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Psychological Foundations of Education

Dec 21, 2014

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Education

Psychological Foundations of Education
*Behavioral Psychology and Learning
*Effective Teaching and Evaluation of Learning
*Foundations of Bilingual Education

  • 1. Foundations of Education 1 Table of Contents Behavioral Psychology and Learning ................................................................................. 2 Albert Banduras Social Cognitive Learning.................................................................. 2 Basic Concepts of Social Cognitive Learning Theory................................................ 2 Four Learning Mechanisms in Observational Learning ............................................. 3 Watsons Classical Conditioning.................................................................................... 3 Skinners Operant Conditioning ..................................................................................... 4 Effective Teaching and Evaluation of Learning ................................................................. 5 Effective Teaching.......................................................................................................... 5 Foundations of Bilingualism............................................................................................... 6 Bilingual Language Development .................................................................................. 6 Developing Bilingualism ................................................................................................ 7 Two Major Patterns in Bilingual Language Acquisition ................................................ 7 Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 9

2. Foundations of Education 2 Behavioral Psychology and Learning Albert Banduras Social Cognitive Learning Social cognitive learning theory which was proposed by Albert Bandura has become the most influential theory of learning and development. His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people known as observational learning or modelling. It emphasizes the concept of imitation as a form of learning. Learning according to this theory results from the ability of the child to select the pattern of behavior to imitate. He also stresses the process of learning through vicarious learning. It is a process of learning by way of seeing directly or by hearing about consequences as a result of other peoples action (Zulueta & Maglaya, 2012). Basic Concepts of Social Cognitive Learning Theory 1. People can learn through observation. There are three basic models of observational learning: (1) a live model which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior, (2) a verbal instructional model which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior, and (3) a symbolic model which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, televisions, programs, or online media. 2. Mental states are important to learning. He describes intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment. 3. Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior. 3. Foundations of Education 3 Four Learning Mechanisms in Observational Learning Bandura enumerated four learning mechanisms that are essential in observational learning (Zulueta & Maglaya, 2012): 1. Attention- it is essential that one pays attention to what is happening around him. 2. Retention- it is not only important to attend closely to the observed behavior; but also remember it at some later time for use. 3. Motivation- one is likely to initiate those that are rewarding for his behavior and whom he likes to have similarities with or to value more. 4. Reinforcement- the association of stimulus particularly the anticipation of rewards as a motivational factor. Watsons Classical Conditioning John Broadus Watsons argued that any science of behavior must be based on observable events, and his approach is known as behaviorism. His work was heavily influenced by Ivan Pavlov who was first to demonstrate the process of classical conditioning. It is a type of learning that results from the repeated pairing of stimuli. He defined classical conditioning as learning that involves the modification of a reflex; the conditioning stimulus, which is neutral at the start, eventually initiates the same behavioral responses as the unconditioned stimulus (reflex reaction) (Owens, 2006). 4. Foundations of Education 4 Skinners Operant Conditioning A key concept in Burrhus Frederic Skinners system is the process of operant conditioning. According to Skinner, it is a process of learning in which reinforced behaviors tend to be repeated and occur more frequently (Owens, 2006). In other words, if a response is followed by a reward, the response will be strengthened. They concept of reinforcement is one of the significant contributions he made in the concept of learning. Reinforcement is the process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated. Reinforcement can be either positive or negative. A positive reinforcement is a stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response. In contrast, negative reinforcement refers to an unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future (Magpantay & Danao, 2014). Furthermore, he also emphasized the importance of reward in shaping the behavior. Reward is a form of positive reinforcement that will help to increase the probability the desired behavior will recur. Punishment is a form of negative reinforcement that will help to decrease the probability the unpleasant behavior will not recur. 5. Foundations of Education 5 Effective Teaching and Evaluation of Learning Effective Teaching Effective teachers strive to inspire and engage all their students in learning rather than simply accepting the some students cannot be engaged and are destined to do poorly. They believe every student is capable of achieving success at school and they do all they can to find ways of making each student successful (O'Niel, n.d.). 1. Using a variety of pedagogies- Effective teachers use techniques or strategies that best serve the learning needs of their students. They help students learn on their own as well as with and from others. They know that students learn best if they are provided with opportunities to learn not only from the teacher but also from other students and from sources outside the school that are now more readily accessible through various forms of technology. 2. Encouraging student responsibility- Effective teachers teach in a way that encourages students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and make sure their students know what the goals of the learning program. 3. Having mastery of subject matter- Effective teachers have a thorough knowledge of their subject content and skills. Through this, they inspire in their students a love of learning. They also understand how students learn best the concepts, the content and the skills. 4. Providing safe environment- Effective teachers provide a safe and orderly environment, both physically and emotionally, so students can achieve their potential. They know students learn best if they are in a classroom where they 6. Foundations of Education 6 feel safe and confident to attempt new tasks even if at first they are unsure about how to tackle them. 5. Monitoring progress and providing feedback- Effective teachers closely monitor each students achievements. This enables them to provide every one of their students with regular feedback on their performance, and gives them valuable information to assess the impact of their teaching. They are in the habit of constantly reflecting on how well they are getting through to their students and searching for better ways of teaching those who are not responding as well as extending those who are achieving well. They understand the standards their students are expected to achieve and use a range of assessment methods to determine the extent to which those standards are being met and to plan the next steps. 6. Building positive relationships- Effective teachers develop productive relationships with their students they get to know them and take a particular interest in their overall development and progress. They treat their students with respect and expect the same in return. They work collaboratively to benefit student learning. Foundations of Bilingualism Bilingual Language Development How does a bilingual child acquire language? And how do learning two languages affect the childs language development? Bilingualism is the persons ability to speak or write fluently in two languages. Bilingualism is distinguished into two (Bialystok & Hakuta, 1994): 7. Foundations of Education 7 1. Productive Bilingualism- Speaker can produce and understand both languages. 2. Receptive Bilingualism- Speaker can understand both languages but have more limited production abilities. Developing Bilingualism According to Fierro-Cobas and Chan (Fierro-Cobas & Chan, 2001), language development is a complex, dynamic process influenced by the childs age, language exposure and social interaction. A bilingual child generally follows one of the two language acquisition patterns: simultaneous bilingualism, in which the child acquires two languages at the same time before the age 3 years, and sequential bilingualism, in which the child acquires a second language by age 3 having acquired the primary language. Preschoolers may differ qualitatively from school-age children in their ability to develop a second language. For older children and adult, acquiring a second language is a conscious rather than subconscious process; more appropriately learned language learning rather than language acquisition. For example, Filipinos are not a native speaker of Spanish, and for them to learn the language, they e