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Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification Apexogenesis Sealing Biocompatible Antimicrobial Comparative studies
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Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

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Page 1: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Retrograde fillingsPerforationsDens invaginatusApexificationApexogenesis

SealingBiocompatibleAntimicrobial

Comparative studies

Page 2: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Aust Endod J. 2003 Apr;29(1):43-4

A comparative analysis of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland cement.

Funteas UR, Wallace JA, Fochtman EW.

The purpose of this study was to compare the composition of Portland cement and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). Samples of MTA and Portland cement were analysed for fifteen different elements by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-ES). Comparative analysis revealed there was significant similarity except there was no detectable quantity of Bismuth in Portland cement. Quantitative results are given in both parts per million (p.p.m.) and wt%. It was concluded that there is no significant difference between the 14 different elements in both Portland cement and MTA.

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Portland Cement is produced by mixing chalk or limestone with clay or shale either using wet or dry process. The blended raw materials are fed into a kiln at 1400°C and a clinker is formed which is cooled and ground with a small amount of gypsum to form a familiar grey powder. Portland cement reacts chemically with water (hydration) to form four main compounds (Tricalciumsilicate, Dicalcium silicate, Tricalcium aluminate and Tetracalcium aluminoferrite) plus other minor compounds, including sodium and potassium oxides known as alkalies. The chemical compounds form a crystalline ‘gel’ which grows and interlocks to stiffen the cement paste and then carries on to gain strength. The speed of the reaction is effected by temperature (thus the need for accelerators in winter and retarders in summer) and heat is given off by the reaction itself. It is called Portland cement because of its resemblance to the Portland stone quarried in Dorset.

(http://www.nationwidepremixed.com)

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Baek SH, Plenk H Jr, Kim S. Periapical tissue responses and cementum regeneration with amalgam, SuperEBA, and MTA as root-end filling materials. J Endod. 2005 Jun;31(6):444-9.

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Sanjabi

Page 8: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Sanjabi

Page 9: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Rikvold

Page 10: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Root canalmedicaments

Dag Ørstavik2006

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Endodontics is:Prevention or treatment of

apical periodontitis

which in practice means

Protection against or elimination of root

canal infection

Irrigation, medicationand root filling are all

means towards this end

Ørstavik 1988

Page 12: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

5

3

4

2

1

(1) Wetting of the canal walls and (1) Wetting of the canal walls and removal of debris by flushing. removal of debris by flushing.

(2) Destruction of microorganisms.(2) Destruction of microorganisms.(3) Dissolution of organic matter. (3) Dissolution of organic matter. (4) Removal of smear layer (4) Removal of smear layer

and softening of dentin.and softening of dentin.(5) Cleaning in areas that are (5) Cleaning in areas that are

inaccessible to mechanical inaccessible to mechanical cleansing methods. cleansing methods.

from Sundqvist & Figdor, in ’Essential Endodontology, 1998

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Vital

Infected pulp;apical periodontitis

Instrumentation& irrigation Dressing

Filled &healing

Completehealing

Root canal infection Time

?

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What do we want to achieve?

0

20

40

60

80

100

Initialgrowth

Post-instr Post-irrig Post-dress Post-fill

Current You? Future

Reduction in canals positive for bacterial growth

Page 15: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Influence of infection at the time of root filling on theInfluence of infection at the time of root filling on theoutcome of outcome of endodonticendodontic treatment of teeth with apicaltreatment of teeth with apicalperidontitisperidontitis. . SjSjöögrengren et al IEJ 1997et al IEJ 1997

55 infectedteeth

ChemomechanicalChemomechanicalpreparationpreparation

22 with bacteria

31 bacteriafree

40% positive teeth40% positive teeth

RootRoot--fillingfilling

29 healed15 healed 2 failed7 failed5 year5 yearFollow upFollow up

68% success rate68% success rate 94% success rate94% success rate

Page 16: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Where are the microbes?

P

What can we do with them?

InstrumentationIrrigationDressingFilling

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Factors related to mechanicalcleansing by instrumentation• Length: epidemiology: root filling

length a measure of instrumentation length

• Shape: taper; retention of canalshape

• Width: bacteriology

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Aspects of instrumentation

No preoperative apical periodontitis: Instrumentation length/overfilling of little importance

Sjögren et al. 1991

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End point of root filling and success

0

20

40

60

80

100

0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1

RadiologyHistology

Ketterl 1965

Page 20: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Suppose we get there – how well do we clean?Effectiveness of three instrumentation systems in the

cleaning of root canalsAppelstein et al. JOE April 2003, OR 17

Cleaning of root canals

0

1

2

3

4

Coronal Middle Apical

Root level

Debr

is in

dex

Stainless steel K filesProFileRace

Page 21: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Zmener O, Pameijer CH, Banegas G. International Endodontic Journal, 38, 356–363, 2005.

