot.A sharp pull at the sleeveto your right coinciding withthe hooking of your rightfoot will bring the assailantto the ground.

You certainly won't letgo the sleeve, if only fromhabit, and it is a goodthing to hold on to. Shouldthe assailant try to face you, just pull thesleeve upwards. If he tries to sit up, pullsharply to your right. Kick with the ball ofyour right foot, or with the toe. of your shoe,immediately under his left ear to make himunconscious, but not too hard, please! Or kickwith the left shoe-toe at his left kidney, i.e.,




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on his back immediately under the ribs. Anaverage blow will send him dreaming for anhour or so. Don't kick hard, for people un-conscious through injury at the renal plexusare very difficult to revive and regrettableconsequences may follow.



Hiza-Guruma (Third Le~ Throw)

When an assailant pushes you with the fullforce of his body, as in Fig. 101, withdraw asmuch as necessary, gripping his right sleeve,and, pushing his right leg away to your right,throw him to the ground, your half-clenchedright hand pushing at his neck to assist you toupset his balance.

The throw is much prettier if you do notuse your right hand at all, but more skill isnecessary. Just step sideways to your right,press the sole of your left foot against his rightleg below the knee and pull hard at his rightsleeve. It won't work unless your movementsare so timed that the peak of the pull coincidesexactly with the moment that his weight isbeing brought on the right foot. This throwis the second version of Hiza-Guruma, actingagainst the advanced leg instead of the hinder(Fig. 37) one, as we learned in the first method(page 63).


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Ko-Uchi-Gari (Sixth Leg Throw)

At the moment the assail-

ant is attacking, pull hard atthe back of his right ankle withyour right foot, sweeping hisfoot in the direction of itstoes and fiercely pushing withboth hands at his shoulders(Fig. 82). If you hook theankle bearing the greater partof his weight, and again, ifyour leg and hands act simul-taneously, the assailant isswept off the ground: landing

heavily (Fig. 83) on his back. Here, too,should you put all your strength in your hands,the throw may be fatal,the assailant fracturing theback of his skull againstthe ground.

These throws must be

practised in their appliedform a dozen times each

at every lesson, until theybecome natural with you.If you try to use them be-fore this stage is reached



FIG. 82.

FIG. 83.


you will lack the necessary composure and poise.Next lesson we shall see how hip throws andshoulder throws can be used against an assailantwithout Judo jacket, wearing plain clothes ornaked.


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Further development of the Fourth Strangle-Hold

Repeat the hold as we havelearned in the previous lesson,both with and without the squeez-ing hold of your legs at youropponent's trunk from behind asshown in Fig. 80.

Now let your opponent standup. Stand behind him facing hisback. Throw your right arm overhis right shoulder, slip yonr righthand, palm downwards, under his

chin (Fig. 84). Hook your fingers and claspyour hands as shown in Fig. 85.

Pull the opponent back-wards, at the same time push-ing sharply with the lower partof your stomach at his loins,your right knee forcing at theback of his right and bendingit (Fig. 85). He loses balanceand would fall backwards were

you not supporting his body.Slightly step backwards justenough to lower his napeon to your right breast. With your right


FIG. 84.

FIG. 85.


shoulder pushing at the back of his head,tighten your hands, and he will be strangledunless he taps, but do so gradually so that hehas the time to tap before it is too late. Hereagain it will be better if he claps his hands insubmission.

Try this three times and now do the same,but step backwards, putting your feet slightlyapart. Bend your knees and roll on to yourback without slackening your hold at his neck.He comes naturally in between your legs.Cross your feet at once, roll to the side andyour opponent is obliged to yield either to thestrangle-hold or to the squeezing action ofyour legs if your knees press at the correctpoint.

Should you feel that your strangle-hold isnot drastic enough, your hands not being in thebest position, or being hindered by the oppo-nent's grabbing at them, just push your groinforward, arching your body backwards. Thisenables you to lean farther backwards andtighten the strangle-hold as much as necessary.Push your hips gradually forward without jerk-ing, so as not to twist the opponent's spine,which might cripple him if you used too muchstrength.

This hold is incomparable as an attacking139

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method from behind, but it can easily be usedalso when facing the opponent. As he lifts hishands, or one of them, push it at the forearmto its inside, that is, push his right forearm toyour right with your left hand and step slightlyforward to your left corner. If you can manageto get hold of his sleeve while pushing hisforearm, do so. Pulling at it will, indeed,

help you to step at hisback and stop himfrom turning to hisright and avoidingyour strangle-hold, butit is not especiallynecessary and you caneasily do without it.Now nothing can stopyou from securing thefourth strangle-hold.

