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Quality Tools-Basics

Feb 07, 2016

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Basic on quality tools ,QMS,5-S,TPM,7-QC tools

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    QUALITY TOOLSQUALITY TOOLS

  • CII INDEX

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  • CII EVOLUTION OF QUALITY

    Day by day living Standard of human beings has been improving, in the same direction needs of Customer are also improving.

    Yesterdays good Quality may be out dated for today.

    E. g. Mobile phones: Initially cell phones were very bulky, had limited usage & were very costly and its development was also very slow.

    Nowadays mobile phones are available with more & more applications / services, have unlimited varieties & at a cheaper rate with reduced operating cost.

    We found day wise evolution in the cell phone.

    CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT: It means Improve & sustain that improvement then again improve & sustain the improvement and so on.

  • CII DEFINITION OF QUALITY

    Over the period of time, definition of Quality has been changed.

    1. Initially Quality means Fitness for the Purpose / Use

    2. Getting desired output, fulfilling the buyers requirement / needs from product / service without any interruption.

    3. Value for Money

    4. Meeting more than expectations of the Customer

    5. Customer Delight

    6. Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills the Requirements (This definition is as per IS / ISO 9000: 2005 standard)

  • CII WHY QUALITY ?

    The customer is a King & the purpose of our work is to provide a product or service that satisfies customers.

    Customer are The most important people in any business. Not dependent on us, but we are dependent on them. Not an interruption of our work, they are purpose of it. A part of our business, not outsiders. A part of our business, not outsiders.

    Without customer, business can neither be survived nor be prospered.

    Satisfied customers build our reputation / brand, which helps to get new / repeated business.

  • CII WHY QUALITY ?

    Initially most of the Manufacturers wrongly thought that implementation of Quality means extra cost. But now there is a paradigm shift in this thinking. Now Quality means less Cost & more Speed. With improved quality we are doing Right at the First time; thereby reducing rework / eliminating rejection. So now Quality is a cost saving & customer satisfaction tool.

    Quality is a new competitive weapon.

    Best example is that of evolution of color TV: In 1980 black & white TV had a cost of Rs 5000/- & now color TV with much superior pixel quality & added features cost at only Rs. 3000/- with multiple choices readily available in the market.

    How is it possible ?

    Improvement in material & processes.

  • CII QUALITY CONCEPT

    Understanding requirements of customer

    Voice of Customer

    Quality Parameters

    Cost of Quality

    Competitive Benchmarking

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    Statistical Concepts: Measurement

    Collection of Data

    Quality Inspection

  • CII QUALITY CONCEPT

    Understanding requirements of customer

    Stated, Unstated & Assumed Needs Every time customer will not tell each of his / her requirement, but we have to understand it.

    E. g. Travelling by planeStated need: Travel from one place to other. This is the basic needUnstated need: Plane leaves on time & reaches the destination on time. There are no long queues to get the boarding passes, No waiting time to collect luggage at destination airport, etc. There are More the Better

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    collect luggage at destination airport, etc. There are More the Better category type of needs.Assumed or Implied Needs: Breakfast / Tiffin, beverages are served, Flight crew welcomes the passengers warmly, etc. These are latent needs.

    Analysis of Customer needs must be done. It is very important to understand & capture all genuine needs & expectations of Customers.To understand the Customer needs & act upon it to enhance the customer satisfaction, every company has Marketing, Research & Development Department and other Customer care centers.

  • CII QUALITY CONCEPT

    Types of Customers

    1. Internal Customer The person within the company who receives the work of another & add his / her contribution to the product / process before passing it to some one else.

    2. External Customer The people outside, who are the end users of a companys product / service.

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    a. Primary Customer - Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), who are final product sellers.

    b. Secondary Customer - Buyer from OEMs, direct product users

    We should never differentiate between domestic & international customers - All should be treated with equal importance.

  • CII QUALITY CONCEPT

    Voice of Customer

    Product / Service related feed back or complaint by Customer in any form is a Voice of Customer.

    More than 50% customers don't complain but change the supplier.

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    As per experience - Voice of customer is heard by front line team but doesn't get effectively passed on to the company.

    E. g. People not like to travel by State Transport (ST) buses, so they travel by private tourist buses but nobody goes to ST office to register his / her complaint.

  • CII QUALITY CONCEPT

    Voice of customer

    Companies are capturing Voice of Customer by following channels

    Customer Care Centers Toll Free phone numbers E- mails

    SMS Different types of surveys

    Capturing Customer voice & acting upon it with a feedback close loop is very crucial.

  • CII QUALITY CONCEPT

    Quality parameters

    Specifications: Customer requirements are translated by Design departments in the form of Specifications as per Drawings, Data sheet, Technical instructions, Material instructions.Some specifications are very crucial and must be met without any deviation.

    Tolerance: Though tolerances are given for Specification, one must

    Tolerance: Though tolerances are given for Specification, one must keep process / product parameters well within the Tolerance. To take care of Central tendency the process / product specification must be Accurate, i. e. Mean value must be same or near to Target value. To reduce variability, the process / product specification must be Precise, i. e. Internal tolerance should be as small as possible. It ensures that nothing is produced out of specification even in case of extreme situations.Measuring gauges should be such that they have least count of less than 10% of the Tolerance.

  • CII

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    Translating Customer requirements into Process parameters

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  • CII QUALITY CONCEPT

    Cost of Quality

    It is also termed as COPQ (Cost of Poor Quality)

    Poor quality is always expensive for the company.

    Following factors are essential to reduce the cost

    Reduce the wasteReduce the reworkPrevent product failure at customer end

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  • CII QUALITY CONCEPT

    Cost of Quality

    1. Prevention Costs:- The costs of activities specifically designed to prevent poor quality in products or services.E. g. Cost incurred on Training

    2. Appraisal costs: The costs associated with measuring, evaluating, or auditing or servicing to assure conformance to quality standards and performance requirements.E. g. Salary of Quality Assurance Engineers / Operators

  • CII QUALITY CONCEPT

    Cost of Quality

    3. Failure costs: The costs resulting from products or services not conforming to requirements or Customer/ user needs-that is, the costs resulting from poor quality. Failure costs are divided into internal and external failure cost categories:

    3a. Internal failure costs: Failure costs which occur

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    3a. Internal failure costs: Failure costs which occur prior to delivery or shipment of the product, or the furnishing of a service, to the Customer.E. g. Segregation / Rework cost

    3b. External failure Costs: Failure costs which occur after shipment of the product, or during or after furnishing a service, to the Customer.E. g. Sales Return

  • CII QUALITY CONCEPT

    Cost of Quality

    If Quality is built in the Product, a lot of Failure cost & Appraisal cost is eliminated.

    Generally for 15% of turnover is the Cost of Poor Quality if rejection level is to the tune of 30%.

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    Quality if rejection level is to the tune of 30%.

    However Cost of Poor Quality is reduced to less than 5% when rejection level is only 0.00034%. This small cost of Quality is mainly due to Prevention cost, i. e. training cost to build competency & more awareness about Quality.

  • CII QUALITY CONCEPT

    Competitive Benchmarking

    Benchmarking:

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  • CII QUALITY CONCEPT

    Competitive Benchmarking Example

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  • CII QUALITY CONCEPT

    Measurement A scaled observationWe collect data for measurement. These data from samples when arranged properly show some patterns which help us to predict about population. Data are of two types:

    Variable Data & Attribute Data

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