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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH. What Is Qualitative Research? What Is Qualitative Research?

Dec 23, 2015

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  • Slide 1
  • QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
  • Slide 2
  • What Is Qualitative Research? What Is Qualitative Research?
  • Slide 3
  • is research that addresses political objectives through techniques that allow the researcher to provide elaborate(ayrntl)interpretations of political phenomena without depending on numerical measurement. Its focus is on discovering true inner meanings and new insights. Qualitative research is very widely applied in practice. There are many research organizations that specialize in qualitative research. Qualitative research is less structured than most quantitative approaches.
  • Slide 4
  • It does not rely on self-response questionnaires containing structured response formats. Instead, it is more researcher- dependent in that the researcher must extract meaning from unstructured responses, such as text from a recorded interview or a collage representing the meaning of some experience. The researcher interprets the data to extract its meaning and converts it to information.
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  • Uses of Qualitative Research
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  • The researcher has many tools available and the research design should try to match the best tool to the research objective. Also, just as a mechanic is probably not an expert with every tool, each researcher usually has special expertise with a small number of tools.
  • Slide 7
  • The less specific the research objective, the more likely that qualitative research tools will be appropriate. Aratrmann amac ne kadar belirginleirse, nitel aratrma aralar o kadar uygun olur. Also, when the emphasis is on a deeper understanding of motivations or on developing novel (yeni) concepts, qualitative research is very appropriate.
  • Slide 8
  • WHEN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH BE USED?
  • Slide 9
  • 1.When it is difficult to develop specific and actionable problem statements or research objectives.
  • Slide 10
  • 2. When the research objective is to develop an understanding of some phenomena in great detail and in much depth. Qualitative research tools are aimed at discovering the primary themes indicating human motivations and the documentation of activities is usually very complete.
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  • 3. When the research objective is to learn how a phenomena occurs in its natural setting or to learn how to express some concept in colloquial (argo) terms. For example, how do voters discuss the political issues in their daily life?
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  • 4. When some behavior the researcher is studying is particularly context dependent meaning the reasons something is liked or some behavior is performed depend very much on the particular situation surrounding the event.
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  • 5. When a fresh approach to studying some problem is needed. This is particularly the case when quantitative research has yielded less than satisfying results. Qualitative tools can yield unique insights, many of which may lead the organization in new directions.
  • Slide 14
  • QUALITATIVE VERSUS QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • Slide 15
  • Qualitative research can accomplish research objectives that quantitative research cannot. Similarly truthful, but no more so, quantitative research can accomplish objectives that qualitative research cannot. The key to successfully using either is to match the right approach to the right research context.
  • Slide 16
  • Many good research projects combine both qualitative and quantitative research. For instance, developing valid survey measures requires first a deep understanding of the concept to be measured and a description of the way these ideas are expressed in everyday language. Both of these are tasks best suited for qualitative research. However, validating the measure formally to make sure it can reliably capture the intended concept will likely require quantitative research.
  • Slide 17
  • Quantitative business research can be defined as business research that addresses research objectives through empirical assessments that involve numerical measurement and analysis approaches. Qualitative research is more apt (uygun) to stand on its own in the sense that it requires less interpretation. For example, quantitative research is quite appropriate when a research objective involves a managerial action standard.
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  • Slide 19
  • There are great differences between the quantitative and qualitative approaches to studying and understanding subjects. The arguments between qualitative and quantitative business researchers about their relative strengths and weaknesses are of real practical value. The nature of business decision- making encompasses (kapsamak) a vast array of problems and types of decision-maker. This means that seeking a singular and uniform approach to supporting decision-makers by focusing on one approach is useless. Business decision makers use both approaches and will continue to need both.
  • Slide 20
  • The distinction between qualitative and quantitative research can be in the context of research designs. There is a close parallel in the distinctions ( fark ) between exploratory and conclusive research and qualitative and quantitative research. There is a parallel, but the terms are not identical. There are circumstances where qualitative research can be used to present detailed descriptions that cannot be measured in a quantifiable manner, for example in describing characteristics and styles of music that may be used in an advertising campaign or in describing the interplay (etkileim) of how families go through the process of choosing, planning and buying a holiday.
  • Slide 21
  • Conversely, there may be circumstances where quantitative measurements are used to conclusively answer specific hypotheses or research questions using descriptive or experimental techniques. Beyond answering specific hypotheses or research questions, there may be sufficient data to allow data mining or an exploration of relationships between individual measurements to take place.
  • Slide 22
  • Quantitative researchers direct a considerable amount of activity toward measuring concepts with scales that either directly or indirectly provide numeric values. The numeric values can then be used in statistical computations and hypothesis testing. This process involves comparing numbers in some way. In contrast, qualitative researchers are more interested in observing, listening, and interpreting. As such, the researcher is involved in the research process and in constructing the results.
  • Slide 23
  • For these reasons, qualitative research is said to be more subjective, meaning that the results are researcher-dependent. Different researchers may reach different conclusions based on the same interview. In that respect, qualitative research lacks the ability of different individuals following the same procedures to produce the same results or come to the same conclusion.
  • Slide 24
  • Qualitative research seldom involves samples with hundreds of respondents. Instead, a handful of people are usually the source of qualitative data. This is perfectly acceptable in discovery-oriented research. All ideas would still have to be tested before adopted. Does a smaller sample mean that qualitative research is cheaper than qualitative? Perhaps not. Although fewer respondents have to be interviewed, the greater researcher involvement in both the data collection and analysis can drive up the costs of qualitative research.
  • Slide 25
  • Qualitative research is most often used in exploratory designs. Small samples, interpretive procedures that require subjective judgments, and the unstructured interview format all make traditional hypotheses testing difficult with qualitative research.
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  • Slide 27
  • Contrasting Exploratory and Confirmatory Research
  • Slide 28
  • Most exploratory research designs produce qualitative data. Exploratory designs do not usually produce quantitative data, which represent phenomena by assigning numbers in an ordered and meaningful way. Rather than numbers, the focus of qualitative research is on stories, visual portrayals (tasvir), meaningful characterizations, interpretations, and other expressive descriptions. Often, exploratory research may be needed to develop the ideas that lead to research hypotheses. In some situations the outcome of exploratory research is a testable research hypothesis. Confirmatory research then tests these hypotheses with quantitative data.
  • Slide 29
  • The major categories of qualitative research 1.Phenomenologyoriginating in philosophy and psychology 2. Ethnographyoriginating in anthropology 3. Grounded theoryoriginating in sociology 4. Case studiesoriginating in psychology and in business research
  • Slide 30
  • 1. Phenomenology Represents a philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently (doal olarak) subjective and determined by the context in which people live. The phenomenological researcher focuses on how a persons behavior is shaped by the relationship he or she has with the physical environment, objects, people, and situations. Phenomenological inquiry seeks to describe, reflect upon, and interpret experiences.
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