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Psychopathology (Abnormality) Disease of the mind. Depart from what is normal.

Psychology - Psychopathology

Dec 06, 2014




Revision about Abnormality for Psychology Unit 1 for AS level
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  • 1. Disease of the mind.Depart from what is normal.

2. Deviation from social norms Failure to function adequately Deviation from ideal mental healthDefinitions ofAbnormality 3. What is it? Going against accepted codes of behaviourExamples? OCDLimitations Context & Extremity: Situation there in Dominant Beliefs: Agree/Disagree Era-Dependant: Fashion/Trendy Cultures relativity Legal system assumes you are responsible for yourown action Definitions of Abnormality 4. What is it? Not being able to follow normal pattern of behaviour Observer Discomfort- Discomfort or distress on others Unpredictability- Dont act how they usually act Maladaptive- Badly adaptive behaviour Irrationality- Doing something out of the blueExample? Depression Agoraphobia: Dont like tight spaces Schizophrenia(Split-Mind): The unit of You is jumbled up.Limitations Context May not be linked to a disorder Cultural relativity Definitions of Abnormality 5. What is it? Not in touch with own identity & feelings Not resistant to stress Not focused on the future Not function as individual Not show empathy & understanding towards others.Example? Not caring for others painLimitations Western vs. Collectivists culture Few would match Jahods criteria Definitions of Abnormality 6. SituationDeviation Failure to Deviation Explanation from Social Function from Mental Norms Adequately HealthStranger who sits nextto you.YESYESObserver DiscomfortChild AbuserYES YES No empathyChild GeniusYES Doesnt accept normal behaviourBorn again ChristianYES Dominate beliefsTalk to their petsYESYESObserver DiscomfortStressed workers, taketime of work YESYES Maladaptive. Doesnt focus on futurePerson In a dead endjobYES Not reaching potentialPerson who believesthey are being watched YESMaladaptive. IrrationalSomeone who washestheir hands a lotYESYESYES Not common behaviour. Irrational.Maladaptive. Lack of reality Definitions of Abnormality 7. The biological approach: Malfunction in thebrain system. Treated same as the psychicalcondition. Changed either caused by thestructure or function.Study: Watson et al (1998)- Isolating monkeysto their social groups. The psychodynamic approach: The forces thatdrives into it. The behavioural approach: what we learn The cognitive approach: human memory.What we thinkFour Models ofAbnormality 8. Strength: Use of brain scan which shows everything in the brain. Drug treatment targets it & it is very effective Weakness: Needs more explanation & details from both sides. Drugs dont work for eating disorders or phobias.Biological Approach 9. Schizophrenia: Take Antipsychotics which reduces the activity of the brain neurotransmitters dopamine. Depression: Therapies are highly effective although Prozac drug is used. Which increases the activity of the brain neurotransmitter serotonin. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): small current which goes pass the brain. Works well with depression.Biological Approach 10. Antipsychotic Drugs Antidepressant Drugs Anti-anxiety Drugs Strength: Effectiveness Ease of Use Limitations Placebo Effects Tackles symptoms rather than problem Side effectsBiological Approach 11. Genetic Inheritance: Passed from parents. Low Concordance (Phobias). High Concordance rates (Schizophrenia). Biochemistry: shows levels of hormones & neurotransmitters in the brain. High levels of neurotransmitters serotonin- anxiety Low levels depression Neuroanatomy: Structure of brain. Schizophrenics have enlarged spaces, where theres a shortage of tissue. Viral Infection: Exposure to viruses in the womb e.g. schizophrenia.Biological Approach 12. Sigmund Freud introduced this: Id Desire/ cannot control Ego Balancer Superego ConsciousIf Id is dominate, you want pleasure.If superego is dominant they might obsessive.Ego is the mechanismFor example: If you hide something, you try to put it in the unconscious part of the brain. Which causes Denial/ displacement.Psychodynamic Approach 13. Oral Stage: Under or over fed. 0-18 monthsAnal stage: Controls pleasure of having a shit. (OCD) 18 months- 3 yearsPhallic Stage: The sexes discover other genders. 4-5 yearsLatency Period: Desire for themselves is gone & for others start. 