When using this hold to defend yourself inthe street, avoid rolling on the ground andsqueezing and clipping his body with yourlegs. You will stain your clothes needlesslyand it is just as good and very often even betterto proceed as follows :

From the position shown in Fig 85, stepbackwards, your feet as wide apart as you willfind necessary, and press your opponent down


FIG. 86.



on his back. Tighten your hands so that hishead cannot slip out from the triangle formedby your forearms and chest (Fig. 86). Stoopforward, withdrawing your legs until the oppo-nent touches the ground with his belt. Nowtighten your hand forcibly but gradually, push-ing with your right shoulder forward at theback of his head. Fig. 87 shows this movement

FIG. 87.

which, in addition to the strangulation, producesan unbearable extension of the vertebrre, liga-ments and muscles at the nape which forceshim into immediate surrender.

This strangle-hold alone is useful to defendyou from any attack in which the assailant maythrust his hand or hands forward. Let your

opponent pretend to stab at your heart or leftcarotid artery, with nothing in his hand but aharmless wooden object. You will find it very


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easy to elude the stroke by pushing over hisright hand to your right with your left. Youare now practically behind him. Evenly butrapidly swing your right arm around his neck ;secure the fourth strangle-hold and finish inany of the three ways you have learnt. Thethree alternatives are shown in Figs. 80, 85,and 87.

Now try the same thing, but this time withyour opponent attempting to thrust his" knife "at your stomach from below. The same move-ments will produce the same result as before.

Now let him strike your face. Dodge downunder his right arm and again you are facinghis back, in perfect position to secure this" universal " and incomparable hold. You canhardly imagine an attack in which the arms arenot thrust forward. That is to say that it isvery often possible to use this trick. As itneeds very little strength and is, after littletraining, very easy to secure, I cannot butstrongly recommend it to you. Practise it inall the cases you can imagine and you haveacquired something reliable with which todefend yourself.

We have in Judo innumerable tricks to meetevery imaginable attack with every imaginableweapon. But you will spend much time before





all of them become so familiar to you that in acase of emergency the right movement wouldspontaneously come to your mind at the rightmoment. We spend years, in fact five to sevenyears, of regular practice before an averagegood proficiency of all the Judo repertoire canbe claimed, while this hold in itself is good innearly every case.

Should your opponent be tall, you just jumpup as much as necessary to slip your righthand around his neck and bring him down,tugging backwards on to your feet with the fulltilt of your body. It is worth while tryingagain and again until you can execute the holdperfectly.

Now finish this lesson with a long Randoriuntil you are really tired, and then go underthe shower.


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LET us continue reviewing the throws we havelearned and see how they can be employedwithout the opponent wearing a special Judojacket (Judogi).

The Uki-Goshi (First Hip Throw) difficulty at all, as the right hand does notgrip anything. If the opponent is naked orhas no sleeve, grasp his left arm just above theelbow. The elbow joint is thicker than thehumerus bone and prevents the hand fromslipping even when great force is exerted.

Try the following exercise. Let the opponentstrike at your face with his left hand. As thearm is rising above your elbow, reach for hisright elbow with your left hand, step in withyour left foot, readily pivot on it to your leftand, straightening your knees, throw him byUki-Goshi.

The striking arm cannot push you away andhinder you from throwing your right arm aroundhis waist. Stepping in closely to the opponent



is essential, as this spares you con-tact with his hand. You need notbend your head or try to stop thestriking arm-stepping close to himis good enough to protect you andis, at the same time, the essentialpart of your " striking back." Trya dozen times before proceeding.

Gripping the elbow joint insteadof the sleeve is all you need toadjust Kube-N age to the new con-ditions.

Koshi-Guruma cannot be donewithout a lapel. Harai-Goshi, on the con-trary, is much easier to do in the way

described below than

when holding the op-ponent's lapel as wehave learned above.

Thrust your right armunder his left arm-pitand press your righthand against his leftshoulder blade (Fig.88) and sweep him offthe ground as shownin Fig. 89. I stronglyrecommend your scru-

145 K




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tinizing this last figure very attentively. Thereis much to learn from it.

