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Proposal for the Traditional Residential Dwelling Post-graduate in Urban design and conservation Er. Amit Pokhrel
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Project proposal for traditional residential dwelling design studio

Jun 14, 2015

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Pokharel Amit

Proposal of the design studio for the traditional residential dwelling
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  • 1. Proposal for the Traditional Residential Dwelling Post-graduate in Urban design and conservation Er. Amit Pokhrel

2. Statuary Publication This document is the sole publication of the Author. Any misuse and the mis-interpretation of this document by anyone, author does not take the responsibility for the same. Technical Details of Proposed Residential Dwelling A. General Description 1. Type of Structure: Load Bearing/Framed 2. Current usage of Structure: Residential/Commercial/Mixed 3. Type of Design: Post Modern/Modern/Traditional/Temporary 4. Special Architectural features, if any: 5. Current state of Building: Well Maintained/Average/Poor 6. Number of Floors: 3 7. Height of each Floor: Total height= 28/32 ft 8. Plinth area of Building: 510 sq.ft=47.38 m2 9. Total floor area of Building: 444.15 sq.ft=41.26m2 10. Percentage coverage of site by Building: 100% 11. Other comments, if any: no comments 3. B. Element of the Residential Building 1. Walls a) External: present b) Internal: present c) Partitions:wooden partition d) Finishing: white wall, brick wall, wooden wall finishing 2. Floors a) Ground Floor: present b) Upper Floors: present 3. Roof a) Type: traditional type with jhingati,but shifted by cgi sheets due to water penetration or leakage due to climatic change b) Finishing: smooth with cgi sheets or by rheomax finishing 4. Doors a) Frame: present b) Shutter: no c) Fittings: door fittings d) Finishing:surface and smooth finishing 5. Windows & Ventillators a) Frame: frame window b) Shutters: no shutters c) Wiremesh Shutters: installed d) Grills: installed e) Fittings: coupling, compression fittings f) Finishing: smooth finishing 6. Staircase a) Type of Construction: wooden construction b) Risers & Treads: both present c) Balusters: use of baluster d) Handrail: provided for safety for children e) Finishing of Steps: smooth 7. Colour & Painting: different colour and painting are used for different rooms to make a room look beautiful and shiny 8. Other comments, if any: no comments 4. C. Electrical Installation Details 1. Types of Wiring: Surface/Conduit/Concealed 2. Types of Fitting: electrical and sanitary fittings 3. No. of Points : more than 25 4. Other comments, if any: no comments D. Sanitary Installation Details 1. Quality of Fixtures: good 2. Details of Fixtures a) No. of Water Closets: 1 b) No. of Basins: 3 c) No. of Urinals: 3 d) No. of Bath-Tube: 1 e) No. of Kitchen-Sinks: 2 f) No. of Geysers: 2 3. Floor Finish: with tiles and carpeting 4. Wall Finish: traditional material with modern color 5. Water Supply: presence of watersupply 6. Hot Water System: installation of hot water system 7. Underground Sump(Capacity & type of Construction): provision was made there 8. Overhead Tank(Location,capacity& type of Construction): two tanks with 1000 litre, hiltake 9. Other comments, if any: absence of greenary environment E. Other Features 1. Sewage Disposal System: (Whether connected to public sewers, if not, the number and capacity of septic tanks provided) 2. Roads & Pavements: bituminous road with paved 5. 3. Compound Wall: no compound wall 4. Other Landscape Features: hindu temple infront the building 5. Other comments, if any: no comments Table of Contents Table of Contents........................................................................................................ List of Figures............................................................................................................ Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 Property Inspection 1.2 Property Description 1.3 Property Valuation 2. Qualifying & limiting conditions 3. Value calculations 3.1 Valuation of Land 3.2 Valuation of Building 4. Synopsis of Valuation 5. Authenticity of the Building 6. Interior 7. Comfort 8. Analysis 9. Existing condition of the building 6. 10. Living in a Traditional building 11. Detailling inside the building 12. Preventive methods for the problems in building 13. Conclusion Enclosures i. Appendix-I ii. Appendix-II-Map of Building floor plan iii. Appendix-III-Building Layout iv. Appendix-IV- Plan, Layout & Elevation v. Appendix-V- Technical Details 7. Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 Property Inspection This is a proposal report prepared for the purpose of using the building as a residence located at lalitpur-09, shankhamul. The property belonging to the Mrs. Shrada Shrestha which is located at the border of the bagmati river crossing between Kathmandu district and lalitpur district (Shankhamul side) place named as Dhokasi. The property is in Lalitpur sub- minicipality ward no.09 of Lalitpur district. It is inside the boundary of Lalitpur district. The property that was inspected consists of three and half storey traditional dwelling The inspection visit revealed the following details: I. Owner of the property : Mrs. Shrada Shrestha II. Location of the property : Ward no. 09, Dhokasi, Lalitpur district III. Plot number of property : Not known IV. Land area : 444.10 sq.ft V. Building description : Traditional Dwelling VI. Approach road details : 4m width The property is at 20 minutes walk from Baneswor towards North-West in the way to Shankhamul, similarly from