Respiratory Health Concerns
Asthma – bronchial airway obstruction.
• Etio – allergy, infection, anxiety, activity
• S/S – wheezing, coughing, difficulty breathing.
• Tx – inhaler, avoid what makes started it.
Bronchitis – Inflammation of the bronchi
• Etio: can occur over a long period of time, allergies, dust, infections, pollutions.
• S/S – increase in secretions from mucous membranes, obstructed breathing
• Tx – rest, fluids, inhaler, avoid what caused it if possible.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease – any disease that causes chronic obstruction of bronchial tubes and lungs.
• Etio – allergies, pollutants, smoking; can be from bronchitis, emphysema, etc.
• S/S – shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, coughing, wheezing, etc.
• Tx – inhaler, medication to make symptoms better, avoid what caused it.
Epistaxis – nosebleed; rupture of blood vessel in the nose.
• Etio – trauma.
• S/S – bleeding from 1 or both nostrils, spiting out blood; tasting blood.
• Tx – lean forward, gauze or nose plug, call 911 if it doesn’t stop.
Anthracosis – Black lung.
• Etio: Coal dust in the lungs.
• S/S: no early symptoms, coughing, chest pains, difficulty breathing.
• Tx: no cure.
Emphysema – unable to exhale all the air from the lungs, which cause CO2 to build up and damage alveoli
• Etio – smoking, manufacturing fumes, air pollutants
• S/S – difficulty breathing, short of breath with slightest exertion.
• Tx – no cure, inhaler, respiratory therapy, medications to make symptoms easier.
Lung Cancer – leading cause of death in both males and females.
• Etio – exposure to carcinogens, smoking, can just be fate.
• S/S – hemoptysis, dyspnea, weight loss, chest pain.
• Tx – chemotherapry, radiation, surgery.
Pneumonia – inflammation and infection of the lungs; alveoli fill with fluid
• Etio – bacterial, virus, fungi; low immune system.
• S/S – shortness of breath, fever, cough, chest pain, fatigue.
• Tx – antibiotics, medications for symptoms, rest, fluids.
Pleurisy – inflammation of the pleura.
• Etio: other infections, certain medications
• S/S: sharp stabbing pain while breathing, dyspnea, fever, grating sounds in lungs when breathing.
• Tx: treat what caused it, medications for symptoms.
Hemoptysis – coughing up blood from lungs or bronchial tubes.
• Etio – chronic lung disease, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or trauma.
• S/S – cough and blood comes out.
• Tx – fix what caused it, seek immediate help, 911 if it won’t stop.
Tuberculosis – highly infectious disease in the lungs, spread through droplets.
• Etio: caused by bacteria call bacilli that invade the lungs and cause small swellings and inflammation.
• S/S: coughing, fatigue, chills, fever, chest pain.
• Tx: antibiotics, medication for symptoms.
Upper Respiratory Infection – viral infection of part or all of the entire upper respiratory tract (common cold)
• Etio – highly contagious, exposure to infection, sharing utensils, airborne droplets.
• S/S – sneezing, watery eyes, sore throat, cough.
• Tx – rest, fluids, treat symptoms with medications; wash hands.