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Research Methodology Report on Future of EV(s)

Aug 10, 2014




  • DECLARATION DATE OF SUBMISSION: ___________ We APARNA RANE, KIRTI KOLAMBKAR, NITN LANKE, PRASHANT BAGALORE and PRATHAMESH JADHAV students of Sir M. Visvesvaraya Institute Of Management Studies & Research studying in 1st year MMS batch, hereby declare that we have completed our Research Methodology Project on Future of Electric and Hybrid-Electric Vehicles for Semester-II during the academic year 2012- 2013, the information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge. Signature of Students Date : ________________ Place : ________________ Page 2 _______________________
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Apart from the efforts of ours, the success of any project depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. We take this opportunity to express our gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. We would like to show our appreciation to the Director General Dr. B. Manjunath for his support. We would also like to thank Administrator Prof. Brahma Prakash Tripathi for sharing his knowledge. We feel grateful to Co-ordinator & our project guide Prof. Mamta Tammewar. Without her encouragement and guidance this project would not have been materialized. The guidance and support received from all the members who contributed the nonteaching staff, the library staff was vital for the success of the project. We are grateful for Page 3 their constant support and help.
  • OBJECTIVES To study the perceptions and expectations of potential, for alternative technologies in automobiles, such as Electric/Hybrid Vehicles. To know why electric vehicle couldnt get enough consumer attraction To study the willingness of buyers of considering Electric/Hybrid Vehicles as a practical commuting option and at when. To study the maximum price consumers can afford for buying an Electric/Hybrid Vehicles To study the other options available for Range Anxious Consumer with respect to existing batteries used in Electric/Hybrid Vehicles To study the Government initiatives taken for promoting Electric/Hybrid Vehicles and subsidies provided on Electric Vehicle batteries. To study the current expectations of consumers with respect to Electric/Hybrid Vehicles, this will lead to its potential for future. Page 5 To study the current threats, this is causing slow growth of Electric/Hybrid Vehicles.
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY India today is one of the top ten automotive markets in the world and given its burgeoning middle class population with buying potential and the steady economic growth, accelerating automotive sales is expected to continue. In the last couple of years, there has been a lot of discussion around the prices of fuel apart from the deregulation of petrol prices. Moreover the threat of disruption of supplies from the Middle-East has heightened the debate on energy security and brought the focus on to alternate drivetrain technologies. The potential for alternative technologies in automobiles such as electric vehicles (EV) in India, as in the case of many other comparable markets, depends on improved battery technologies, driving ranges, government incentives, regulations, lower prices and better charging infrastructure. There seems to be a lot of interest on the part of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based manufacturers to adopt electric technology, not just supplemental to the ICE, but as a stand-alone offering. There are also specialized EV manufacturers that have come up all over the world. While many of the factors that influence the EV market are understood intellectually, we carried out a consumer survey to study perceptions and expectations of potential for alternative technologies in automobiles such as electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid EV. Page 6 Assessing future demand for electric vehicles was somewhat challenging since it meant testing consumer preferences for a product with which they are largely unfamiliar. For this reason, we focused on uncovering consumers familiarity with EV technologies and products; with their opinions around price, brand, range, charging, the infrastructure, and the cost of ownership; and with the consumers imagined fit of an EV in his or her lifestyle given a range of demographic parameters.
