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Psychology 305A: Personality Psychology February 11 Lecture 10

Jan 04, 2016

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Psychology 305A: Personality Psychology February 11 Lecture 10. Announcements. 1. The grades for the first midterm exam are now available on the course website. The mean score was 68% (SD = 18%, range = 23% – 96%). 2. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • *Psychology 305A: Personality Psychology February 11Lecture 10

    Psychology 305

  • Announcements1. The grades for the first midterm exam are now available on the course website. The mean score was 68% (SD = 18%, range = 23% 96%).*

  • The TAs are available during their office hours or by appointment to meet with you to review your exam:

    Daniel (TA for students with last names A-M): E-mail address: [email protected] Regular office hours: Mondays, 2:00-3:00, Kenny 3605Extra office hours: Tuesday, February 11, 12:30-2:00, Kenny 3605 Monday, February 17 (reading week): 2:00-3:00, Kenny 3605*

  • Sam (TA for students with last names N-Z): E-mail address: [email protected] Regular office hours: Tuesdays, 9:30-10:30, Kenny 2011Extra office hours: Tuesday, February 11, 2:30-3:30, Kenny 2563 Wednesday, February 12, 10:30-11:30, Kenny 2563 Thursday, February 13, 3:00-4:00, Kenny 2563 Monday February 17, 11:00-12:00, Kenny 2011 Thursday, February 27, 9:30-10:30, Kenny 2011

    Note that, due to travel, Sam will not be available on Tuesday, February 18 and Tuesday, February 25. *

  • *The peer mentors (Austin, Gordon) will hold a tutorial tomorrow (February 12):

    When? 3:00-4:00Where? Kenny 2510 Reminder

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  • Psychology 305

  • A little R&R .(Review and Reflect) *

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  • *

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  • A book recommended by a classmate:Title: The Age of Empathy, Nature's Lessons for a Kinder Society Author: Frans de WaalPublisher: Harmony BooksYear of publication: 2009*

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  • Psychology 305*The Biological Perspective1. What does contemporary research suggest about the physiological basis of (a) extraversion, (b) sensitivity to reward and punishment, and (c) sensation seeking? *2. What other physiological systems have been linked to personality?

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  • By the end of todays class, you should be able to:*1. describe Eysencks theory of the physiological basis of extraversion.2. review evidence regarding Eysencks theory of the physiological basis of extraversion.*3. distinguish between the BAS and BIS.

  • *6. describe Zuckermans theory of the physiological basis of sensation seeking.*4. discuss the roles of the BAS and BIS in learning and psychopathology.5. define the term sensation seeking.7. identify other structures, neurotransmitters, and hormones associated with personality.

  • Psychology 305*What does contemporary research suggest about the physiological basis of extraversion?

    Eysenck (1987) theorized that the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) contributes to individual differences in extraversion.*

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  • Psychology 305* The ARAS is in the brainstem and acts as a gateway: *High levels of ARAS activity result in high levels of cortical arousal. Low levels of ARAS activity result in low levels of cortical arousal.

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  • Psychology 305* Eysenck suggested that introverts have relatively high levels of ARAS activity and, therefore, cortical arousal. In order to avoid further arousal, introverts restrain themselves, seek low-stimulation settings, and avoid social interactions. That is, introverts engage in activities that regulate their levels of arousal downward.*

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  • Psychology 305* Extraverts have relatively low levels of ARAS activity and, therefore, cortical arousal. In order to enhance their levels of arousal, extraverts seek high-stimulation experiences, settings, and social interactions. That is, extraverts engage in activities that regulate their levels of arousal upward.*

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  • fMRI studies (e.g., Gray & Braver, 2002; Gray et al., 2005) suggest that extraverts and introverts do differ in cortical arousal.*Extraverts and introverts differ in arousability rather than their baseline levels of cortical arousal.

  • Psychology 305*What does contemporary research suggest about the physiological basis of sensitivity to reward and punishment? Gray (1972, 1990, 2000) theorized that two physiological systems contribute to individual differences in sensitivity to reward and punishment:*The behavioural activation system (or behavioural approach system; BAS) and the behavioural inhibition system (or avoidance/withdrawal system; BIS).