Now let the opponent pretend to strike yourface with his right hand. Raise your left fore-arm vertically to protect your left jaw, thefingers of your hand hardly bent and pointingupwards at the very instant his arm is about

to collide against yourface. Now let him

start again, stop him asbefore, grip his rightelbow, or sleeve aboveit, with your left hand,while pivoting on youradvanced left foot andthrow him by the firstshoulder throw Kata-

FIG. 9°. S..


After you have acquired some knack in doingthis throw, let the opponent strike with his lefthand, and throw him by the first hip throw.Then let him strike with his right hand andthrow him by the first shoulder throw. Trya dozen times, and to increase speed andsmoothness of movement repeat the same, justlifting him off the ground without actuallythrowing him, thus saving time.




Fifth Strangle-Hold (Okuri-Eri)

Let the opponent sit on the ground. Kneelbehind him, with one knee on the ground.Slip your right hand under his chin; thrustyour right thumb under his left collar asfar as you can reach and grip it firmly (Fig.91). Put your left arm under his left arm-pitand reach for his right lapel. Stretch yourhands away from you, leaning backwards asshown in Fig. 92 to tighten your hold andcompel your opponent intosubmission.

Mter both making three

FIG. 91. FIG. 92.

trials of this hold, let your opponent standon all-fours. Go on his right side and griphis left collar with your right hand as above.Stride over his back with your left leg and


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FIG. 93.


pressure of your right wrist will help you toturn him over.

If necessary, push with your left sole againsthis left thigh nearest to his knee so as to pushit backwards off the ground. He will lose hisbalance to the left. Repeat these movementsa dozen times.

Now try to lift his left hand off the groundwith your left arm, at the same time pushinghis knee backwards. Introduce your left armunder your opponent's left arm-pit as beforeand push his elbow crook with your forearm.If your left arm and leg act rigorously at thesame time, he is bound to lose his balance tothe left. At that instant grip his right collarwith your left hand and use the strangle-holdas before.

This hold is very useful against wrestlers,in which case you hook your hands as in thethird strangle-hold, instead of gripping hiscollar, which may not be available.


reach for his right lapel with your left handfrom underneath his left arm-pit (Fig. 93).Lean over his left shoulder with your full

weight and roll to your left, involving himin your movement into the position shownin Fig. 94. Stretch your hands and tightenyour strangle-hold until he submits.



If the opponent is exceptionally heavy, youmust roll to the left, hanging on with yourright hand tugging at his collar. The choking

148 149

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Second Arnl Lock

With the opponent lying on his back, placeyour right knee on the ground near his rightribs. Watch his left hand reaching for yourthroat. Press your left thunlb to your indexfinger, catch his approaching wrist as shown inFig. 95, and, throwing your right hand around

FIG. 95.

the elbow of his approaching arm, push it downto the ground.

Press his chest heavily down with yours, andtaking hold of your left wrist with your righthand, lift his elbow from the ground (Fig. 96),stretching your right arm. Be careful notto act harshly at this phase of the lock, foryou may break his elbow or sprain his leftshoulder.

Press his chest down, the brunt of the15°






pressure being applied to his right ribs morethan to the chest bone, stretchingyour right leg

FIG. 96.

backwards if necessary to increase pressure andimprove your balance.


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T JUDOover, using the right shoulder as a fulcrum.: The physical effort is at once reduced to such

an extent that they often laugh at their previousreckless exertions.

Another important point is to keep the trunkas upright as possible,lowering yourshoulder by bendingthe knees and not bystooping forward andbending at the groins.Examine closely Fig.98 to help you in yourfollowing trials.

Before you canthrow the opponent inone movement, as youshould do when he hasacquired the knack of FIG.99.breaking a fall fromsuch a height (Fig. 99), you must proceedcautiously. Lift him to the position as illus-trated, bend your knees, lower your head,pressing your chin to the chest, and let himdown in front of you without letting go eitherof his sleeve with your left hand or of his rightthigh with your right hand. He must tap themat as hard as he can with his left hand.



Third Shoulder Throw (Kata-Guruma)

From the fundamental right hand posturepull your opponent to advance hisright leg. Lift his right elbow highup (Fig. 97), bend your knees andthrust your right arm in betweenhis legs and around his advancedleg as shown in Fig. 98. Put yourright shoulder against his right hipwell below his belt. Pull his sleeve

forcibly to your left corner back-wards and, assisted with your righthand, straighten your body. If

your body assumes the position shown inFig. 98, the opponent iseasily tilted to the horizontalposition (Fig. 99) andthrown to the ground (Fig.100).