Table 1 Mean (SD) scores of debris removal

Group n 1 mm 5 mm 10 mm

1. AET 15 1.65 (0.20) 1.42 (0.40) 1.33 (0.22)

2. PF 15 1.83 (0.44) 2.00 (0.41) 1.62 (0.33)

3. MI 15 2.03 (0.36) 2.33 (0.38) 1.64 (0.35)

A score 1 was assigned when no debris or isolated small particles (±40 µm) were present. Score 2 indicated that debris covered more than 50% of the canal walls and a score 3 indicated that debris almost entirely covered the canal walls.

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Mechanical cleaning and bacteriological sampling procedures: Complete vs. discrete

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SampleA On admissionD1 First reamer to biteD2 Final reamer, complete apical circleR1 Second appointment, next reamer up

Growth after extensivereaming: a clinical pilot

Ørstavik et al. 1991

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0

1

2

3

4

5

6

A D1 D2 R1

ISO 40- ISO 45+

Growthafter

extensivereaming:

log10 values

Ørstavik et al. 1991

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0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

A D1 D2

ISO 25 ISO 40

Growthafter

extensivereaming:

log10 values

Yared & Bou Dagher 1994

Page 26: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Growthafter

extensivereaming: Radio-assay 0

50

100

150

200

ISO 50: Pow -R ISO 35: GT

Rollison S, Barnett F, Stevens RH. JOE 2002

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Reduction in intracanal bacteriaduring root canalpreparation with

and without apicalenlargement

(In vitro,E. faecalis)

0

20

40

60

80

100

Ctrl GT slim GT wide

Bacteria surviving, %

Coldero LG, McHugh S, MacKenzie D, Saunders WP.Int Endod J. 2002 May;35(5):437-46

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Growth after instrumentation: in vitro; E. faecalis

Siqueira et al. 1999

Method % Red.NiTi #30 98.17NiTi #35 99.50NiTi #40 99.57*GT hand 0.12t 94.17Profile 0.06t/#5 97.26

Clinically supported by Shuping, Sigurdsson, Trope, Orstavik et al 1999-2004

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Bactericidal effects of 2.94 microns Er:YAG-laser radiation in dental root canals.Mehl A, Folwaczny M, Haffner C, Hickel R.J Endod. 1999 Jul;25(7):490-3

0

0,05

0,1

0,15

0,2

Per cent bacteria

remaining

E coli S aureus

15 s60 sNaOCl

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J Endod. 2003 Jan;29(1):12-4.

Bacteriological evaluation of passive ultrasonic activation.

Spoleti P, Siragusa M, Spoleti MJ.

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Incisors Canines Molars

SalineSaline + US

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From Sundqvist & Figdor,’Essential Endodontology’, 1998

Irrigation: ’real-time’ disinfection

• Sodium hypochlorite• Iodine-potassium iodide:

enterococci?• Chlorhexidine• MTAD

• Mix of: Tetracyclin, Acid, Detergent

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Pro & contra NaOCl

• Pro– Strong

antimicrobial– ’Non-toxic’– Dissolves necrotic

tissue– NB: clinical

documentation!

• Contra– Concentration

dependent– Loses effect on

storage– Corrosive, bleaches

fabric– Effect deep in dentin?

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ClinicalClinical effectseffects of of NaOClNaOCl: : teethteeth withwithbacteriabacteria at end of first at end of first appointmentappointment

0

20

40

60

80

100

Cv et al 76 B & S 83 S et al 91 Sh et al 99

PreoperativeSaline0.5-1 NaOCl5.0 NaOCl

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NaOCl & CHX clinically tested

100

70

5040

0

20

40

60

80

100

per cent of canals

with growth

Intracanal irrigant

Saline 2.5 OCl .2 CHX OCl+CHX

alternate use of CHX and OCl; Kuruvilla & Kamath, J Endod. Jul;24:72-6 1998

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Disinfection in vivoErcan et al J Endod. 2004 Feb;30(2):84-87

0

25

50

75

100

Ef Ai Sa Ss0

25

50

75

100

Ef Ai Sa Ss

2% Chlorhexidine 5.25% NaOCl

E. faecalisA. israeliiS. aureusS. salivarius

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AP

P

PDL

An in vitro modelfor testing endodontic medicaments

Haapasalo & Orstavik 1987, Orstavik & Haapasalo 1990

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Dentin infection and disinfectionHaapasalo & Ørstavik, 87,90

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In vitro: Effect of chlorhexidine on

enterococci?

