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Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

Jun 01, 2018

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  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    1/18

    OHO L

    RED@HFUIUHD

    8.8. Ihthr Oeihghdn

    Rh`h ujujdyh, arhdn-arhdn jednnudhghd olihdnhd `esljhi udtug

    jedyhthghd hdngh. Dhjud, `hihj rhdnghlhd slstej `lnlthi, jlshidyh

    ghiguihtar hthu gajputer, hdngh `ldyhthghd `hihj oedtug ga`e older.

    [eihld ltu, jhslf ohdyhg ga`e ihld yhdn `lnudhghd `hihj suhtu slstej

    `lnlthi udtug jedyhthghd hdngh serth furuc hichoet.

    8.?. Pumuhd 

    8.  Jednethful cudnsl rhdnghlhd `ega`er `hd edga`er.

    ?.  Jhjpu jedyusud rhdnghlhd `ega`er `hd edga`er `ednhd

     oerohnhl gajoldhsldyh. 

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    2/18

    OHO LL

    PLDMHUHD RU[PHGH 

    ?.8 _hdnghlhd @ega`er

    _hdnghlhd `ega`er h`hihf rhdnghlhd ianlgh gajoldhsladhi yhdn oercudnsl

    jednuohf ga`e older jedmh`l sldyhi `lsgrlt (Hdadyjaus, d.`.).

    _hdnghlhd ldl `hpht `loedtug jednnudhghd nerohdn HD@ ( ) `hd A_

    ( ) (Hdadyjaus ?, d.`.).

    [eouhf `ega`er fhrus jejedufl syhrht perhdkhdnhd j ≠ ?d. Shrlhoei j 

    h`hihf gajoldhsl geiuhrhd `hd d h`hihf mujihf olt jhsughd. Mh`l, `ega`er

    `ednhd ; jhsughd hghd jejlilgl jhgsljhi ?; : 6 geiuhrhd. Fhdyh shtu

    geiuhrhd yhdn `l-hssert   (`lhgtlcghd ‐ ̀ luohf ge dlihl 8 udtug gad`lsl

    ianlgh pasltlc Whktlve-flnfZ hthu ge dlihl 2 udtug gad`lsl ianlgh denhtlc

    Whktlve-iawZ) `hihj shtu whgtu (ade-fat edka`e` ) (^l`lhdta, ?288). [htu

    gajoldhsl jhsughd fhdyh `hpht jewhglil shtu gajoldhsl geiuhrhd

    (Hdadyjaus, d.`.).

    V \ C2 C8 C? C;

    2 2 8 2 2 2

    2 8 2 8 2 2

    8 2 2 2 8 2

    8 8 2 2 2 8

    Phoei ?.8. Phoei Geoedhrhd @ega`er ? ta 0  

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    3/18

    @hrl thoei `l hths, `hpht `louht cudnsl geiuhrhd seohnhl oerlgut =

    @hrl pershjhhd terseout, jhgh rhdnghlhd nerohdndyh `hpht `louht sepertl

     ph`h nhjohr oerlgut =

    (Hdadyjaus, d.`.).

    [eihld `ega`er ? ta 0, ter`hpht puih `ega`er ; ta 6 yhdn jednuohf tlnh

     ouhf jhsughd ge `hihj 6 ouhf geiuhrhd.

    (Hdadyjaus ?, d.`.).

    Nhjohr ?.8. _hdnghlhd @ega`er ? ta 0 

     

    Nhjohr ?.?. Phoei Geoedhrhd `hd @lhnrhjOiag @ega`er ; ta 6  

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    4/18

    LK `ega`er `lhpilghslghd ph`h  seved senjedt , pednadtrai ihjpu ihiu

    ildths, pednhihjhthd jejarl, seohnhl `ega`er jhtrlg, `hd seohnhldyh

    (Hdadyjaus, d.`.).

    (^l`lhdta, ?288)

    ?.? _hdnghlhd Edga`er

    Edga`er h`hihf rhdnghlhd ianlgh gajoldhsladhi yhdn jejpudyhl slcht

    yhdn oergeohilghd `ednhd `ega`er, yhltu oercudnsl udtug jednga`eghd

    suhtu sldyhi `lsgrlt jedmh`l geiuhrhd ga`e older (Hdadyjaus, d.`.).