The first attempts aregenerally very difficult, fornovices try to lift the op-ponent straight off theground, which is hard if heis heavy, but they soon learnto pull sufficiently and cor-rectly with the left hand and tilt the opponent




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Gradually, after five lessons, try to throw himmore to your left, letting go with your righthand. But beware not to let go his sleeve,

FIG. 100.

even if he can already fall into the positionshown in Fig. 100, which is the aim.

There are only two more shoulder throws,both of them being too dangerous to practiseat the present stage of your knowledge.




First Sacrifice Throw (Sutemi)

ALLSutemi throws have in common the volun-tary sacrifice of your balanced upright position.You let yourself down at the right moment sothat the opponent is carried with you to theground, bearing at the end the double impetusof the two bodies. You apparently sacrifice asafe position, and this is the origin of the generalname Sutemi.

The most important of Sutemi throws andperhaps the most outstanding Judo throw isthe Tomoif-Nage, generally known as thestomach throw. Tomoe is the name of a

popular Chinese architectural theme lookingmuch like b9 and suggesting the possibilityof something which, being tossed, will continuerolling, not regularly but with increased speedevery time the bulky and heavy part of theensemble is falling down.

This explanation clearly shows the aim andthe technique of the throw. It is intended to


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sink down so that the opponent is involved inthe movement, and to pass on to him themomentum of your body, and finally use thetotal energy of the two bodies to bring youback on top of the opponent, who is now onthe ground on his back.

Before learning Tomoe'-Nageyou must makesure your opponent knows how to break thefall which he should have learned from anearlier lesson. Let your opponent step for-ward with his right foot, slightly bend hisknees, and stoop forward a little. Put your leftfoot forward in between the opponent's feet,bend your knees and let yourself down, rollingdirectly on your loins, letting go of the opponentwith both hands.

You must not sit down and then roll on toyour back, but do exactly as described, for ifyou contract the bad habit of sitting down youwill always hurt your coccyx when performingTomoe'-Nage rapidly, whereas there is no suchinconvenience if you roll on to your back atonce.

Your opponent should gently leap on hisright foot and, putting his hands on the groundabove your left shoulder, roll forward over hisright shoulder as he learned to do. He musttry to come back on to his feet by the very tilt



of his fall, tapping the mat very hard with hisleft arm. For the moment you remain passive.You are there just to enable your partner toget used to rolling over your body withouttouching you. The mere fact of your presencein front of him is often sufficient to preventhim from rolling over and some practice isgenerally needed to overcome the apprehensionof tumbling on the bodyunderneath.

Stay on your back whilehe rolls and gets up to hisfeet. Let him come backto the position from whichhe started and roll for-ward over you a dozentimes, and then changeposition with him andlearn the breakfall your-self.

Now try from the beginning, and, whilebending your left foot, advanced in between hisfeet, roll on your back as before, pull up yourright leg and bring the ball of your right footto touch his stomach immediately under the belt.Do not pull with your hands nor push withyour right foot, but, gently clinging to hisright collar and left sleeve, roll on your back




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and let him go free to roll over his right shoulder,putting his hands on the mat above your leftshoulder as before. After you have both gonethrough these preliminaries a sufficient number

of times you may try Tomoe-Nage seriously.Pull your opponent to advance his right leg,

advance your left footwell in between his feet,the more the better, andraising your right foottowards his stomach, rollon your back as shownin Fig. 102. Try to haveyour buttocks very nearyour left heel on theground, so that, pullingwith both hands while

lowering your body, yourright foot comes rightunder his centre ofgravity and he is tilted

over, your foot serving as a fulcrum (Fig.102). Now push with your right foot to throwhim far above your head (Fig. 103).

Great care must be taken to proceed verygradually and hardly stiffen your right leg. Onlyafter the knack of the breakfall is really acquiredmay you try to push with your right leg.



As soon as you feel your opponent rolling,let go of him and let him alone, otherwise hecannot roll forward and he may land with hishead on your face. He will also hurt his backthrough being unable to break the fall.

Tomoe-Nage is not only the most spectacularthrow of Judo but one of the most efficientthrows. Against stiff and bulky opponents itis the only throw which is successful until youbecome more or less expert in Judo. If ever

~FIG. 103.

