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# Public Key Cryptography Nick Feamster CS 6262 Spring 2009

Mar 27, 2015

## Documents

#### key digital signatures

• Slide 1

Public Key Cryptography Nick Feamster CS 6262 Spring 2009 Slide 2 Private-Key Cryptography Traditional private/secret/single key cryptography uses one key Shared by both sender and receiver If this key is disclosed communications are compromised Also is symmetric, parties are equal Does not protect sender from receiver forging a message & claiming is sent by sender Slide 3 Public-Key Cryptography Maybe the most significant advance in the 3000 year history of cryptography uses two keys a public & a private key asymmetric since parties are not equal Uses clever application of number theory Complements private key crypto Slide 4 Why Public-Key Cryptography? Developed to address two key issues: key distribution how to have secure communications in general without having to trust a KDC with your key digital signatures how to verify a message comes intact from the claimed sender Public invention due to Whitfield Diffie & Martin Hellman at Stanford in 1976 known earlier in classified community Slide 5 Public-Key Cryptography Public-key/two-key/asymmetric cryptography involves the use of two keys: a public-key, which may be known by anybody, and can be used to encrypt messages, and verify signatures a private-key, known only to the recipient, used to decrypt messages, and sign (create) signatures Is asymmetric because those who encrypt messages or verify signatures cannot decrypt messages or create signatures Slide 6 Public-Key Cryptography Slide 7 Public-Key Characteristics Public-Key algorithms rely on two keys where: it is computationally infeasible to find the decryption key knowing only algorithm & encryption key it is computationally easy to en/decrypt messages when the relevant (en/decrypt) key is known either of the two related keys can be used for encryption, with the other used for decryption (for some algorithms) Slide 8 Public-Key Cryptosystems Slide 9 Public-Key Applications Can classify uses into 3 categories: encryption/decryption (provide secrecy) digital signatures (provide authentication) key exchange (of session keys) Some algorithms are suitable for all uses, others are specific to one Slide 10 Security of Public Key Schemes Like private key schemes brute force exhaustive search attack is always theoretically possible but keys used are too large (>512bits) Security relies on a large enough difference in difficulty between easy (en/decrypt) and hard (cryptanalyse) problems More generally the hard problem is known, but is made hard enough to be impractical to break Requires the use of very large numbers hence is slow compared to private key schemes Slide 11 Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Shared key, public communication No authentication of partners Whats involved? p is a prime (about 512 bits), and g < p p and g are publicly known Slide 12 Diffie-Hellman-Merkle Key Exchange AliceBob pick secret S a randomly pick secret S b randomly compute T A =g Sa mod pcompute T B =g Sb mod p send T A to Bobsend T B to Alice compute T B Sa mod pcompute T A Sb mod p Alice and Bob reached the same secret g SaSb mod p, which is then used as the shared key. Slide 13 Discrete Logarithm Is Hard T = g s mod p Conjecture: given T, g, p, it is extremely hard to compute the value of s (discrete logarithm) Slide 14 Diffie-Hellman Scheme Security factors Discrete logarithm very difficult. Shared key (the secret) itself never transmitted. Disadvantages Expensive exponential operation DoS possible The scheme itself cannot be used to encrypt anything it is for secret key establishment. No authentication, so you can not sign anything Slide 15 Man In The Middle Attack AliceTrudyBob g Sa =123 g Sx =654 g Sb =255 123 --> 654 -->

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