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Qualitative Research

Dec 31, 2015



Qualitative Research. Case Study 1 IS 2008-9. How to Create an Immersive Environment for Primary Literacy. Production of a Demonstrator and presented to teachers. Discussion. Voice recording made. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Qualitative Research

  • Case Study 1 IS 2008-9How to Create an Immersive Environment for Primary Literacy.Production of a Demonstrator and presented to teachers. Discussion. Voice recording made.Production of Prototype 1 and presented to teachers. Discussion. Voice recording made. Questionnaire administered (Open and Closed).Production of Prototype 2 and presented to teachers. Voice recording made. Questionnaire administered (Open and Closed).Deployment with Children, Observations made.Data analysis, Hypothesis formation.

  • Case Study 2 IS 2009-10Visual Semiotics in Games How does visual content influence players movement and choicesQuestionnaire AdministeredObservationsPlayer played 2 x 2 minutes of Unreal. Video recording. Researcher made notes.Movie replayed and researcher asked player to explain choices and movement. Audio Recording.Next .. Data analysis

  • The Role of the Researcher.Present in the generation of dataCan influence the generation of dataIs involved in the subjects activitiesThe Data generated in both Case Studies.Text response to open questionnaire itemsText written by researcher during observationsVideo recordings

  • Aims of Qualitative Research Understand the phenomena from the point of view of the research participants Interpret experiences and meanings of people Discover themes and relationships and key words to formulate closed questions.

  • Characteristics of Qualitative Research Participants selected purposefully not randomly Involves behaviour of people, opinions and feelings Uses details of individual cases in gaining understanding Researcher is a participant observer

  • When to use Qualitative Methods Concepts need to be developed (little previous research) Phenomena cannot be reduced to numerical variables Need for novel researcher-devised framework

  • Data, Sampling and Analysis Data Types: Text response to questionnaire, transcripts of observations, screen-shots video recordings Purposive sampling to maximize variation Snowball Sampling: Select a sample and ask them to recommend next sample Data processing : summary, simplification, abstraction Data display : tables, charts, networks

  • Qualitative vs. Quantitative.

    Meanings derived from numbers.Meanings expressed through words.Numerical data.Rich, interesting, data.Analysis conducted through the use of diagrams and statistics.Analysis conducted through categorisation into themes

  • Analysing Qualitative Data: Case Study 1Example. Researchers analysis of her own observation notes/transcripts.First reading of transcripts: Look for themes emerging.Second reading: Look for occurrences of each theme in each transcript. Identify concepts.Look for relationships between themes.

  • Analysing Qualitative Data: Case Study 1Themes from the researchers Observation Transcripts

    (Item) ThemeComments(24) used quit clock (2) understood how to select a lesson (8) use of floor target (66) expressed enjoyment (9) engaged with spellings (10) completed spellings

    (14) read static instruction (17) used F2

  • Analysing Qualitative Data: Case Study 1Relationships between Concepts abstracted from players.


  • Uses both Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches Numbers can add precision to words and narrative Words and images can add meaning to numbersMixed Mode ResearchE.G. Qualitative research is used to create a theory. Quantitative research is used to test that theoryE.G. Quantitative research could be used to classify behaviour, then qualitative research could investigate the intentions of the people who showed that behaviour.

  • Cost Effective Familiar to Most People Reduce Bias Low response rate Cannot probe responses Respondent is unknownThe Questionnaire-+

  • Clarify Goals How will you use the data? Justify the purpose of each individual question Keep it short (two pages?) Begin with light and interesting items Place the most important items in the first half Try it out on a small sample of the target populationGeneral Guidance

  • Case Study 1: Justification of QuestionsDesign of Questionnaire presented to the Teachers.

    1.I use Computer Software as an aid to delivering literacy in class

    It is important to understand how many teacher do not use software because it would affect the reliability and therefore the validity of the results5The proposed ideas for this EIE is relevant to teaching literacy at KS2

    Are the ideas about content relevant for the target audience?11The EIE theme is gender neutral

    It is important that neither sex are disadvantaged by the chosen theme which would affect the learning outcomes.

  • Define Research Aims Identify Population and Sample How to collect replies? Questionnaire Design (including Pilot Survey) Main survey AnalysisWorkflow

  • Ask Open Ended Questions to generate key words Consider your mind map Consider your analysis approach t-test, chi-squared Write your closed questions (types will follow).Questionnaire Design

  • What do you think are the reasons for football hooliganism? Do you think football hooliganism is caused by: (tick if appropriate) Lack of discipline at home Players behaviour on pitch Family breakdown Youth unemployment Poor schooling Violence on T.V. Other (please specify)

    Question Types Open vs. Closed

  • What is your most usual means of travelling to college? (Tick one box only) BusCar Bike

    Which of the following means do you use to travel to college?

    Bus Car Bike Single vs. Multiple Response

  • Place in order of importance to you the following features of a camping holiday (Indicate by numbering from 1-5 in order where 1 is the most important)Open air Mobility Cost People Atmosphere

    Ranked Response

  • (Circle the number under the initials that applies. VI=Very important; I=Important; N=Neutral; U=Unimportant; VU=Very Unimportant). Indicate your view of the following aspects of a camping holidayRated Response

    VIINUVUCommunity Life54321Low Cost54321Outdoor Life54321

  • Some general rules can be stated on question wording: Be concise and unambiguous Avoid double questions Avoid questions involving negatives Ask for precise answers Avoid leading questions

    Question Wording

  • Ask for precise answers if you think the information is available and there are no other constraints (e.g. too intrusive on privacy). For example:

    Give your age on lst September 2001 years

    is preferable to:

    Are you

    Under 18 .18-65 ...Over 65

    Precise Answers

  • - Evokes the truth. Questions must be non-threatening. - Asks for an answer on only one dimension. - Can accommodate all possible answers.

    What brand of computer do you own? A. IBM PC B. Apple

    - Has mutually exclusive options.

    Where did you grow up? A. country B. farm C. city

    - Produces variability of responses

    Are you against drug abuse? (circle: Yes or No)Question Wording

  • - Follows comfortably from the previous question. - Does not presuppose a certain state of affairs Are you satisfied with your current auto insurance? (Yes or No) - Does not imply a desired answer. (Leading Question)- Does not use emotionally loaded or vaguely defined words. (e.g., most, least, majority) - Does not use unfamiliar words or abbreviations. (CPU, GPU)- Is not dependent on responses to previous questions. Avoid Branching

    1. Do you currently have a life insurance policy ? (Yes or No) If no, go to question 32. How much is your annual life insurance premium ? - Does not ask the respondent to order or rank a series of more than five items Question Wording

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