FIG. 102,

you try Randori in a friendly bout, with some-one who has not learned Judo you will findit rather difficult. Indeed, you cannot possiblythrow a friend who does not know breakingfalls; on the other hand, _ you may like toprove that you have not been entirely wastingyour time doing Judo. Try De-Ashi-Barai'against his left leg without intending to throwhim by this throw, pulling hard at his collar.He will get stiff, bend his body forward, and willput himself in the best position to be thrown


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Junoby Tomoe-Nage. Just lift him from the groundon the ball of your right foot without, ofcourse, throwing him over your head, wherehe would certainly hurt himself very badly.Instead, just keep him a second or so on yourfoot and then pull on his sleeve, letting himgently down on the ground to your left. Nowpull yourself up to the sitting position nearhis right ribs and hold him down by the firstor second immobilizing hold. On the groundyou can easily master him and still bring himinto submission without hurting him.

You will not be able to throw your opponentby Tomoe'-Nage if you fall backwards too farfrom his feet. As already mentioned, youmust advance your left foot and sink down asnear as possible to the heel of that foot. Besure also not to push with your right footbefore having pulled sufficiently with yourhands. Experience will guide you better thanmore detailed instruction.

In Randori try Tomoe'-Nage as often aspossible. Without the constant watch of ateacher, novices do not keep their bodiesstraight enough, holding themselves more in.the way wrestlers do. This is the ideal positionfor Tomoe-Nage, so try it at once. Youropponent will soon find that if he keeps his


~ JUDObody upright by straightening his hips, Tomoe-N age is impossible, or nearly so, unless specialmeasures are adopted to make him bend for-ward by a preliminary De-Ashi-Barai or 0- Uchi-Gari against his left foot. So that if both ofyou try Tomoe-Nage as often as the occasionfor it presents itself, you will automaticallybe correcting and reminding each other aboutthe position of your hips. This will improveyour comportment and make your movementmore graceful and easy. And, of course, youwill get the knack of Tomoe-Nage, which isone of the best, as we have already said, if notthe best Judo throw.

161 L

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. J U DO

minutes so long as neither of the contestantshas more than one point.

Only Judo tricks may be employed. Untilrecently, for instance, the squeezing of thetrunk by a scissor-hold was banned by theKodokan in Tokyo, but it was incorporatedbecause of its efficiency. No kicking is al-lowed. No touching of the face with the handsunder any circumstances is tolerated. Touchingthe face with other parts of the body thanthe hands is allowed if it is due to circum-stances that are evidently neither intentionalnor planned. Twisting of the fingers is pro-hibited. Twisting of the great toe is alsoprohibited. Twisting all the five toes at onceis tolerated.

There are three ways of wir~ning a point inJudo:

(1) A clean throw, the opponent falling onthe back, gives a point with no considera-tion as to whether the opponent tapped themat to break his fall or not. Should he fallon his side without breaking the fall, orjust be dragged to the floor, you secureno definite advantage whatever. But anybroken fall gives a point to the opponent. Inpublic contests the rule is that a point issecured when the referee announces it loudly.


JUDOteaches attack and defence in. the mostrealistic way. The fighting spirit of Judodemands that points won should be unques-tionable, neat and convincing. In real fights'rapid action is half victory. Therefore, com-petitions last three minutes only. From theJudo point of view this short space of time isamply sufficient to tell which is the better man.If a man cannot obtain a neat victory in threeminutes his skill and efficiencyare little differentfrom those of his opponent. In a longercombat there may be victory due to minorfighting qualities, but there will be no questionof grace, efficiency and art, only a display ofugly, slow and heavy attempts of no value inreal defence.

The competition is won and over when twopoints are secured, even if it takes the winneronly a few seconds to attain this t:esult. Thecompetition continues up to the limit of three


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Both opponents immediately cease actionand start again from the upright fundamentalposition.

In the case of the opponent being broughton to the mat you may continue on the grounduntil the referee announces " point " to some-one's advantage.

(2) Securing an arm lock, leg lock or strangle-hold that forces the opponent to tap in sub-mission. To prevent accidents the refereemay decide and announce " point " when thehold or lock is correctly and well done andonly stupid obstinacy prevents the victim fromadmitting defeat. Such an intervention by thereferee is never necessary with Judo veterans,who know that when a lock or strangle-hold isperfectly performed there is no alternative togiving in other than the engaged limb beingdamaged or the contestant losing conscious-ness.