    Edga`er older jednga`eghd ldcarjhsl (`hth) `hrl jhsughd ?d  ge `hihj

    ga`e geiuhrhd d-olt. [hihf shtu jhsughd (`hd fhdyh shtu jhsughd) fhrus

    jejpudyhl dlihl 8 (ade-fat edka`ldn ). Geiuhrhd jerepresedthslghd

     olihdnhd older yhdn jednl`edtlclghsl jhsughd jhdh yhdn jejpudyhl

    dlihl 8 (^l`lhdta, ?288).

    Nhjohr ?.;. @eshld _eh`-Adiy J ejary  (_AJ) 

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    5/18

    @hrl thoei `l hths, `hpht `louht cudnsl geiuhrhd seohnhl oerlgut =

    @hrl pershjhhd terseout, jhgh rhdnghlhd nerohdndyh `hpht `louht sepertl

     ph`h nhjohr oerlgut =

    (Hdadyjaus, d.`.).

    Phoei ?.?. Phoei Geoedhrhd Edga`er 6 ta ;  

    Nhjohr ?.0. _hdnghlhd Edga`er 6 ta ;  

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    6/18

    Mh`l, rhdnghlhd edga`er jednurhdnl mujihf olt yhdn `lperiughd udtug

    jerepresedthslghd suhtu ldcarjhsl (`hth). _hdnghlhd ldl `lnudhghd udtugtrhdsjlsl ldcarjhsl `hihj slstej `lnlthi ghredh jednurhdnl mujihf

    shiurhd trhdsjlsl hthu ruhdn pedyljphdhd (^l`lhdta, ?288).

    Jejouht suhtu `ega`er `hd edga`er `hpht `lihgughd `ednhd `uh khrh, yhltu

    (8) jednnudhghd nerohdn-nerohdn `hshr yhdn `lsusud jejoedtug cudnsl

    `ega`er hthu edga`er, `hd (?) jednnudhghd LK `ega`er `hd edga`er yhdn

     ohdyhg ter`hpht `l phshrhd (Hdadyjaus, d.`.), sepertl >0I[06, >0I[850,

    >0I[8;6, >0I[855, `hd seohnhldyh. @ednhd jednnudhghd LK `ega`er yhdn

    teihf h`h `l phshrhd, sesearhdn `hpht jerhdkhdn `ega`er `ednhd mujihf olt

    `hd geiuhrhd yhdn `lldnldghd (\u`lhdtlgh, ?288).

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    7/18

    OHO LLL

    JEPA@AIANL RE_KAOHHD 

    ;.8 

    Hiht `hd Ohfhd

    H`hpud hiht `hd ohfhd yhdn `lnudhghd `hihj perkaohhd rhdnghlhd

    `ega`er h`hihf =

    Nhjohr ;.8.8. [ujoer tenhdnhd 5 Sait @K

    Nhjohr ;.8.?. Ghoei Ghwht Pudnnhi

    Nhjohr ;.8.;. Rrata Oahr`  

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    8/18

    [e`hdnghd hiht `hd ohfhd yhdn `lnudhghd udtug jejoedtug rhdnghlhd

    edga`er h`hihf =

    Nhjohr ;.8.0. Ihjpu IE@

    Nhjohr ;.8.5. LK >0I[8;6

    Nhjohr ;.8.3. [ujoer tenhdnhd 5 Sait @K

    Nhjohr ;.8.>. Ghoei Ghwht Pudnnhi

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    9/18

    ;.? Ihdnghf Rerkaohhd

    _hdnghlhd ̀ ega`er

    8.  Jedyusud rhdnghlhd `ega`er 0-olt `ednhd jednnudhghd `uh

    `ega`er older ?-olt.

    ?.  Jednhjhtl fhsli geiuhrhddyh, geju`lhd jednlsl thoei yhdn teihf

    `lse`lhghd ph`h iejohr germh.

    ;.  Jedyusud rhdnghlhd `ega`er 82-olt (yhdn `lnudhghd fhdyh ; olt

    shmh) `ednhd jednnudhghd `ega`er older ;-olt, nerohdn DHD@ 6

    jhsughd, `hd oeoerhph nerohdn DAP. [eteihfdyh, jednuihdnl ihnl

    ihdnghf (?).

    Nhjohr ;.8.6. Rrata Oahr`  

    Nhjohr ;.8.0I[ serles  

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    10/18

    82 

    _hdnghlhd edga`er

    8.  Jedyusud rhdnghlhd `ega`er 6 ta ;.

    ?. 

    Jednhjhtl fhsli geiuhrhddyh, geju`lhd jednlsl thoei yhdn teihf`lse`lhghd ph`h iejohr germh.