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  • Psychology 305* EEG studies suggest that the BAS is located in the left prefrontal cortex and the BIS is located in the right prefrontal cortex (DeYoung & Gray, 2009; Hewig et al., 2004; Schackman et al., 2009).*

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  • Psychology 305* The BAS is responsive to rewards or incentives, generates positive emotions (e.g., eagerness, excitement), and regulates approach behaviours. E.g., A child who hears an ice cream truck approaching.*

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  • Psychology 305*The BAS is linked to dopamine levels. Accordingly, the BAS also contributes to individual differences in extraversion (see Davidson, 2003; Knutson & Bhanji, 2006; Pickering et al., 1999).*

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  • Psychology 305* The BIS is responsive to punishment or frustration, generates negative emotions (e.g., anxiety, fear), and regulates avoidance behaviours. E.g., A child who is shouting and receives a stern glance from her mother.*

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  • Psychology 305* The BIS is linked to serotonin, GABA, and norephinephrine levels. Accordingly, the BIS also contributes to individual differences in neuroticism (see Davidson, 2003; Knutson & Bhanji, 2006; Pickering et al., 1999).*

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  • Psychology 305*BAS/BIS SurveyScore on items:1, 4, 7, 10, 12, 15, 19 = BIS Sensitivity2, 3, 5, 6, 8 = BAS Sensitivity: Reward Responsiveness 9, 11, 13, 18 = BAS Sensitivity: Drive 14, 16, 17, 20 = BAS Sensitivity: Fun Seeking *

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  • Psychology 305* The 3 BAS sensitivity subscales are: Reward responsiveness: Assesses how responsive one is to the occurrence or anticipation of rewards. Drive: Assesses the persistence with which one pursues desired goals. Fun seeking: Assesses ones desire for new rewards and ones willingness to approach potentially rewarding events on the spur of the moment.*

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  • Psychology 305*BAS/BIS Sensitivity Survey Means and Standard Deviations (Carver & White, 1994), N = 732MeanSDBIS Sensitivity19.993.70BAS Sensitivity: RewardResponsiveness17.592.14BAS Sensitivity: Drive12.052.36BAS Sensitivity: Fun Seeking12.432.26*

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  • Psychology 305* Gray integrated his theory with learning theory and generated the following hypotheses.(a) People with a sensitive BAS are more likely to learn when they are rewarded than when they are punished.(b) People with a sensitive BIS are more likely to learn when they are punished than when they are rewarded.*

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  • Psychology 305* E.g., Larsen et al. (2003)Had participants engage in a learning task.Some participants were rewarded for each correct response, earning $10 over the course of the experiment.Other participants were punished for each incorrect response; they were given $20 and lost $10 over the course of the experiment.*

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  • Psychology 305*Found that:(b) participants with high BIS sensitivity performed better when they worked to avoid punishment.(a) participants with high BAS sensitivity performed better when they worked for reward.*

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  • Theorists have suggested that the BAS and BIS may play roles in psychopathology: anxiety disorders, depression, psychopathy.*

  • Psychology 305*What does contemporary research suggest about the physiological basis of sensation seeking?

    Sensation seeking (SS) refers to the tendency to seek out varied, novel activities that are both exciting and risky:*

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  • Psychology 305*Sample Items from the Sensation Seeking ScaleI sometimes like to do things that are a little frightening.A sensible person avoids activities that are dangerous. *I like to have new and exciting experiences and sensations even if they are frightening, unconventional, or illegal.Almost everything enjoyable is illegal or immoral.I get bored seeing the same old faces.I like the comfortable familiarity of everyday friends. ** Reverse-scored items.*

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  • Psychology 305* Zuckerman (1994, 1996; also see Ruchkin et al., 2005) theorized that individuals who are high in SS have relatively low levels of monoamine oxidase (MAO). MAO is an enzyme that breaks down neurotransmitters. *

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  • MAO breaks down neurotransmitters.*

  • Psychology 305* Relatively low levels of MAO in sensation seekers result in relatively high levels of dopamine in the nervous system. Thus, MAO act as a brake, inhibiting neuro-transmission.*High levels of dopamine cause disinhibition of the nervous system: less control over behaviour, thought, and emotion.

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  • Psychology 305*What other physiological systems have been linked to personality?*

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  • Structures of the Brain*

  • Structures of the Brain*

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  • By the end of todays class, you should be able to:*1. describe Eysencks theory of the physiological basis of extraversion.2. review evidence regarding Eysencks theory of the physiological basis of extraversion.*3. distinguish between the BAS and BIS.

  • *6. describe Zuckermans theory of the physiological basis of sensation seeking.*4. discuss the roles of the BAS and BIS in learning and psychopathology.5. define the term sensation seeking.7. ide

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