Jan 08, 2016
Ptolemy’s Map from 1482
Exploration and Expansion
Theme: Migration and DiffusionEuropean migration to the Americas marked a turning point in world history.
Expeditions expanded and the diffusion of goods and ideas changed societies worldwide.
Major Events1419 – Prince Henry supports Portuguese
exploration1488 – Barholomeu Dias rounds the tip of
Africa1492 – Columbus reaches the Americas1520 – Magellan’s ships sail around the
southern tip of South America1602 – Dutch capitalists form the East India
Make a PredictionWhat do you think happened that enabled Europeans to learn about and to explore distant lands?
Voyages of DiscoveryMAIN IDEA: European explorers, motivated by
greed, curiosity and glory, sailed to previously unknown lands.
The JourneyHow wide is the
sea? Sailors knew the earth was round, but they did not realize how vast it was.
EXAMPLE: Columbus’ crew sailed for nearly a month without seeing land.
FoundationsThe Renaissance awakened a spirit of innovation and discovery.
Driven by the search for wealthSome wanted fame and gloryOther explorers hoped to spread their faith
Mnemonics Rock!The Three G’s:
This mnemonic is a great way to remember the main motivations of the European explorers.
TechnologyEuropeans borrowed heavily from the Chinese and Muslims.
Made it possible to find direction at sea. Compass tells seaman what direction is North.
Still used today.
Mathematical Compass Tool used to draw circles. These circles would help them during the navigation process.
Still used today.
Mercator Projection Map projections that show longitude and latitude as straight lines.
Shows true directions to places.
Hour GlassUsed to tell time on board a ship.
Flipped each hour or half hour depending on size.
Not accurate and has been replaced.
ChronometerDevice to tell time on a ship.
More accurate than the hour glass.
Still used today.
Astrolabe Measures the angles of the sun and stars above horizon.
Difficult to use at sea.
Was replaced by the sextant.
SextantDevice to find latitude of ship by comparing the altitude of the sun or stars.
Better than astrolabe because ship movement had no affect.
Replaced in 1900’s by radar.
Latitude and Longitude
Latitude always given first, then Longitude.
Coordinates are listed as degrees, minutes, and seconds.
Designate a specific location on Earth
LatitudeGives a location in terms of North or South of the Equator
Can you explain how lines of latitude can be different sizes?
LongitudeGives location in terms of East or West of the Prime Meridian.
“meridians” extend from pole to pole, 360 degrees.
If a degree is divided into 60 minutes, how many hours will it take to travel from theEuropean star to the Asian star? One minute can be further divided into 60 seconds.
Example: 38°56’23”N, 71°0’36”W
Did you say 7,200 minutes or 120 hours? If you did, you would be correct!
Caravel The caravel was faster and more maneuverable.
Older ships had square sails, caravels had triangular sails (easier to change direction)
Bilge pump system enabled ship to float higher (less likely to run aground, easier to explore coasts and rivers).
Decline of Mongol Empire in 1400s made goods from the east harder to get, more expensive
Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 was a major block to trade
Two countries were particularly well situated to kick off the Age of Exploration. Who thinks they can point to them on the map?
Prince Henry the NavigatorStarted an institute for
seafaring and exploringCombined ship
technology learned from Islam with new European innovations
By the time of his death in 1460, Portuguese had sailed as far south as the Gold Coast of West Africa
The Gold Coast
Vasco da GamaSailed to Calicut, IndiaTook them ten monthsAble to trade with
Muslim merchantsPortugal became one
of the wealthiest and most powerful nations in Europe.
CabralHis crew sighted the land that
became known as Brazil.He sailed out of Portugal and
followed in da Gama’s footsteps.Stayed to the west of the windless
gulf between India and the horn of Africa
ColumbusBelieved he could sail west to ChinaLanded in the CaribbeanNamed the native people IndiansReturned home with parrots, jewels,
gold, plants and Native Americans
Columbus 2He made three more voyages, still thinking he was in the West Indies every time.
VespucciAfter voyages of
exploration along the coast of South America he concluded that this continent was a new land.
Confirmed that this was not Asia
BalboaTraveled through the
Isthmus of PanamaBecomes the first to
see the Pacific Ocean
MagellanDecided to figure out exactly how long it
would take to cross both vast oceans5 ships and 250 menKilled in the PhilippinesCrew continues under Juan de Elcano18 crew members became the first to
circumnavigate the worldSee primary resource ~~ pg 76
Think-Pair-ShareWhat did da Gama, Columbus, and Magellan
The Rest of EuropeBy the early 1500s, the English and
French were exploring the northern parts of the Americas.
Within a century, the Dutch had joined their efforts.
The EnglishJohn CabotSir Francis DrakeHenry Hudson
Sir Francis DrakeThe Queen sent him to round the tip of
South America and explore the west coastHe made it to present day California and
tried to get back to England by going around the northern rim North America
Sir Francis DrakeBecomes the second man to circumnavigate the globe
Henry Hudson1607 – tried to find a Northeast Passage around Europe
Also explored the area of present day New York
Northwest passage has finally been mapped.
Often ice covered and not the best for shipping.
The FrenchJacques Cartier – Tried to find a Northwest Passage through the Americas
Sailed past Newfoundland and into the St. Lawrence river
Called the area New France
Present day Canada
Statue in present day Montreal, Canada
The DutchHenry Hudson sailed again for the Dutch and continued trying to find a Northeast Passage through the Americas.
Discuss the Main Idea?What did the English, French, and Dutch explorers hope to find?
SummaryPlease write a paragraph that
responds to this statement:The Age of Exploration could not
have occurred without the Renaissance.
Please support your answer with specific examples.