  • Automotive Industry in India The automotive industry in India is one of the larger markets in the world and had previously been one of the fastest growing globally, but is now seeing flat or negative growth rates. India's passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the sixth largest in the world, with an annual production of more than 3.9 million units in 2011. Chennai is home to around 35-40% of India's total automobile industry and for this reason it is known as the Detroit of Asia. It is on the way to becoming the world's largest Auto hub by 2016 with a capacity of over 3 million cars annually. The majority of India's car manufacturing industry is based around three clusters in the south, west and north. The southern cluster consisting of Chennai is the biggest with 35% of the revenue share. The western hub near Mumbai and Pune contributes to 33% of the market and the northern cluster around the National Capital Region contributes 32%. Chennai, with the India operations of Ford, Hyundai, Renault, Mitsubishi, Nissan, BMW, Hindustan Motors, Daimler Chennai accounts for 60% of the country's automotive exports. Gurgaon and Manesar in Haryana form the northern cluster where the country's largest car manufacturer, Maruti Suzuki, is based. The Chakan corridor near Pune, Maharashtra is the western cluster with companies like General Motors, Volkswagen, Skoda, Mahindra and Mahindra, Tata Motors, Mercedes Benz, Land Rover, Jaguar Cars, Fiat and Force Motors having assembly plants in the area. Nashik has a major base of Mahindra & Mahindra with a UV assembly unit and an Engine assembly unit. Aurangabad with Audi, Skoda and Volkswagen also forms part of the western cluster. Another emerging cluster is in the state of Gujarat with manufacturing facility of General Motors in Halol and further planned for Tata Nano at their plant in Sanand. Ford, Maruti Suzuki and Peugeot-Citroen plants are also set to come up in Gujarat. Kolkata with Hindustan Motors, Noida with Honda and Bangalore with Toyota are some of the other automotive manufacturing regions around the country. Electric vehicle and Hybrid vehicle (xEV) industry During April 2012 Indian Government has planned to unveil the roadmap for the development of the domestic electric and hybrid vehicles (xEV) in the country. A discussion between the various stakeholders including Government, industry and the academia is expected to take place during 2324 February. The final contours of the policy will be formed after this set of discussions. Ministries such as Petroleum, Finance, Road Transport and Power are involved in developing a broad framework for the sector. Along with these ministries big auto industry names such as Mr Anand Mahindra (Vice Chairman and Managing Director, Mahindra & Mahindra) and Mr Vikram Kirloskar (Vice-Chairman, Toyota Kirloskar) are also involved in this task. Government has also proposed to set up a Rs 740 crore R&D fund for the sector in the 12th five year plan during 2012-17. The idea is to reduce the high cost of key imported components such as the battery and electric motor and develop such capabilities locally. Electric car manufacturers in India -Mahindra REVA -Tara International -Tata (Indica Vista) -Chevrolet (Beat) 7 -Hero Electric (Yo Bikes) Page -Ajanta Group
  • Manufacturing Facilities Passenger Vehicles General Motors India Private Limited Chevrolet Sales India Private Limited Halol Maruti Suzuki Gurgaon, Manesar Mahindra REVA Electric Vehicles Bangalore Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Limited Bidadi Ssangyong Motor Company Chakan Tata Motors Limited o Tata Motors Pimpri Chinchwad, Sanand o Jaguar Cars and Land Rover Pune Mercedes-Benz Passenger Cars Chakan Fiat Automobiles Ranjangaon Pune Volkswagen Group Sales India Private Limited o Volkswagen Chakan o Audi AG Aurangabad o koda Auto Aurangabad Chinkara Motors Karlekhind Alibag Premier Automobiles Limited Pimpri Chinchwad Honda Siel Cars India Tapukara BMW India Chennai Ford India Private Limited Maraimalai Nagar Hyundai Motor India Limited Sriperumbudur Mitsubishi Tiruvallur Renault Nissan Automotive India Private Limited o Nissan Motor India Private Limited Oragadam o Renault India Private Limited Oragadam Two wheelers Hero MotoCorp Dharuhera, Gurgaon India Yamaha Motor Faridabad Honda Manesar Suzuki Gurgaon TVS Motors Nalagarh, Mysore Mahindra & Mahindra Pithampur Bajaj Auto Waluj Aurangabad, Chakan KTM Sportmotorcycles Chakan Vespa Scooters Baramati Pune Kinetic Engineering Ahmednagar, Pune Royal Enfield Chennai India Yamaha Motor Greater Noida Page TAFE Tractors Parwanoo Tata Motors Jamshedpur Volvo Buses India Private Limited Hoskote Force Motors Private Limited Pithampur Eicher Motors Pithampur MAN Trucks India Akurdi Pune Mercedes-Benz Buses India Chakan Piaggio Vehicles Baramati Pune Ashok Leyland Ennore, Hosur 8 Commercial Vehicles
