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Research Process J J G Arachchige

Research process - 2013 - for IS5232 module

May 11, 2015



Introduction to Research process for Information literacy of undergraduates

  • 1.Research ProcessJ J G Arachchige

2. Introduction to research process prepare the research proposal Writing the research report 3. Beginning of scientific inquiry The curiosity of the human nature leads them for investigations Dogma Logical thinking 4. Scientific enquiry began with the curiosity of human nature and logical thinking towards the natural existence of the universe and against the teaching of religious Dogmas. 5. Deductive reasoning The first systematic approach to reasoning e.g. Major premise All men are mortal Miner premise- I am a man Conclusion- I am mortal 6. Inductive reasoningSpecific premises 1 - Nimal, Wikki, John and Piyal attended class regularly Specific premises 2 - Nimal, Wikki, John and Piyal received high score of marks Conclusion - Attending class regularly results in high score of marks 7. Deductive-Inductive reasoning Deductive-Inductive reasoning process involves the integration of both above to find a solution to the problem. Problem hypothesis Collection, organization and analysis of data conclusions Verification, rejection or modification of hypothesis Scientific approach 8. What is Research Research is all about addressing an issue or asking and answering a question or solving a problem. We do problem solving in our day-to-day life informally. Yet, to be a research it should follow scientific method which is more formal, systematic and carefully analyzed. 9. Research is a structured enquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable. 10. Types of Research mode of application Fundamental or Basic research Applied research Action Research 11. Fundamental research Fundamental research is usually carried on in a laboratory or other sterile environment, some times with animals. This type of research which has no immediate or planned application may later result in further research of applied nature. In behavioral science, Fundamental research may be concerned with the development and testing of theories of behavior. 12. Applied research Applied research has most of the characteristics of fundamental research. The purpose is to improve the product or process testing theoretical concepts in actual problem situations. 13. Action research Action research is focused on immediate application, not on the development of a theory or on general application. Its findings are to be evaluated in local applicability. Solution of problems in a particular setting 14. Types of research - objectives Research can be descriptive, corelational, explanatory, Exploratory according to the nature of the research conducted. 15. Inquiry modeQuantitative Qualitative 16. Research Process Identification of the problem Definition the problem Formulation of hypothesis Design the research Collection, organization and analysis of data Formulation of conclusions Verification, rejection or modification of hypothesis by the test of its consequences in a specific situation. 17. Identification of the problem Problems are all around us. Research problems can be identified through: Observation. Literature reviews. Professional conferences. Contacting experts. 18. 1. The problemSource: 19. 2. Selecting a topic Select a broad topic in your interested area Derive a researchable problem from the broad topic by narrowing the scope Raise research questions Formulate objectives Determine its importance and feasibility 20. Researchable Problem Sleeping in class rooms Sleeping of undergraduate students during lectures Factors affecting on sleepiness of undergraduates during lectures Factors affecting on sleepiness of Science undergraduates during IL lectures 21. Activity 1 Narrow down your broad topic to form a researchable topic. Problem :There are road accidents much more than ever. There are various reasons for increasing of road accidents. One may be the use of alcohol by drivers during driving. It should be researched to find out whether there is an effect of alcohol use on accidents. Time - 5 minutes 22. 3. Research QuestionsWhy do Science undergraduates sleep during IL lectures? 23. Activity 2 Formulate a research question on your topic Time - 2 minutesEffect of alcohol use by drivers on road accidents 24. Formulation of hypothesis Hypotheses are tentative, intelligent guesses as to the solution of the problem. A tentative explanation of the relationship between two or more variables 25. The hypothesis should be reasonable Be Consistent with known fact or theories Possible to be tested. True or false Should be stated in the simple possible terms Simple, specific and conceptully clear 26. Hypotheses have two or more variables Independent variable - cause Dependent variable - Outcome/effect Extraneous variable other factors affecting 27. Variables to form the Hypothesis Sleepiness during lectures (dependent variable) Boring teaching method- (independent variables) Time of the lecturing Heavy diet Psychological issue Physical fitness Mental problems Behavioural patterns 28. Hypothesis 1 Science undergraduate students sleep during IL lectures because of conventional method of teaching Hypothesis 2 Sleepiness during lectures can be avoided with a self management of behaviour. 29. Activity 3 Construct hypotheses on your research problem 30. Research design/Experimental design Research design is the conceptual structure in which the investigation can be conducted. Research design explains how, where, when and with whom the research is conducted. 