Mangalbazar, Patan, the property is at 20-25 minutes distance in the way to Shankhamul (back-side of Baneswor-Shankhamul way). The road is wide and the access road to the property is of 4 m width. The property is bounded by houses on bothsides at infront whereas the property is joined to another buildings by its sides. The four Killas or Chaar Killas of the land or the property is as follows: South: way to Mangalbazar, the historic area of Patan West: way to Pulchowk crossing Bagmati River (infront a Temple) East: way to Baneswor, Kathmandu North: way to Kathmandu city 1.2 Property Description The property that was inspected and has been valued comprises of a regular shaped, private property on which is a 3 storied building. The valuated or proposed building is being used as a residence from the very begining. Recently it was been proposed for a residence use for a home owner or may be the Tourist. The accumulation of the ground floor consists of two rooms, toilet and bathroom, a little space and from there a staircase was provided to go to upstairs. The general description of building property are listed as below: 1. Year of Construction Completion: 2013 8. 2. Type of Property: Private 3. Land details: Shape: Irregular Topography: Elevated lands 4. Type of Structure: Load bearing 5. No. of Floors: 3 6. Height of Floor: 28-32 ft 7. Toilet/Bathrooms: yes 8. Roofing: CGI sheets 9. Services: Watersupply: supply of watersupply from KUKL Electricity: presence of electricity through NEA Sewerage: by side drain infront of building through WBM Telephone/Cable: there is a facility for such purposes All the facilities are there and since the building is near the street, it posses both commercial and residential value. The building is in under construction (maintainence) while documenting the traditional look building (which is the same building). The building has just been completed by some rennovation works here and now it is ready to use as a Residence or for a adaptabilty reuse. Though the building ground floor was rented from last few years and the other floor are not being used, so we can say here that the traditional newari building can be adaptive to use in desired access and furthermore it can be used as a trational town house from the tourist point of view by changing its internal structure such as window, door, toilet/bathroom layout and mostly coloring the inner structure of the room for preserving its historical and architectural character which it contains from the begining. . (KUKL- Kathmandu Upatyeka Khanepani Limited; NEA- Nepal Electricity Authority; WBM- Water Bound Macadam) 1.3 Property Valuation The property under discussion has been valuated on the basis of detailed measurements of the buildings. With the help of these measurements, the drawing was prepared and the area of the building was calculated. The plinth area rate including Watersupply, Sanitary and Electrical fittings was collected from the market which posses quality products with standard rate and also from experienced technicalities. The value of land rate was also determined. 9. 2. Qualifying and Limiting Conditions: The plot which are bordering the main road are fetching high rates inspite of the fact that the property is liitle bit inside from the main road (from Mangalbazar to way to shankhamul of 20/25 minutes walk and from Baneswor to on the way to shankhamul). The property have immense both the residential and the commercial value because the building can be used in business point of view that are based on giving rent to hotels and guest houses or it can be used as a traditional home as a Residence for home owner or it can be used as a Tradtional home for Tourist. The property is in the outer part of the historic core near Dhokasi, Lalitpur on the way to Shankhamul. The property or the residential dwelling is quite safe and the concentration of most of the people is quite low in comparison to the main road. Though people use mostly inner roads to travel, but it is safe incomparison with next roads. The land value and the Building value has been determined using the weightage method in which government value has been given 10% weightage, real state (brokers) value has been given 30% weightage and our spot valuation has been given 60% weightage. The building is 77 years old (built after 1990 B.S Earthquake- two to three years later). Therefore, the value of the building is determined as per the rules of valuation. 3. Value Calculations 3.1 Valuation of Land: As stated in 2.paragraph 4, the valuation of land has been calculated. land rate by weighted average calculation is = Rs. 67,40,000.00 per ropani Methods undertaken are enlisted: (Valuation of land Prevailing rate at Dhokasi, Lalitpur Area (similar land) spot valuation= Rs. 80,00,000.00 per ropani Government rate at Dhokasi, Lalitpur Area (similar land)= Rs. 26,00,000.00 per ropani Current market rate (Real state or Brokers rate)= Rs. 56,00,000.00 per ropani Now giving 60% weightage to the rate from spot valuation, 10% for the government rate and 30% to the brokers rate, the rate of the land comes out to be in NRS= Rs. 67,40,000.00 per ropani) Description Area of land Recommended land rate per ropani in NRS Value of land in NRS Dhokasi-09, Shankhamul, Lalitpur; House of Mrs. 444.15 sq.ft= 41.26m2 67,40,000.00 Rs 546629.71 10. Shrada Shrestha, regular shaped land Total: Rs 54,66,29.71 Table 1: Value of Land 3.2 Valuation of Building: The floor plan are attached herewith. The plinth area rate including Watersupply, Sanitary and Electrical fittings for similar building of Load bearing structure is in NRS= Rs. 8,500.00 per m2. Therefore, cost of the Building= plinth