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Psychology 3051 Psychology 305A: Theories of Personality Lecture 4 1

Jan 21, 2016

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  • Psychology 305*Psychology 305A: Theories of PersonalityLecture 4*

    Psychology 305

  • Exam Preparation Tips The upcoming midterm exam will include questions unique to the textbook content (~25%), questions unique to the lecture content (~25%), and questions that reflect overlap between the two sources of information (~50%). You are encouraged to study both sources of information thoroughly.*

  • With respect to the textbook content: Create questions with the titles and subtitles of sections. Use the content of each section to answer the questions that you have generated.*Construct learning objectives for each section of the textbook (what should I take away from this section?).

  • Familiarize yourself with all terms that are bolded or italicized.*Study all figures and tables.Identify the primary points of each section with key words or phrases and use these to test yourself.

  • With respect to the lecture content: Use the learning objectives to guide your studying.*

  • You need not memorize the names of researchers who conducted idiosyncratic studies or the dates of those studies. However, you should familiarize yourself with the names of all major theorists (e.g., Eysenck, Wiggins, Murray).*The goal of the exam is to assess your mastery of the course content and jargon of personality psychology.

  • In order to demonstrate your mastery of the course content on the extended response questions, you should provide thorough and detailed responses to the questions asked. The instructions for the extended response section will read:Please respond to each of the questions below. Note that point form answers are acceptable. Your responses should be thorough and detailed. If necessary, you may write on the back side of the page. *

  • The exam questions will assess your ability to recall, synthesize, and apply course content. Examples:*

  • Psychology 305*Recall:According to Eysencks theory of personality, ___________ is among the three primary dimensions of personality. conscientiousness (b) openness to experience (c) extraversion (d) agreeableness (e) c and d*

    Psychology 305

  • Psychology 305*Synthesize:List three similarities and three distinctions between Eysencks theory of personality and the Five Factor Model of personality. (6 points)Apply:Explain how you would operationalize personality on the basis of Eysencks theory of personality. Be specific in your response; that is, describe the operationalization thoroughly and in concrete terms. (4 points)*

    Psychology 305

  • In order to correctly respond to questions that require synthesis and application, recall is necessary. The correlation between recall questions and synthesis/ application questions typically exceeds .70.*

  • 1. I will hold additional office hours in preparation for the midterm exam:Friday, January 18th: 11:30AM-1:30PM Tuesday, January 22nd: 2:00-3:00PM Wednesday, January 23rd: 12:00-2:00PM *Announcements2. Aaron Weidman (TA for students with last names L-Z) must cancel his office hour this week. However, he is available via e-mail or by appointment.

  • 3. In an effort to assist students in meeting their learning goals for this course, I have recruited two peer mentors who will be available to you for the duration of the course:Austin Lee: [email protected] Derek Zhenxinyu Zhang: [email protected] peer mentors will be available to correspond with you via e-mail or meet with you by appointment.*

  • Psychology 305*The Trait and Motive Perspectives*1. Has a comprehensive taxonomy of personality traits been developed? (continued)

    2. What are needs?

    Psychology 305

  • By the end of todays class, you should be able to:2.identify correlates of the five dimensions of the FFM.3. discuss common criticisms of the FFM.**1.assess your scores on the five dimensions of the FFM.4. define the term need.

  • Psychology 305* Trait psychologists typically assess the 5 dimensions of the FFM using structured self-report questionnaires:(a) questionnaires containing adjectives accompanied by rating scales:*Has a comprehensive taxonomy of personality traits been developed? (continued)

    Psychology 305

  • Psychology 305*Score 1: Openness to ExperienceFemalesX = 19.4SD = 2.925%ile = 1875%ile = 21MalesX = 20.3SD = 2.825%ile = 1875%ile = 22Score 2: ConscientiousnessFemalesX = 20.2SD = 3.225%ile = 1975%ile = 23MalesX = 18.8SD = 3.325%ile = 1775%ile = 21 BFT: Big Five TestX = MeanSD = Standard deviation25%ile and below = Low scores75%ile and above = High scores *

    Psychology 305

  • Psychology 305*Score 4: AgreeablenessFemalesX = 22.2SD = 2.625%ile = 2175%ile = 24MalesX = 18.8SD = 3.325%ile = 1775%ile = 21Score 5: NeuroticismFemalesX = 18.5SD = 4.425%ile = 1675%ile = 22MalesX = 16.3SD = 4.925%ile = 1375%ile = 20Score 3: ExtraversionFemalesX = 19.0SD = 3.525%ile = 1775%ile = 22MalesX = 18.8SD = 3.525%ile = 1675%ile = 22*

    Psychology 305

  • Psychology 305*questionnaires containing statements accompanied by rating scales:NEO-PI-RI dont find it easy to take charge of a situation.Most people I know like me.I keep my belongings neat and clean. I have frequent mood swings. I enjoy trying new and foreign foods.(E)(A)(C)(O)(N)*

    Psychology 305

  • Psychology 305* Correlates of the Big 5:Extraversion is associated with: Greater peer acceptance. A greater number of positive life events. Use of more effective coping strategies (i.e., active coping strategies).*

    Psychology 305

  • Psychology 305*Agreeableness is associated with: Greater peer acceptance. Lower levels of depression. Fewer behavioural problems (e.g., alcoholism).Conscientiousness is associated with: Higher grades and levels of job performance. More positive and committed social relationships. Greater physical health and longer lifespan. *

    Psychology 305

  • Psychology 305*Neuroticism is associated with: Higher levels of depression. A greater number of negative life events. Poorer physical health and shorter lifespan.Openness to experience is associated with: A greater number of positive life events. More varied life experiences. *

    Psychology 305

  • Rapid Reflection: Trait Perspective Write a three sentence SUMMARY of the trait perspective (3 minutes).Examples:*

  • This perspective uses traits to describe personality. Typically, individuals are described in terms of their scores on trait dimensions. The dominant trait theory today is the FFM, which maintains that personality is best described by scores on five trait dimensionsOCEAN.There are a number of trait theories that have been proposed by researchers. These theories have been generated using different methodologiesthe lexical, statistical, and theoretical methods. Using these methods, researchers have proposed distinct clusters of trait dimensions that most accurately capture personality.*

  • Trait theories describe people in terms of constellations of trait adjectives. Some examples are Eysencks theory, which describes personality on the basis of scores on three traits (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism) and the FFM, which describes personality on the basis of scores on five traits (OCEAN). Although the latter theory is among the most widely accepted theories of personality, it has been criticized by a number of theorists.*

  • Psychology 305*What are needs? A need is a physiochemical force in the brain that organizes perception, intellection, and action in such a way as to transform an unsatisfying situation into a more satisfying one (Murray, 1981). Noteworthy points about this definition:1. Physiochemical2.Organizes perception, intellection, and action3.As to transform an unsatisfying situation into a more satisfying one*

    Psychology 305

  • Psychology 305*The Trait and Motive Perspectives*1. Has a comprehensive taxonomy of personality traits been developed? (continued)

    2. What are needs?

    Psychology 305