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    11/18

    88 

    OHO LS

    FH[LI @HD REJOHFH[HD

    [hihf shtu medls `hrl rhdnghlhd `ega`er h`hihf `ega`er ;x6, yhltu `ega`er yhdn

    jednhjoli ; ouhf ldput   `hd jedneiuhrghd 6 ouhf autput . @lhnrhj oiag `hrl

    `ega`er ;x6 `ltudmugghd ph`h Nhjohr ?.?.

    Udtug jednethful khrh germh `ega`er `hihj jedermejhfghd ga`e older jedmh`l

     olihdnhd `esljhi, oerlgut `loerlghd shildhd `hrl thoei geoedhrhd rhdnghlhd

    `ega`er ;x6 yhdn `lhjoli `hrl Nhjohr ?.?. =

    LDRUP AUPRUP

    V \ ] C2 C8 C? C; C0 C5 C3 C>

    2 2 2 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

    2 2 8 2 8 2 2 2 2 2 2

    2 8 2 2 2 8 2 2 2 2 2

    2 8 8 2 2 2 8 2 2 2 2

    8 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 2 2 2

    8 2 8 2 2 2 2 2 8 2 2

    8 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 2

    8 8 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8

    Jhgdh `hrl dlihl-dlihl yhdn terterh ph`h thoei `l hths h`hihf =

      Mlgh V, \, `hd ] tl`hg hgtlc, jhgh mhiur C2 hgtlc.

      Mlgh V `hd \ tl`hg hgtlc, se`hdnghd ] hgtlc, jhgh mhiur C8 hgtlc.

    Phoei 0.8. Phoei Geoedhrhd @ega`er ;x6

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    12/18

    8? 

      Mlgh V `hd ] tl`hg hgtlc, se`hdnghd \ hgtlc, jhgh mhiur C? hgtlc.

      Mlgh V tl`hg hgtlc, se`hdnghd \ `hd ] hgtlc, jhgh mhiur C; hgtlc.

      Mlgh \`hd ] tl`hg hgtlc, se`hdnghd V hgtlc, jhgh mhiur C0 hgtlc.

      Mlgh \ tl`hg hgtlc, se`hdnghd V `hd ] hgtlc, jhgh mhiur C5 hgtlc.

      Mlgh ] tl`hg hgtlc, se`hdnghd V `hd \ hgtlc, jhgh mhiur C3 hgtlc.

      Mlgh V, \, `hd ] hgtlc, jhgh mhiur C> hgtlc.

    Jhgsu` `hrl geh`hhd ’hgtlc‚ `l sldl yhltu mhiur yhdn oershdnguthd jejlilgl dlihl

    ianlgh 8 (hktlve-flnf), se`hdnghd ’tl`hg hgtlc‚ h`hihf geohilghddyh, yhgdl

    jejlilgl dlihl ianlgh 2 (hktlve-iaw).

    [lcht `hrl rhdnghlhd `ega`er ldl `lturudghd `hrl sgejh pednadverslhd olihdnhd

     older ge olihdnhd `esljhi (seohnhljhdh cudnsldyh). Hdnnhp V, \, `hd ] seohnhl

    ga`e older ; `lnlt se`hdnghd ohrlshd autput  seohnhl olihdnhd `esljhi yhdn ter`lrl

    `hrl hdngh 2->.

    222 : 2 Þ ?? + 2 Þ ?8 + 2 Þ ?2 : 2 (C2 hgtlc) 

    228 : 2 Þ ?? + 2 Þ ?8 + 8 Þ ?2 : 8 (C8 hgtlc) 

    282 : 2 Þ ?? + 8 Þ ?8 + 2 Þ ?2 : ? (C? hgtlc) 

    288 : 2 Þ ?? + 8 Þ ?8 + 8 Þ ?2 : ; (C; hgtlc) 

    822 : 8 Þ ?? + 2 Þ ?8 + 2 Þ ?2 : 0 (C0 hgtlc) 

    828 : 8 Þ ?? + 2 Þ ?8 + 8 Þ ?2 : 5 (C5 hgtlc) 

    882 : 8 Þ ?? + 8 Þ ?8 + 2 Þ ?2 : 3 (C3 hgtlc) 

    888 : 8 Þ ?? + 8 Þ ?8 + 8 Þ ?2 : > (C> hgtlc) 

    Fhi yhdn shjh oerihgu udtug `ega`er 0x83. Rh`h `ega`er terseout, `lnudhghd 0

     mhiur ldput  yhdn hghd jedneiuhrghd 83 mhiur autput .

    Per`hpht se`lglt peroe`hhd ph`h autput   yhdn `lfhslighd aief `ega`er 0x82.

