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Qualitative Research

Feb 25, 2016




Chapter Four. Qualitative Research. Chapter Four. Chapter Four Objectives. Chapter Four. Nature of Qualitative Research. Qualitative Research: Findings are not subject to quantification or quantitative analysis Conclusions are not based on precise, measurable statistics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Qualitative ResearchChapter FourChapter Four

  • Chapter Four ObjectivesChapter Four

    Define qualitative researchExplore the popularity of qualitative researchUnderstand the limitations of qualitative researchLearn about focus groups and their tremendous popularityGain insight into conducting and analyzing a focus groupRecognize the growing popularity of online focus groups and their disadvantagesLearn about other types of qualitative research

  • Qualitative Research:Findings are not subject to quantification or quantitative analysisConclusions are not based on precise, measurable statisticsBased on more subjective observations and analysis

    Quantitative Research:Uses mathematical analysisTypically research analysis is done using measurable, numeric standardsNature of Qualitative ResearchChapter Four

  • Qualitative vs. Quantitative ResearchChapter Four

  • Popularity of Qualitative Research

    Usually less expensive than quantitative research Can provide true impressions and results on consumer behaviour (first-hand)Can improve efficiency of quantitative data

  • Limitations of Qualitative ResearchChapter Four

    May not distinguish small differences in attitudes and opinions regarding a marketing mixMay not always be a representative sample of the populationOpinions in groups may be swayed significantly by a strong-willed respondent

  • Focus groups:Are excellent for idea generation, brainstorming, understanding customer vocabulary Provide insight to motives, attitudes, perceptions Can reveal needs, likes, dislikes driven by emotionsA focus group is: A group of 812 respondents Led by a moderator An in-depth discussion On one particular topic or conceptImportance of Focus GroupsGroup DynamicInteracting among people in a group. The moderator must manage this issue carefully.Chapter Four

  • Decide on research objectives for focus groupUse secondary research to refine group questionsSelect focus group facility and overview of ideal group participantsBegin recruiting with participant incentivesSelect a moderatorDevelop a discussion guide to chart flow of focus groupConduct the focus groupReview the videotape, your notes, and analyze the resultsPrepare a written report for client Conducting a Focus GroupChapter Four

  • Potential opinion leaders are best Participants must be screened for relevance to the topic

    A conference room or living room setting Separate observation room with a one-way mirror or live AV feed

    Leads the focus group Psychology or sociology background is preferred

    Sets a timetable for each topic, and clear goals/questions Is a strategy for keeping group on task / focused Managing the group dynamics is criticalThe Participants:The Moderator:The Location:Conducting a Focus GroupChapter FourThe Discussion Guide:

  • The ModeratorModerators should:Meet and greet the participants before focus group.Ask simple/light personal questions during warm-up.Reveal something personal information about yourself.Ask for the participants assistance during the process. Your opinion is valuableUse humour when appropriate.Dress the same as the respondents.Start the focus group session sitting down.Have a client-approved discussion guide to assist.Chapter Four

  • A good moderator: Is genuinely interested in people, including their: Behaviours Emotions Lifestyles Prejudices and opinions Is accepting and appreciative of participant differences Is objective and open minded Has good listening skills Has good observation skills (can pick-up on body language) Is interested in a wide array of subjects Prepares for the topic at hand to enhance credibilityWhat Makes a Good Moderator?Chapter Four

  • Good oral, written, and organizational skills

    Able to manage conversation flow

    Good at follow-up questioning and probing

    Excellent attention to detail and is precise

    Understands clients business and industry

    Reliable, responsive, trustworthy Ability to provide feedback and be a sounding board for client

    What Makes a Good Moderator?Chapter Four

  • Participants candor Looks the customer in the eye Generates fresh ideas / brainstorming Allows client to observe and comment onsite Can be executed quickly Can enhance other data collection methods

    Expertise needed Participation issues (e.g., no shows) Interpretation is subjective Often misused as representative of the general populationBenefits and Drawbacks of Focus GroupsChapter Four

  • Low costs and no geographic barriers Can be executed quickly Good for generating fresh ideas / brainstorming Can enhance other data collection methods Efficient moderator-client interactionParticipants provide valuable information for the next research phase Group dynamics Non-verbal inputs Client involvement Exposure to external stimuli Role and skill of moderatorOnline Focus GroupsChapter Four

  • Other Qualitative Methodologies

    Key Techniques: Laddering approach Hidden issue questioning Symbolic analysis approachChapter Four

  • Advantages of Depth Interviews: Group pressure is eliminated Often geared towards getting underlying information Interviewer becomes more sensitive to nonverbal clues Respondent can be more forthright, since focus is on them An interview can be conducted anywhere More personalized attention givenDisadvantages of Depth Interviews: More costly than a focus group An interview lacks the advantage of group dynamics

    Other Qualitative Methodologies

    Chapter Four

  • Other Qualitative MethodologiesA technique tapping respondents deepest feelings by having them project those feelings into an unstructured situation. ProjectiveTests:Types of Projective Tests: Word Association Cartoon Tests Photo Sorts Consumer Drawings Storytelling Sentence and Story Completion Third-Person TechniqueChapter Four


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