(3) Holding down the opponent for thirtyseconds from the instant the referee announces" immobilization." He does so when any ofthe immobilizing holds taught in Judo areproperly secured. Holding down the opponentwithout having the control of one of his limbsor his head, which is the characteristic ofJudo immobilizing holds, is not considered



a definite advantage and does not give youa point. Any hold satisfying the two above-mentioned conditions should be considered aJudo hold.


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of Judo only four persons have attained theeighth Dan.

The passage from one Dan to the next isconditioned not only by teaching abilities butfirst of all by efficiency in combat. Up to thesixth Dan the next higher Dan is won bycompetition. It is too easy for a higher Danholder to beat a single opponent so he isopposed to a group, often of ten opponents.This number is reduced or increased by decisionof the referee according to the standard of theopponents. The time allowed to beat thewhole group, one after the other consecutively,is two minutes per opponent, but this is amaximum. A sixth Dan holder, for instance,will beat ten brown belt holders in less thanfive minutes. It should be noted'that a brown

belt is the highest degree for amateur students,and a novice would find it hard to believe

that a brown belt holder could be so easilybeaten.

These grades are liable to modification.Lately, for instance, the number of Dan wasincreased to ten. This, of course, is of littleinterest here where no one has ever attainedthe sixth Dan or even the fifth. Now that

Professor Jigoro Kano is dead, modifica-tions will no doubt be made, but the essential

. 167

THE belt worn while practising Judo is ofdifferent colour according to the grade of thebearer and indicates his rank and skill. Thereare two different ranks: Dan and Kyu. Awhite belt is worn by beginners, correspondingto the sixth Kyu. The next grade, the fifth,is indicated by a yellow belt, the fourth, orange,the third, green, the second, blue and the firstKyu, brown. This is the highest grade ofthe Kyu ranks a student can attain, generallyby beating consecutively opponents of lowergrades.

The next grade is a teaching diploma. Itis indicated by a black belt. All the highergrades of the Dan rank are indicated by ablack belt, so all teachers wear them. Theyare of the first Dan in the beginning of theirteaching career, which will lead them up tothe eighth Dan, the highest. Professor JigoroKano held a higher degree; he was the onlyperson to attain this level. Since the existence


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sub-division ofremaIn.

There are about one hundred thousand blackbelt holders in the world and about five anda half million Judokas or Judo votaries of alJgrades.


Dans and K yus will certainly




THE whole teaching of the art of Judo isimpregnated with the idea of human perfectionand efficiency in attaining a given purpose.The initial purpose of self-defence is thus some-what overshadowed by the higher ideal ofperfection and beauty. So much so that self-defence movements are taught in a separateand distinct course.

The following example will illustrate theabove remarks. Suppose you were to learn toplay the trumpet or bugle, and became con-versant with the whole theory of music andwere quite capable of playing in an orchestra ;if, after all this instruction, you were to beasked whether you could play your trumpet tosound an alarm, you might easily feel offendedat such a question, but would nevertheless haveto make the effort to learn how to sound analarm, in order to be sure that you could.

The situation of a man expert in Judo whotries self-defence is very much the same. He


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will find self-defence much easier than Judopractised on the mat, but in spite of that, hemust still make the necessary effort to learn.That is why we teach self-defence in a specialcourse which is supplementary to Judo proper.

The following table gives a general view ofthe teaching of Judo. The Japanese wordsused are purely colloquial. I have separatedthe names pronounced as one word into theircomponent parts merely to facilitate theirunderstanding. The movements treated in thisbook are shown in heavy type.


JUDO -a> :5

~a>=... ~ "OIlrIJ... ::s...rIJ..c:

_ ~ '€n.::~~ !; 'C ..2~.g ~ a>a>""

~..c:..c: =.~ ~ ... ... ~~ ~oo!S.~ <.0=0

~ "011"011"011"011c: c: c: c:~ ====~ <f3<f3<f3<f3

~ .-.....-....-....-..~~ ~~~$~c-;:

~.$3...0<:~(1).....c '"- ~~ ......

d ~(1) (1)

8 ...~ ..c"'0 >.t:: (J~ t::

r.x.. ~' v "















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IIThe Art of


Throwing in thestanding position(TACHI-WAZA)

Throwing in thelying position

(SYTEMI-WAZA):II fundamentalthrows

Foot and legthrows

(AsHI- W AZA) :II fundamentalthrows

Hip throws orwaist throws(KOSHI-WAZA):13 fundamentalthrows

Shoulder andhand throws(TE-WAZA):7 fundamentalthrows

Lying on theback(MA-SUTEMI)

Lying on theside(Y OKO-SUTEMI)

(I) O-Soto-Gari (2) De-Ashi-Barai(3) Hiza-Guruma (4) O-Uchi-Gari(5) Ko-Soto-Gari (6) Ko-Uchi-Gari(7) Sasae-Tsuri-Komi-Ashi(8) O-Kuri-Ashi-Barai, etc.