    @ega`er ldl tl`hg hghd jedneiuhrghd autput  hphpud ph`h ldput   older yhdn mlgh

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    13/18

    8; 

    `l`ega`eghd ge olihdnhd `esljhi hghd jedmh`l hdngh 82, 88, 8?, 8;, 80, `hd 85,

    `lghredhghd mhiur autput  yhdn terse`lh fhdyh shjphl ph`h hdngh C6 C<

    2 2 2 2 8 2 

    -

    2 2 2 8 2 8 2 

    -

    2 2 8 2 2 

    8 2 

    -

    2 2 8 8 2 

    8 2 

    -

    2 8 2 2 2 

    8 2 

    -

    2 8 2 8 2 

    8 2 

    -2 8 8 2 2

     

    8 2 

    -

    2 8 8 8 2 

    8 2 

    -

    8 2 2 2 2 

    8 2 -

    8 2 2 8 2 

    2 8 -

    8 2 8 2 2 2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  JHPL

    8 2 8 8 2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  JHPL

    8 8 2 2 2 

    JHPL8 8 2 8 2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  JHPL

    8 8 8 2 2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  JHPL

    8 8 8 8 2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  JHPL

    H`hpud medls `ega`er ihld yhdn serldn `lphghl `hihj gefl`uphd sefhrl-fhrl

    h`hihf `ega`er  OK@ ta  >   senjedt   (0x>). Rrldslp germh `hrl `ega`er  OK@ ta >

     senjedt   jejlilgl gegfusushd tersed`lrl `ljhdh gajoldhsl `hrl setlhp ldputdyh

    `hpht jednhgtlcghd oeoerhph ilde  autput   seghilnus, yhdn geju`lhd hghd

    jednfl`upghd ihjpu IE@ yhdn oersesuhlhd.

    Phoei 0.?. Phoei Geoedhrhd @ega`er 0x82

    Nhjohr 0.8. >-[enjedt @lspihy  

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    14/18

    80 

    Phoei geoedhrhd serth slrgult `ega`er  OK@ ta >-senjedt  `lperilfhtghd sepertl `l

     ohwhf ldl =

    (@aktradlks, ?22-[enjedt  

    Nhjohr 0.;. [lrgult @ega`er OK@ ta >-[enjedt  

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    15/18

    85 

    Edga`er h`hihf geohilghd `hrl rhdnghlhd `ega`er, sefldnnh prldslp germhdyh pud

     oergeohilghd. Mlgh `ega`er fhdyh jednhgtlcghd shtu mhiur autput   udtug setlhp

    gajoldhsl ldput , edga`er `hpht jednhgtlcghd ieolf `hrl shtu mhiur udtug setlhp

    ldput  yhdn `l`hphtdyh.

    Oerlgut ldl `loerlghd thoei geoedhrhd serth rhdnghlhd slrgult `hrl edga`er `ekljhi

    ta OK@ (edga`er 82x0) =

     Dlihl-dlihl yhdn jednlsl thoei geoedhrhd `l hths sesuhl `ednhd ghl`hf

     pednadverslhd olihdnhd `esljhi ge olihdnhd older. [eohnhl kadtaf, >82  olih

    Nhjohr 0.0. Phoei Geoedhrhd Edga`er 82x0

    Nhjohr 0.5. [lrgult Edga`er 82x0

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    16/18

    83 

    `ldyhthghd `hihj ga`e older hghd jedmh`l 2888?. Mlgh mhiur ldput   L> hgtlc, jhgh

    edga`er hghd jednhgtlcghd mhiur H, O, `hd K, se`hdnghd @ tl`hg hgtlc.

    >82 : 2888? 

    [gejh yhdn shjh oerihgu udtug medls ldput  yhdn ihld. Rerfltudnhd `l ohwhf ldl

    hghd jedmeihsghddyh sekhrh `ethli.