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

0.1 0.2 0.35 0.45

Saline 5minNaOCl 5minCHX 5min

Komorowski et al. 2000, Substantivity of Chlorhexidine-Treated Bovine Root Dentin

Page 39: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

In vitro: effect of chlorhexidine on starved enterococci

CHX 0.05%

0,001

0,01

0,1

1

10

100

0'' 3'' 30'' 60'' 3' 6' 10'

3h (OD 0.3)3h (OD 0.5)12h (OD 0.4)12h (OD 0.5)48h (OD 0.5)

Portenier et al. in prep.

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Conclusion on irrigation: NaOClremains irrigant of choice.

Chlorhexidine and MTAD arepotential improvements. Stressed

bacteria may be very resistant.

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1. Kill remaining bacteria’Dauerantisepticum’

2. Prevent regrowth3. Block influx of nutrients

Interappointmentdressings AP

P

PDL

Page 42: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Ca(OH)2 as an antimicrobialdressing

0

10

20

30

40

Teeth with bacteria after dressing, %

C&al 76 S&al 83 B&al 85 S&al 91

Ca(OH)2 Other

These studies, imperfect as they may be, are the basis for current practice

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Root canal disinfection: evidence-based practice

Law A, Messer H. Endod. 2004 Oct;30(10):689-94

0

25

50

75

100

S 91 Sh 00 YBD 94 Ø 91 P 02 Avg

PreoperativePost irrigationPost medication

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Improvement by new technology?Reduction by use of GT, NaOCl, EDTA og

Ca(OH)2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Preop GT, NaOCl,EDTA

Ca(OH)2

Time of sampling

% ro

ot c

anal

s w

ith g

row

th

McGurkinet al. JOE April 2003, PR 23Reductionof intracanalbacteriausing GT rotaryinstrumentation, 5.25% NaOCl, EDTA and Ca(OH)2

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Dentin infection and disinfectionHaapasalo & Ørstavik, 87,90

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Disinfection by endodontic irrigantsand dressings of experimentally

infected dentinal tubulesBACTERIA MEDICAMENT SMEAR- SMEAR+

S. sanguis CMCP-l 5 min 20 min

CMCP-v 1 h 1 h

Calasept 2 h –1 d 4 h

E. faecalis CMCP-l 1 h 4 h

CMCP-v 1 d 1 d

Calasept > 10 d

Haapasalo & Ørstavik, 87,90

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In vitro: Lasting effect by chlorhexidine on enterococci?

0,0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0

0,1 0,2 0,35 0,45

Saline 7dNaOCL 7dCHX 7d

Komorowski et al. 2000, Substantivity of Chlorhexidine-Treated Bovine Root Dentin

Page 48: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide; Enterococcus faecalis; in vitro.

0

25

50

75

100

2% CHX gel Ca(OH)2

Growth from inner filings

1d2d7d15d30d

Gomes BP et al., Int Endod J. 2003 Apr;36(4):267-75.

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In vitro: Survival of E. faecalis in dentin after 4 weeks of dressing

+---

+---

+---

++--

++--

+---

100 300 500200 400 600

µm

CaCO3Ca(OH)2

Ca(OH)2 + IKICa(OH)2 + CHX-EtOH

Sirén et al. 2004

Page 50: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

In vitro: Antibacterial effect of chlorhexidinein gutta percha: growth after 7 days

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

0-100 100-200 200-300 300-400 400-500

CTRLCHX-iCHX-gp

J Endod. 2003 Jun;29(6):416-8. Antibacterial efficacy of a new chlorhexidine slow release device to disinfect dentinal tubules. Lin S, Zuckerman O, Weiss EI, Mazor Y, Fuss Z.

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Dentin penetration: to and from the pulp

’the three (mechanims of protection by dentin) described:

1) diffusion limitation; 2) limited wetness for hydrolysis; and3) buffering by dentinal hydroxyapatite,

appear to allow the relatively safe use of a wide range of toothrestorative materials’

Influence of dentine on the pulpward release of eugenol or acids from restorative materials.Hume WR, J Oral Rehabil 1994;21(4):469-73

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Inhibition of antibacterial effect

• Pulpal tissue• Smear• Hydroxyapatite• Collagen• Microbes: alive or dead

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Portenier et al 2003.