(I) Uki-Goshi (2) Kube-Nage(3) Koshi-Guruma (4) Hara'i-Goshi(5) Hane-Goshi (6) O-Goshi(7) Utsuri-Goshi (8) 0- Toshi(9) Tsuri-Komi-Goshi

(10) Uchi-Mata, etc.

(I) Kata-Seo'ie (2) Seoie-Nage(3) Kata-Guruma(4) Tai-Otoshi (6 kinds)(5) Soto-Maki-Komi, etc.


(I) Tomoe-Nage (3 kinds)(2) Sumi-Gaeshi (2 kinds)(3) Ura-Nage(4) Maki-Komi, etc.

(I) Yoko-Gake(2) Uki-Waza(3) Tani-O-:Toshi, etc.




Ground Workor Grappling(KATAME- W AZA)

Immobilizing (I) Kesa-Gatame (2) Kata-Gatameor holding down (3) Kami-Shio-Gatame(OSAE-WAZA): (4) Yoko-Shio-Gatame

II fundamental positions (5) Kuzure-Kami-Shio-Gatame, etc.

Strangle-holds (I) Kata-Juji-Jime (2) Hadaka-Jime(SHIME-WAZA): (3) Okuri-Eri-Jimeabout 30 holds (4) Gyaku-Juji-Jime, etc.

Locks: (I) Udegaramiarm, head and leg locks (2) U de- Hishighi- Juji-Gatame(KWANSETSU-WAZA)\ (3) Ude-Hishighi-Zenpaku-Gatameor GIAKU: (4) Ude-Hishighi-Hiza-Katameabout 50 locks (5) Ude-Hishighi-Waki-Gatame, etc.


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4) g,~':::<23'0o~.::~::I..c::° '" '"

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~ 4) f~ 'E 4) ,p..~ :.::~<

J!'+:; en 4) 4) ~, d ...4) I'Q <

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Bringing back to consciousness of:(I) a choked or strangled man ;(2) one knocked at the jaw;(3) one knocked in the solar plexus ;(4) one kicked at the testicles;(5) one kicked at the lower abdoJIlen ;(6) one unconscious due to shock ;(7) stopping nose bleeding, etc.

To exhaust the repertoire of JudQ we needto enumerate all the self-defence movementsagainst an aggressor attacking with his limbs,or armed with a stick, knife, sword, bayonet,etc., in the standing position and in the squat-ting position so common in the Far East.

Self-defence is taught through Kalas. Kalameans form. The Kalas are prearranged groupsof movements which are practised so as toeliminate the danger inherent in "pl~ing"with knives, kicking, etc. .

Kalas are extensively used also to perfectone's Judo. They consist generally of fifteenmovements performed on both sides, while inRandori we train only the side in which themovement is more convenient according topersonal preference. Every movement is per-formed in Kala in the same interval of time,which is the time necessary to count one, two,three. One for the first pace, two for theTsukuri or " fitting movement," and three forthe action or Kake. Kalas are indeed fight-


VThe Art of



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dances, and when performed by experts arevery beautiful to watch. They are extremelyuseful for developing graceful motion in Judoand neatness of style.

The most common Kalas are:

(I) JU-NO-KATAfor developing supplenessand agility.

(2) GO-NO-KATAfor developing strength.(3) NAGE-No-KATAfor the perfection of


(4) NEWAzA-No-KATAfor the perfection ofgrappling.

(5) KIME-No-KATAfor self-defence.(6) GONO,.SEN-No-KATAfor attacking and

countering, as w~l1 as others intendedto improve the art of feinting andcombination.

The great variety of movements make Judo..interesting. Their efficiency in enabling aweaker man to defeat a stronger assailant havea special attraction for old and young. It isthe ideal method of physical education forbuilding up strong and agile men and womenby means of simple and beautiful movements,fitting them for any emergency.

Printed for the Publishers by Butler & Tanner Ltd., Frome and London366.151