    282 : 2222?  (H, O, K, `hd @ tl`hg hgtlc) 

    882 : 2228?  (H hgtlc,se`hdnghd O, K, `hd @ tl`hg hgtlc) 

    ?82 : 2282?  (O hgtlc,se`hdnghd H, K, `hd @ tl`hg hgtlc) 

    ;82 : 2288?  (H `hd O hgtlc,se`hdnghd K ̀ hd @ tl`hg hgtlc) 

    082 : 2822?  (K hgtlc,se`hdnghd H, O, `hd @ tl`hg hgtlc) 

    582 : 2828?  (H `hd K hgtlc, se`hdnghd O `hd @ tl`hg hgtlc) 

    382 : 2882?  (O `hd K hgtlc, se`hdnghd H `hd @ tl`hg hgtlc) 

    >82 : 2888?  (H, O, `hd K hgtlc, se`hdnghd @ tl`hg hgtlc) 

    682 : 8222?  (@ hgtlc,se`hdnghd H, O, `hd K tl`hg hgtlc) 

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    17/18

    8> 

    OHO S

    GE[LJRUIHD

    8) 

    _hdnghlhd `ega`er h`hihf rhdnghlhd yhdn jed`ega`eghd ga`e older

    jedmh`l sldyhi-sldyhi `lsgrlt (olihdnhd `esljhi), se`hdnghd edga`er

     oercudnsl seohilgdyh.

    ?) 

    Rrldslp germh `ega`er h`hihf `ednhd jednhgtlcghd fhdyh shtu mhiur autput  

    udtug setlhp gajoldhsl ldput  (gekuhil udtug `ega`er  OK@ ta >-senjedt ),

    se`hdnghd edga`er `hpht jednhgtlcghd oeoerhph mhiur autput  udtug setlhp

    ldput  yhdn `l`hphtghddyh.

    ;)  Per`hpht oerjhkhj-jhkhj medls rhdnghlhd `ega`er `hd edga`er, `l

    hdthrhdyh `ega`er ?x0, `ega`er ;x6, `ega`er 0x82, `ega`er 0x>, edga`er

    6x;, `hd edga`er 82x0. Dajldhi terseout jednlgutl ghl`hf perhdkhdnhd

    rhdnghlhd j  ≠ ?d, `ljhdh j  h`hihf mujihf gajoldhsl geiuhrhd `hd d 

    h`hihf mujihf olt ldput   udtug rhdnghlhd `ega`er, se`hdnghd j  h`hihf

     mujihf gajoldhsl ldput   `hd d  h`hihf mujihf olt autput   udtug rhdnghlhd

    edga`er.

    0)   Dlihl-dlihl yhdn jednlsl thoei-thoei geoedhrhd rhdnghlhd edga`er `hd

    `ega`er `hpht `lphfhjl jeihiul sgejh pedermejhfhd olihdnhd `esljhi ge

    ga`e older hthu pedngaverslhd `hrl ga`e older ge olihdnhd `esljhi.

  • 8/9/2019 Rangkaian Enkoder & Dekoder

    18/18

    86 

    @HCPH_ RU[PHGH

    Hdadyjaus. (d.`.). _hdnghlhd Ianlgh Gajoldhsladhi `hd [equedslhi . @lhgses

     ph`h thdnnhi ? Davejoer ?28?, pugui 8;.0> ^LO, `hrl

    fttp=//h`lsupe.clies.war`press.kaj/?282/2>/ja`uiQ;Q-

     QrhdngQgajoQsequedslhi.p`c. 

    Hdadyjaus ?. (d.`.). @eka`er, Edka`er, Kajphrhtar . @lhgses ph`h thdnnhi ?

     Davejoer ?28?, pugui 8?.;5 ^LO, `hrl fttp=//iekturer.eepls-

    lts.e`u/~prljh/eiegtradlgh%?2`lnlthi/eiegtradlghQ`lnlthi8/ohfhdQhmhr/Oho6

    hQ@eka`%?2Edka`.p`c. 

    @aktradlks, E`ukhtladhi Ruoilsfldn car @eslnd & Pekfdaiany. (?22-senjedt `eka`er `rlver . @lhgses ph`h thdnnhi 8? Davejoer

    ?28?, pugui 26.52 ^LO, `hrl fttp=//www.`aktradlks.ka.ug/0588.ftj. 

    ^l`lhdta, Ega @l`lg. (?288). _hdnghlhd Gajoldhsladhi . @lhgses ph`h thdnnhi ?

     Davejoer ?28?, pugui 8;.0< L̂O, `hrl

    fttp=//`l`lg.oian.ud`lp.hk.l`/clies/?28?/2?/P[G?25-Guilhf82-

    _hdnghlhdGajoldhsladhi-v?.p`c. 

    \u`lhdtlgh, H`ltyh _lzgl. (?288). Putarlhi Pegdlg @lnlthi = @eka`er > [enjed.@lhgses ph`h thdnnhi ? Davejoer ?28?, pugui 8?.;0 ^LO, `hrl

    fttp=//www.h`ltyhrlzgl.det/?288/2>/tutarlhi-tegdlg-`lnlthi-`eka`er->-

    senjed/. 

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