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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 3 The Nature and Nurture Of Behavior James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
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Page 1: [Psy] ch03

Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY

(7th Ed)

Chapter 3 The Nature and Nurture

Of Behavior

James A. McCubbin, PhDClemson University

Worth Publishers

Page 2: [Psy] ch03

Genes: Our Biological Blueprint

Chromosomes threadlike structures made of DNA that

contain the genes DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

has two strands-forming a “double helix”--held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides

Page 3: [Psy] ch03

Genes: Our Biological Blueprint

Genes biochemical units of heredity that make

up the chromosomes a segment of DNA capable of

synthesizing a protein Genome

the complete instructions for making an organism

consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes

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Genes: Their Location and Composition

Nucleus Chromosome Gene

Cell DNA

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Evolutionary Psychology

Natural Selection the principle that, among the range of

inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

Mutations random errors in gene replication that lead

to a change in the sequence of nucleotides the source of all genetic diversity

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Evolutionary Psychology

Evolutionary Psychology the study of the evolution of

behavior and the mind, using the principles of natural selection

Gender in psychology, the characteristics,

whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female

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Evolutionary Psychology Men preferred attractive physical features

suggesting youth and health Women preferred resources and social

status

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Behavior Genetics

Behavior Genetics study of the relative power and

limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior

Environment every nongenetic influence, from

prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

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Behavior Genetics

Identical Twins develop from a single

fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms

Fraternal Twins develop from separate

eggs genetically no closer

than brothers and sisters, but they share the fetal environment

Identicaltwins

Fraternaltwins

Samesex only

Same oropposite sex

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Behavior Genetics Temperament

a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

Heritability the proportion of variation among

individuals that we can attribute to genes

may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied

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Behavior Genetics

Interaction the dependence of the effect of one

factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity)

Molecular Genetics the subfield of biology that studies

the molecular structure and function of genes

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Environmental Influence

Two placental arrangements in identical twins

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Environmental Influence

Experience affects brain development

Impoverishedenvironment

Rat braincell

Rat braincell

Enrichedenvironment

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Environmental Influence

A trained brain

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Environmental Influence

Culture the enduring behaviors, ideas,

attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

Norm an understood rule for accepted and

expected behavior

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Environmental Influence

Personal Space the buffer zone we like to

maintain around our bodies Memes

self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person

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The Nature and Nurture of Gender

X Chromosome the sex chromosome found in both men

and women females have two; males have one an X chromosome from each parent

produces a female child Y Chromosome

the sex chromosome found only in men when paired with an X chromosome from

the mother, it produces a male child

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The Nature and Nurture of Gender

Testosterone the most important of the male sex hormones both males and females have it additional testosterone in males stimulates

growth of male sex organs in the fetus development of male sex characteristics during

puberty

Role a set of expectations (norms) about a social position defining how those in the position ought to behave

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The Nature and Nurture of Gender

Gender Role a set of expected behaviors for males

and females Gender Identity

one’s sense of being male or female Gender-typing

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

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The Nature and Nurture of Gender

Gender and Culture

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The Nature and Nurture of Gender

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The Nature and Nurture of Gender

Social Learning Theory theory that we learn social behavior by

observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

Gender Schema Theory theory that children learn from their

cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly

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The Nature and Nurture of Gender

Two theories of gender typing