  • About Electric Vehicles During the last few decades, environmental impact of the petroleum-based transportation infrastructure, along with the peak oil, has led to renewed interest in an electric transportation infrastructure. Electric vehicles differ from fossil fuel-powered vehicles in that the electricity they consume can be generated from a wide range of sources, including fossil fuels, nuclear power, and renewable sources such as tidal power, solar power, and wind power or any combination of those. An electric vehicle (EV), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. Three main types of electric vehicles exist, those that are directly powered from an external power station, those that are powered by stored electricity originally from an external power source, and those that are powered by an on-board electrical generator, such as an internal combustion engine (a hybrid electric vehicle) or a hydrogen fuel cell. Electric vehicles include electric cars, electric trains, electric lorries, electric aeroplanes, electric boats, electric motorcycles and scooters and electric spacecraft. Proposals exist for electric tanks, diesel submarines operating on battery power are, for the duration of the battery run, electric submarines, and some of the lighter UAVs are electrically-powered. Electric vehicles first came into existence in the mid-19th century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. The internal combustion engine (ICE) is the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types. A hybrid electric vehicle combines a conventional (usually fossil fuel-powered) powertrain with some form of electric propulsion. Common examples include hybrid electric cars such as the Toyota Prius. The Chevrolet Volt is an example of a production Extended Range Plug-In Electric Vehicle. Electric motor The power of a vehicle electric motor, as in other vehicles, is measured in kilowatts (kW). 100 kW is roughly equivalent to 134 horsepower, although most electric motors deliver full torque over a wide RPM range, so the performance is not equivalent, and far exceeds a 134 horsepower (100 kW) fuel-powered motor, which has a limited torque curve. Usually, direct current (DC) electricity is fed into a DC/AC inverter where it is converted to alternating current (AC) electricity and this AC electricity is connected to a 3-phase AC motor. For electric trains, DC motors are often used. Page Electromagnetic radiation from high performance electrical motors has been claimed to be associated with some human ailments, but such claims are largely unsubstantiated except for extremely high exposures. Electric motors can be shielded within a metallic Faraday cage, but this reduces efficiency by adding weight to the vehicle, while it is not conclusive that all electromagnetic radiation can be contained. 9 Electromagnetic radiation
  • Mechanical Electric motors are mechanically very simple. Electric motors often achieve 90% energy conversion efficiency over the full range of speeds and power output and can be precisely controlled. They can also be combined with regenerative braking systems that have the ability to convert movement energy back into stored electricity. This can be used to reduce the wear on brake systems (and consequent brake pad dust) and reduce the total energy requirement of a trip. Regenerative braking is especially effective for start-and-stop city use. They can be finely controlled and provide high torque from rest, unlike internal combustion engines, and do not need multiple gears to match power curves. This removes the need for gearboxes and torque converters. Electric vehicles provide quiet and smooth operation and consequently have less noise and vibration than internal combustion engines. While this is a desirable attribute, it has also evoked concern that the absence of the usual sounds of an approaching vehicle poses a danger to blind, elderly and very young pedestrians. To mitigate this situation, automakers and individual companies are developing systems that produce warning sounds when electric vehicles are moving slowly, up to a speed when normal motion and rotation (road, suspension, electric motor, etc.) noises become audible. Energy efficiency Electric vehicle 'tank-to-wheels' efficiency is about a factor of 3 higher than internal combustion engine vehicles. Energy is not consumed while the vehicle is stationary, unlike internal combustion engines which consume fuel while idling. However, looking at the well-to-wheel efficiency of electric vehicles, their total emissions, while still lower, are closer to an efficient gasoline or diesel in most countries where electricity generation relies on fossil fuels. Page 10 It is worth noting that well-to-wheel efficiency of an electric vehicle has far less to do with the vehicle itself and more to do with the method of electricity production. A particular electric vehicle would instantly become twice as efficient if electricity production were switched from fossil fuel to a wind or tidal primary source of energy. Thus when "well-to-wheels" is cited, one should keep in mind that the discussion is no longer about the vehicle, but rather about the entire energy supply infrastructure - in the case of fossil fuels this should also include energy spent on exploration, mining, refining, and distribution.
  • Types of Batteries Lead- Acid Battery Li-ion Polymer Battery Previously banks of conventional lead-acid car batteries were commonly used for EV propulsion. Then later the 75 watt-hour/kilogram lithium ion polymer battery prototypes came. The newer Li-poly cells provide up to 130 watt-hour/kilogram and last through thousands of charging cycles. Efficiency Because of the different methods of charging possible, the emissions produced have been quantified in different ways. Plug-in all-electric and hybrid vehicles also have different consumption characteristics. Range Many electric designs have limited range, due to the low energy density of batteries compared to the fuel of internal combustion engined vehicles. Electric vehicles also often have long recharge times compared to the relatively fast process of refuelling a tank. This is further complicated by the current Page 11 scarcity of public charging stations. "Range anxiety" is a label for consumer concern about EV range.