0.1/0.2% Iodine-potassum iodide

cfu %100

Detectionlimit

dentinE.f.C.a.water

10

1

0.1

0 h 1 h 24 h

Page 54: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Portenier et al., JOE in press, 2005

Test tube

After 0, 1 and 24 h Dilution series + Incubation on agar

Bacteria

Dentine powder

3x washMedicament: MTAD 100

MTAD 10CHX .2CHX .02CHX .01CHX .1+ CTR .1CHX .01 + CTR .01

Page 55: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Killing of E faecalis in the presence of dentin

0

20

40

60

80

100

0 h 1 h 24 h

TIME

SURV

IVO

RS, %

MTAD 100

MTAD 10

CHX .2

CHX.02

CHX .01

CHX .1+ CTR .1

CHX .01 + CTR .01

Page 56: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Effect of physiological state – Ca(OH)2

cfu%

100

10

1

0.1

0.01

0.001

3h 12h

48h

0'' 3'' 30'' 60'' 3' 6' 10'

From Portenier et al., 2005

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SampleA On admissionPI End of first appointmentPD Second appointment

Critical Steps in Microbial Control

Microbiological Evaluation of One- and Two-Visit Endodontic Treatment of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: A Randomized, Clinical Trial

Kvist et al JOE 2004

Page 58: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

INITIAL SAMPLE

POSTINSTRUMENTATION SAMPLE

ONE-VISIT GROUPthe canals were filled with 5% IPI solution for 10 min. The IPI was inactivated with 5% sodium thiosulphateand the canals sampled for microorganisms according to the same protocol as earlier described. Finally, root canals were obturated.

TWO-VISIT GROUPCH was placed meticulously by means of a Lentulo-spiral, and the access cavity sealed with Coltosol®. One week later, root canal instruments and simultaneous irrigation with VMGA I were used to remove the CH.

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The postinstrumentation sampling showed reductions of cultivable microbiota. However, bacteria were still found in 62% of teeth in the one-visit group and 64% in the two-visit group.

The postmedication sampling revealed residual microorganisms in 29% of teeth in the one-visit group and 36% of two-visit group.

However, no statistically significant differences between groups were discerned.

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Influence of infection at the time of root filling on theInfluence of infection at the time of root filling on theoutcome of outcome of endodonticendodontic treatment of teeth with apicaltreatment of teeth with apicalperidontitisperidontitis. . SjSjöögrengren et al IEJ 1997et al IEJ 1997

55 infectedteeth

ChemomechanicalChemomechanicalpreparationpreparation

22 with bacteria

31 bacteriafree

40% positive teeth40% positive teeth

RootRoot--fillingfilling

68% success rate68% success rate 94% success rate94% success rate

7 failed 15 healed 29 healed2 failed5 year5 yearFollow upFollow up

Page 61: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Influence of infection at the time of root filling on theInfluence of infection at the time of root filling on theoutcome of outcome of endodonticendodontic treatment of teeth with apicaltreatment of teeth with apicalperidontitisperidontitis. . SjSjöögrengren et al IEJ 1997et al IEJ 1997

55 infectedteeth

ChemomechanicalChemomechanicalpreparationpreparation

22 withbacteria

31 bacteriafree

40% positive teeth40% positive teeth

RootRoot--fillingfilling

9 failed 44 healed5 year5 yearFollow upFollow up

83% success rate83% success rate

Page 62: Retrograde fillings Perforations Dens invaginatus Apexification ...

Medicament options

• Irrigation– NaOCl: + tissue diss,

+/- abac & smear,-subst

– CHX: + abac & subst,- smear & tissue diss

– MTAD: + abac, subst,smear, - tissue diss,staining ?, (? localantibiotic)

• Dressing– Ca(OH)2: + docu,

tissue diss, - abac– Ca(OH)2 w CHX: +

subst & abac, - docu– Short term iodine:

+ abac, - docu– Short term CHX:

+ abac, - docu

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Conclusion on dressings: Ca(OH)2 remains substanceof choice; but chlorhexidine

(and iodine?) shows promise in in vitro tests, perhaps in combination

with Ca(OH)2

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Historical on dressings: Eugenol, creosote,

formaldehyde, tricresol-formalin (formocresol),

thorium(!)