31. Experimental Non experimental Quasi or semi experimental 32. Methodology Subject: Details of the population from which the researcher plan to select the sample Procedures: Research plan, What will be done. How it will be done. What data will be needed. Data gathering devices Data analysis: Details of how to analyze data 33. Methodology Comparison Quantitative Explanation, prediction Test theories Known variables Large sample Standardized instruments DeductiveQualitative Explanation, description Build theories Unknown variables Small sample Observations, interviews Inductive 34. Collection of data Population Undergraduates of science faculties Subjects selected Science undergraduates form IL course Sampling Randomly select A sample is a small portion of a population selected for observation and analyses. 35. Tools of data collection Tests Observations Questionnaire Interviews 36. Experimental design 4 groups Control group Experimental group Treatment Measure Change the variable and measure Record the number of sleeping and frequency 37. Activity 5 Design a method/experiment 38. Organization and analysis of data grouping and tabulating analyzing process qualitative methods quantitative methods. 39. Content analysis Identify the main themes Assign codes to main themes Classify responses Integrate themes and responses 40. Quantitative method is mostly used to analyze data in large well designed surveys SPSS 41. Interpretation Interpretation involves the explaining of findings to arrive at a conclusion. Here, the researcher explains whether the hypothesis is proved or not. Researcher can verify the hypothesis, reject it or modify it and do the research again if necessary. 42. Attributes of Research Research is directed towards a solution of a problem Research emphasizes the development of generalization Research is based upon observable experiences or empirical evidence Research demands accurate observation and description 43. Research involves gathering new data from primary or firsthand sources or using existing data for a new purposes It is often characterized by carefully designed procedures Research requires expertise Research strives to be objective and logical Research involves the quest for answers to unsolved problems Research is characterized by patient and unhurried activity 44. Research is carefully recorded and reported Research sometimes requires courage Originates with a question or problem. Requires clear articulation of a goal. Follows a specific plan or procedure. Often divides main problem into sub problems. Guided by specific problem, question, or hypothesis. Accepts certain critical assumptions. Requires collection and interpretation of data. Cyclical (helical) in nature. 45. Research Proposal 46. Research proposal Preparation of a research proposal is an important step in the research process. It Is a basis for evaluation of the project Systematic plan or procedure to follow Structure of the proposal depends on the nature of the research Seven parts proposal is typical not compulsory 47. Writing a research proposal Statement of the problem Significance of the problem Definitions, Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations Review of related literature Hypotheses/objectives/research questions Methodology Time schedule 48. The statement of the problem may be derivative statement but may be in a question form Gives direction to the research Problems can be derived from a theory Can be a prior research results Personal observations Experiences Eg.Effect of Kuppi Classes for the improvement of performance level of engineering undergraduates . 49. Significance of the problem Researcher points out how the solution to the problem can influence the society. Justify the worthiness of the study Background information may be useful here 50. The findings of the study will be beneficial to undergraduates, librarians, and administration of the university. If the Kuppi is effective, librarians can facilitate the students with study places and essential resources. If it is not effective academics and librarians can launch programmes to convince and encourage students to follow effective methods of learning. 51. Definitions, Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations Define the terms that could be misinterpreted Assumption are statements what the believes to be fact but cannot verify. Limitations are those conditions beyond control of the researcher. Delimitations are the boundaries of the study. 52. Definitions Kuppi Kuppi is a type of studying techniques used by college students. Similar term used for cramming in universities. Performance level the term Performance level here refers to the score of marks in semester examinations. 53. Assumptions Some group discussions among students were similar to Kuppi. Sometimes it is difficult to distinguish kuppi from group studies. 54. Limitations Group discussions among students were not considered as Kuppi in this study because group discussion is one of accepted effective study techniques. 55. Delimitations This study involves the Kuppi activities of engineering students of UR only. Only first year and final students were selected. 56. Review of related literature Summary of previous research What is already known and what is still unknown and untested Provides a background for the study Make the reader aware of status of the issue Literature review is a valuable guide to defining the problem, recognizing its significance, suggesting data gathering devices, appropriate study design, and formulating hypothesis. 57. Hypothesis H1 Kuppi classes among undergraduate students can make a significant effect on MCQ papers than essay type papers. H2 Systematic learning is more significant in earning higher GPA than Kuppi learning among engineering undergraduates. 58. The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether Kuppi classes can make a significant effect on the achievement of higher score in examinations. Supportive objectives: Explore who engage in Kuppi classes Explore the contents of Kuppi classes Calculate the score of marks in exams who engage in Kuppi classes Compare and contrast the score of Kuppi- engaged students and non Kuppi- engaged students. 