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Ptolemy’s Map from 1482
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Ptolemy’s Map from 1482

Jan 08, 2016

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Ptolemy’s Map from 1482. Exploration and Expansion. 1400-1700. Theme: Migration and Diffusion. European migration to the Americas marked a turning point in world history. Expeditions expanded and the diffusion of goods and ideas changed societies worldwide. Major Events. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Page 1: Ptolemy’s Map from 1482

Ptolemy’s Map from 1482

Page 2: Ptolemy’s Map from 1482
Page 3: Ptolemy’s Map from 1482

Exploration and Expansion

1400-1700

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Theme: Migration and DiffusionEuropean migration to the Americas marked a turning point in world history.

Expeditions expanded and the diffusion of goods and ideas changed societies worldwide.

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Major Events1419 – Prince Henry supports Portuguese

exploration1488 – Barholomeu Dias rounds the tip of

Africa1492 – Columbus reaches the Americas1520 – Magellan’s ships sail around the

southern tip of South America1602 – Dutch capitalists form the East India

Company

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Make a PredictionWhat do you think happened that enabled Europeans to learn about and to explore distant lands?

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Voyages of DiscoveryMAIN IDEA: European explorers, motivated by

greed, curiosity and glory, sailed to previously unknown lands.

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Page 9: Ptolemy’s Map from 1482

The JourneyHow wide is the

sea? Sailors knew the earth was round, but they did not realize how vast it was.

EXAMPLE: Columbus’ crew sailed for nearly a month without seeing land.

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FoundationsThe Renaissance awakened a spirit of innovation and discovery.

Driven by the search for wealthSome wanted fame and gloryOther explorers hoped to spread their faith

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Mnemonics Rock!The Three G’s:

GoldGloryGod

This mnemonic is a great way to remember the main motivations of the European explorers.

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TechnologyEuropeans borrowed heavily from the Chinese and Muslims.

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Magnetic Compass

Made it possible to find direction at sea. Compass tells seaman what direction is North.

Still used today.

Page 14: Ptolemy’s Map from 1482

Mathematical Compass Tool used to draw circles. These circles would help them during the navigation process.

Still used today.

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Mercator Projection Map projections that show longitude and latitude as straight lines.

Shows true directions to places.

Page 16: Ptolemy’s Map from 1482

Hour GlassUsed to tell time on board a ship.

Flipped each hour or half hour depending on size.

Not accurate and has been replaced.

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ChronometerDevice to tell time on a ship.

More accurate than the hour glass.

Still used today.

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Astrolabe Measures the angles of the sun and stars above horizon.

Difficult to use at sea.

Was replaced by the sextant.

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SextantDevice to find latitude of ship by comparing the altitude of the sun or stars.

Better than astrolabe because ship movement had no affect.

Replaced in 1900’s by radar.

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Latitude and Longitude

Latitude always given first, then Longitude.

Coordinates are listed as degrees, minutes, and seconds.

Designate a specific location on Earth

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LatitudeGives a location in terms of North or South of the Equator

Can you explain how lines of latitude can be different sizes?

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LongitudeGives location in terms of East or West of the Prime Meridian.

“meridians” extend from pole to pole, 360 degrees.

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If a degree is divided into 60 minutes, how many hours will it take to travel from theEuropean star to the Asian star? One minute can be further divided into 60 seconds.

Example: 38°56’23”N, 71°0’36”W

Did you say 7,200 minutes or 120 hours? If you did, you would be correct!

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Caravel The caravel was faster and more maneuverable.

Older ships had square sails, caravels had triangular sails (easier to change direction)

Bilge pump system enabled ship to float higher (less likely to run aground, easier to explore coasts and rivers).

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Push Factors

Decline of Mongol Empire in 1400s made goods from the east harder to get, more expensive

Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 was a major block to trade

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Mongol Empire

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Two countries were particularly well situated to kick off the Age of Exploration. Who thinks they can point to them on the map?

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Prince Henry the NavigatorStarted an institute for

seafaring and exploringCombined ship

technology learned from Islam with new European innovations

By the time of his death in 1460, Portuguese had sailed as far south as the Gold Coast of West Africa

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The Gold Coast

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Vasco da GamaSailed to Calicut, IndiaTook them ten monthsAble to trade with

Muslim merchantsPortugal became one

of the wealthiest and most powerful nations in Europe.

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CabralHis crew sighted the land that

became known as Brazil.He sailed out of Portugal and

followed in da Gama’s footsteps.Stayed to the west of the windless

gulf between India and the horn of Africa

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ColumbusBelieved he could sail west to ChinaLanded in the CaribbeanNamed the native people IndiansReturned home with parrots, jewels,

gold, plants and Native Americans

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Columbus 2He made three more voyages, still thinking he was in the West Indies every time.

Page 37: Ptolemy’s Map from 1482

VespucciAfter voyages of

exploration along the coast of South America he concluded that this continent was a new land.

Confirmed that this was not Asia

Page 38: Ptolemy’s Map from 1482

BalboaTraveled through the

Isthmus of PanamaBecomes the first to

see the Pacific Ocean

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MagellanDecided to figure out exactly how long it

would take to cross both vast oceans5 ships and 250 menKilled in the PhilippinesCrew continues under Juan de Elcano18 crew members became the first to

circumnavigate the worldSee primary resource ~~ pg 76

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Think-Pair-ShareWhat did da Gama, Columbus, and Magellan

accomplish?

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The Rest of EuropeBy the early 1500s, the English and

French were exploring the northern parts of the Americas.

Within a century, the Dutch had joined their efforts.

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The EnglishJohn CabotSir Francis DrakeHenry Hudson

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Sir Francis DrakeThe Queen sent him to round the tip of

South America and explore the west coastHe made it to present day California and

tried to get back to England by going around the northern rim North America

Too cold

Page 44: Ptolemy’s Map from 1482

Sir Francis DrakeBecomes the second man to circumnavigate the globe

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Henry Hudson1607 – tried to find a Northeast Passage around Europe

Also explored the area of present day New York

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Northwest passage has finally been mapped.

Often ice covered and not the best for shipping.

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The FrenchJacques Cartier – Tried to find a Northwest Passage through the Americas

Sailed past Newfoundland and into the St. Lawrence river

Called the area New France

Present day Canada

Statue in present day Montreal, Canada

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The DutchHenry Hudson sailed again for the Dutch and continued trying to find a Northeast Passage through the Americas.

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The Netherlands

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Discuss the Main Idea?What did the English, French, and Dutch explorers hope to find?

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SummaryPlease write a paragraph that

responds to this statement:The Age of Exploration could not

have occurred without the Renaissance.

Please support your answer with specific examples.