5- pubertyGenital Stage: puberty onwardsIf these are not met, then it remains unresolved. When you get stressed, you go back to doing it.The Oedipus Complex- Boys Developed more for boys As theres psychical contact with moth & has desire for mother.Father seems to be a threat so they stick to their Fathers morals.The Electra Complex- Girls When a girl depends on not having a penis, creating penis envy &wants affection of father, when closer to mother.Psychodynamic Approach 14. Mental Disorders result form psychological rather than physical cause: Something else that goes in the brain. The thought & cannot physically see what it is, but knows theres something in it.Unresolved conflicts cause mental disorders: Conscious & unconscious parts of the brain causes anxiety when they dont work togetherEarly experiences cause mental disorder: Experiences from childhood effect you, when reaching teenage hood( Freuds Psychosexual Development)Unconscious motivation cause mental disorders: Id- Control over desire e.g. Rapists. Ego-Balancer. Superego- Knows whats right & wrong. Not knowing the cause of change in behaviour.Psychodynamic Approach 15. Strengths:Supported by Aimsworths in the Strange Situation & the childhood experiences & categories the child personality stage.Significance of repressed materials & unconscious processes widely accepted.Evidence: Freud used case studies of Adult with neurosis & linked the disorders back to the early experiences.Limitations:Abstract concepts- difficult to research & define.Sexism- theory is overbalanced.Lack of research evidence- Theory is difficult to prove when tested.Psychodynamic Approach 16. Dream Analysis Free Association Projective TestsPsychodynamic Approach 17. To uncover the conflicts repressed in the conscious mindTherapist analyse the obvious content of the dreams & interpreters the underlying meaning which is called latent contentPsychodynamic Approach 18. Link memories & thought together extending back to childhood & to lower ego defences so repressed material can be assessedTherapists encourage clients to associate thoughts with anything that enters their mind, to encourage reflection & to identify key terms & ideas.Psychodynamic Approach 19. Uncover projected feelings & beliefs linked to underlying anxietiesClients are asked what inkblots shapes mean to them, and therapist hope to find particular themes & anxietyPsychodynamic Approach 20. Classical Conditioning: Where the phobia develops Operant Conditioning: Positive Reinforcement & Negative Reinforcement Social Learning Theory: Observe other behaviourBehavioural Approach 21. Example: Phobias- learn to get scared of something through experiences Support: Watson & Ryder. Reflex- clash of cymbals. Associated with rabbit. Scared of Cymbals not rabbits. (Nurture) Undermine: Preparedness(Seligman) Fear is evolved as spiders are dangerous, so danger is feared. Genetic Response. ( Nature). He believes that its from genetics as it is from Nature that its already biologically programed, which can be triggered.Behavioural Approach 22. Example: Anxiety & Depression occurs when you want to behaviour in a way to get attention Support: Explains certain disorders e.g. depression, from positive reinforcement & negative Reinforcements as you get rewired from early age & it carries on. Undermine: Reductionist- ignores other aspects of psychology. Shows ways you can get mental illness from.Behavioural Approach 23. Example: OCD, Eating disorders, child abuse, role models. Support: Emphasis on learning environment. Who you are influenced by Undermine: Kendall & Hammen (1995) dont know if its the environment or from genetics. Nature & Nurture. Where Nature is the environment it is by eating e.g. role models they see & follow, where Nurture by the influence of the parents.Behavioural Approach 24. Abnormality is caused by faulty thinking Ellis A-B-C Model The Individual is in controlCognitive Approach 25. Distorts the beliefs on yourself. Automatically have negative thoughts Schemata: what you think of a certain thing. Where you have an opinion of yourself and over exaggerate Example: I always fall ( Not always true) Leads to depression/AnxietyCognitive Approach 26. A: Activating Event, where something happens B: Beliefs about A, which goes through rational/irrational thoughts C: Consequences, where desirable emotions/ undesirable emotions leads to the behaviourCognitive Approach 27. You make decisions having the right thoughts & behaviours & could get out of abnormalityCognitive Approach 28. Strength Clear evidence of faulty thinking & beliefs in depressions & anxiety disorders ( Clark 1986) Therapies based on this model are very effective for depression & anxiety disorder Limitation Blames the patient not the situational factors Consequence (Depression) rather than cause(Faulty Thinking) Faulty thinking leads to mental illnessCognitive Approach 29. All or none thinking (Dichotomous Thinking): Classifies either 1of 2 success and failure Arbitrary Inferences: Drawing negative conclusions without having the evidence to support them Overgeneralisation: Incorrect conclusions are drawn from little evidence Catastrophising: Where normal events are perceived as disasters Selective Abstraction: Where person pays attention to certain features of an event & ignores other features that might lead to a different conclusion Excessive Responsibility: Taking a lot of responsibility & blame things which happen.Cognitive Approach