59. Methodologies Experimental design Sample will be selected from first year and final year students from the faculty of engineering of UR. Sample is divided into 2 categories : First year and final Each category will be divided into two groups: control and experimental Control group Experimental group First yearFirst yearFinal yearFinal year 60. Pre-test All four groups will be given two question papers MCQ and essay type relevant to their level of subject coverage. Treatment Control groups will be exposed to systematic and activity based learning process Experimental groups will be exposed to Kuppi learning process Post-test All four groups will be tested with a MCQ paper and essay type paper relevant to their level of subjects. 61. Specially funding agencies require a well planed research proposal before granting the fund. There are several parts in a typical research proposal although not compulsory. The proposal should be well planed so that the funding agency can be convinced the importance of the project 62. Submitting a research proposal for funding The title page Abstract Table of contents Introduction Research Methodology Institutional resources Budget Anticipated results Limitations of the study Back matters 63. Research report 64. Preparation of the Research report After you conducting the research you have to communicate your finding with the relevant community. Writing the research report is the last and (for many people) the most difficult step in the research process. The purpose of the research report is to inform the world about what you have done, how you have done it, and what you have discovered. 65. Following factors are important to consider when you write the research report: Value of the content Organization of the content Structure of presenting ideas Language and style 66. your research report is based on following questions. What was the research problem? Why is this problem important? How does your project relate to the context of other research? How did you investigate the research problem? What are your findings? What do these findings tell you? What do you conclude? 67. Front matter Title page Acknowledgements Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables List of FiguresBody of the report Introduction Literature review Methodology Results Discussion ConclusionsEnd matter Reference list/bibliography /Endnotes Appendices 68. Title page The title of your report should be concise and informative. It should not be vague and general but should encapsulate the essence of the research. The title is generally given on a separate page together with your name, course and instructor details 69. Acknowledgement To thank anyone whose support has been important for your work. The supervisor generally receives the first vote of thanks. Dont forget your participants (Though remember confidentiality) This section is the least bound by convention. You may speak from the heart. 70. Abstract The abstract is a precise summary of the whole report. Non technical summary A brief overview of the whole report What did you do and why (problem and why it is important) How you did (Methodology) What you found out (Major results) What was the significations (conclusion/recommendations) 71. Table of Contents Lists all major divisions and subdivisions marked by numbers and indicates which page they are on. The titles and subtitles of sections should appear in a style and size consistent with their position in the hierarchy (see style manuals for help in selecting your system). Numbering hierarchy: 1 1.1 1.1.1 72. Lists of Tables / Figures / Illustrations / Appendices Lists all of the above if available and the page No.s on which they appear. A separate section is used for each of these categories It is often handy to number such items using the chapter number first: eg, Fig 1.1, Fig. 2.1, Fig.2.2, Table 1.2 etc. 73. Introduction Provide contextual information to the problem Introduce the objectives Identify specific research questions Discuss the topic and illustrate the theoretical points Outline your general arguments You can indicate the structure of the rest of the report 74. Literature review A discussion of findings of other researchers Critical appraisal of other theories You can compare and asses others results Provide external context for your research Justify your project Should be structured thematically May have a number of sub-sections Highlight similarities and differences 75. Methodology Details of methods and procedures Discuss the reasons for choosing the particular methods and procedures Explore the scope and limitations of the method Hypotheses Study area How the population was selected Explain how data was collected/generated Explain how data was analyzed Explain methodological problems if any 76. Results you may indicate the data and findings which were analyzed and ordered according to your methodology. Tables and figures can be used to further describe the results. it provides the reader with a factual account of your findings 77. Discussion interpret and explain your results; examine whether and how the questions raised in the introduction section have been answered Show how your results relate to the literature Qualify and explore the theoretical importance/significance of your results Outline any new research questions or areas for future research that your results have suggested. develop a logical argument about what your results mean compare with results of previous research discuss the shortcomings of the research/methodology 78. Conclusion Restatement of the research problem/question Return to the objectives and describe whether they have achieved Indicate what has been learnt from the study How findings can be applied Future possibilities Suggestions 79. Reference list/bibliography /Endnotes The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order and should use a referencing system which ensures the consistency of elements. Should not include works you found of no use 80. Thank you

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