  • Charging Grid capacity: If a large proportion of private vehicles were to convert to grid electricity it would increase the demand for generation and transmission, and consequent emissions. However, overall energy consumption and emissions would diminish because of the higher efficiency of electric vehicles over the entire cycle. Stabilization of the grid: Since electric vehicles can be plugged into the electric grid when not in use, there is a potential for battery powered vehicles to even out the demand for electricity by feeding electricity into the grid from their batteries during peak use periods (such as mid-afternoon air conditioning use) while doing most of their charging at night, when there is unused generating capacity. This vehicle-to-grid (V2G) connection has the potential to reduce the need for new power plants, as long as vehicle owners do not mind their batteries being drained during the day by the power company prior to needing to use their vehicle for a return-commute home in the evening. Furthermore, our current electricity infrastructure may need to cope with increasing shares of variable-output power sources such as windmills and PV solar panels. This variability could be addressed by adjusting the speed at which EV batteries are charged, or possibly even discharged. Some concepts see battery exchanges and battery charging stations, much like gas/petrol stations today. Clearly these will require enormous storage and charging potentials, which could be manipulated to vary the rate of charging, and to output power during shortage periods, much as diesel generators are used for short periods to stabilize some national grids. Heating of electric vehicles: In cold climates, considerable energy is needed to heat the interior of a vehicle and to defrost the windows. With internal combustion engines, this heat already exists as waste combustion heat diverted from the engine cooling circuit. This process offsets the greenhouse gases external costs. If this is done with battery electric vehicles, the interior heating requires extra energy from the vehicles batteries. Although some heat could be harvested from the motor(s) and battery, their greater efficiency means there is not as much waste heat available as from a combustion engine. Page Newer designs are focused on using super-insulated cabins which can heat the vehicle using the body heat of the passengers. This is not enough, however, in colder climates as a driver delivers only about 100 W of heating power. A reversible AC-system, cooling the cabin during summer and heating it during winter, seems to be the most practical and promising way of solving the thermal management of the EV. Ricardo Arboix introduced (2008) a new concept based on the principle of combining the thermal-management of the EV-battery with the thermal-management of the cabin using a reversible AC-system. This is done by adding a third heat-exchanger, thermally connected with the battery-core, to the traditional heat pump/air conditioning system used in previous EVmodels like the GM EV1 and Toyota RAV4 EV. The concept has proven to bring several benefits, such as prolonging the life-span of the battery as well as improving the performance and overall energy-efficiency of the EV. 12 However, for vehicles which are connected to the grid, battery electric vehicles can be preheated, or cooled, with little or no need for battery energy, especially for short trips.
  • About Hybrid Electric Vehicle A hybrid electric vehicle combines a conventional (usually fossil fuel-powered) powertrain with some form of electric propulsion. Common examples include hybrid electric cars such as the Toyota Prius. The Chevrolet Volt is an example of a production Extended Range Plug-In Electric Vehicle. Mopeds, electric bicycles, and even electric kick scooters are a simple form of a hybrid, as power is delivered both via an internal combustion engine or electric motor and the rider's muscles. Early prototypes of motorcycles in the late 19th century used the same principles. In a parallel hybrid bicycle human and motor power are mechanically coupled at the pedal drive train or at the rear or the front wheel, e.g. using a hub motor, a roller pressing onto a tire, or a connection to a wheel using a transmission element. Human and motor torques are added together. Almost all manufactured models are of this type. See Motorized bicycles, Mopeds and for more information. In a series hybrid bicycle (SH) the user powers a generator using the pedals. This is converted into electricity and can be fed directly to the motor giving a chainless bicycle but also to charge a battery. The motor draws power from the battery and must be able to deliver the full mechanical torque required because none is available from the pedals. SH bicycles are commercially available, because they are very simple in theory and manufacturing. Hybrid fuel (dual mode) Ford Escape Hybrid the first hybrid electric vehicle with a flexible fuel capability to run on E85(ethanol). Page Some electric trolleybuses can switch between an on board diesel engine and overhead electrical power depending on conditions (see dual mode bus). In principle, this could be combined with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, although as of 2006, no such design seems to have been announced. Flexible-fuel vehicles can use a mixture of input fuels mixed in one tank typically gasoline and ethanol, or methanol, or biobutanol. Bi-fuel vehicle:Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are very different from petroleum or diesel and cannot be used in the same tanks, so it would be impossible to build an (LPG or NG) flexible fuel system. Instead vehicles are built with two, parallel, fuel systems feeding one engine. While the duplicated tanks cost space in some applications, the increased range and flexibility where (LPG or NG) infrastructure is incomplete may be a significant incentive to purchase. Some vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars modified to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels modified to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into biodiesel. Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and other human-powered vehicles are also included (see Motorized bicycle). 13 In addition to vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion, some also consider vehicles that use distinct energy sources or input types ("fuels") using the same engine to be hybrids, although to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use correctly the terms, these are perhaps more correctly described as dual mode vehicles:
  • Parallel hybrid In a parallel hybrid vehicle, the single electric motor and the internal combustion engine are installed such that they can power the vehicle either individually or together. In contrast to the power split configuration typically only one electric motor is installed. Most commonly the internal combustion engine, the electric motor and gear box are coupled by automatically controlled clutches. For electric driving the clutch between the internal combustion engine is open while the clutch to the gear box is engaged. While in combustion mode the engine and motor run at the same speed. Mild parallel hybrid These types use a generally compact electric motor (usually
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