area * rate Assuming the life of structure or useful life of building =100 years. The building is 77 years old, for useful life of structure=100 years Yd=2.00 Then depreciated value of building is given by: D= P (100-Yd/100)^n Where, P= Present value of building=(plinth area*rate) in Rs. D= depreciated value n= number of years the building has been constructed=77 years :. D = (plinth area* rate)* (100-2/100)^77 = (47.38 m2 *8500) * 0.98^77 :. Present value of Building= Rs. 85,000.56 Description Age of the Bldg Area m2 prevailing plinth area rate per m2 (Rs.) value of building including w/s, sanitary & electrical fittings (Rs.) Present net value of bldg after deduction and depreciation (Rs.) 3 storey load bearing structures 77 years 47.38 8,500 4,02,730 85,000.56 Total Rs 85,000.56 Table 2: Value of existing building 4. Synopsis of Valuation Thus the value of Building belonging to Mrs. Shrada Shrestha which is located at Dhokasi-09, Shankhamul, Lalitpur can be synopsized as follows: Value of Land = Rs. 5,46,629.71 11. Value of Buildiing = Rs. 85,000.56 5. Authenticity of the Building The proper performance and authenticity of old buildings of traditional construction are threatened on many fronts. This threat to their structure is also a threat to our traditional town and landscapes. Old buildings need to breathe, or else they fail. The cultural value of an old building rests upon the retention of the maximum of historic fabric and authenticity compatible with structural integrity. The present appearance of the buildings and their architectural form is largely authentic in terms of reflecting their traditional form and materials, although many have been largely reconstructed. In buildings the original roof has been replaced by lighter, shallower-pitched, corrugated iron roofs, and in all the buildings there has been the insertion of more durable paved flooring than the traditional rammed earth. Traditionally, buildings have been created to meet certain needsfunction, comfort, and budgetbut minimally focused on how well they fit with the natural environment. They also have been designed and constructed for uses and conditions of the moment, and therefore usually require remodeling or replacement when needs or circumstances change, a costly approach both financially and environmentally. Buildings tend to be thought of as static edifices that remain the same over decades, interacting little with their environment or occupants. Hence we can say that while preserving any traditional building, we should focus on its original character which should be use as a adaptive building to preserve its original fabric. 5.1 An Adaptable House Adaptive buildings are designed to adapt to changing needs and conditions, including environmental conditions such as climate change. Adaptive strategies make renovation or repurposing of space easier, less expensive, and less burdensome on the environment. The concepts and technologies to support adaptive building systems are both available and dependable. Traditional buildings are also a method for creating an adaptable building in that they are easily remodeled and can easily be adapted for new purposes for which they were not originally conceived. An Adaptable house accommodates lifestyle changes without the need to demolish or substantially modify the existing structure and services. Similarly, an adaptable dwelling might be designed to easily enable a reduction in size over time through the division of a large family home into two smaller housing units, offering residents the opportunity to continue living within a familiar environment. 12. In addition to being designed to be usable by most people, the Adaptable house has provision for additional modifications should they be required to meet the specific needs of an occupant. This may include the modification of kitchen joinery to meet changing physical needs, alterations to the laundry and bathroom to increase access and usability, the increase of lighting levels in response or the introduction of support devices additional security measures. 5.2 Integrity The Traditional building is the only surviving example of the traditional architecture. Very few of the buildings are complete. In most cases, parts of the original structures are missing. The integrity is threatened by deterioration of the fabric due to the warm humid tropical climate that is destructive of traditional earth and wattle-and-daub buildings. Heavy rainfall and high humidity encourage rapid mould formation on wall surfaces, and the activities of termites, and other prolifically breeding destructive insects. The intensification of agricultural developments makes the traditional building materials of thatch, bamboo, and specific timber species less easy to obtain. 6. Interior Big bold and beautiful patterns of living room Patterns meet texture in this uber sawy, ultra cosmopolitan living room. here, traditional favourites are reinvented, redefined, and remixed to create a striking statement of individual taste and character. Lighting is all about ambiance-whether day or night. lamps have rectangular shades to echo shapes of transform windows, and in the evening, a contemporary chandelier in frosted glass and chrome provides a gentle glow to match the deepening dusk skies. 13. What are to noted for a small bathroom Design: Lighting source, painting color of the bathroom, sleek and curved corner sinks and optional vanity, bathroom tiles and flooring, fixtures and mirrors for reflection effect, tubs and alternative sliding doors 7. Comfort Comfort relates to uniquely human needs, such as the ability to personalize ones space, to set boundaries, and to connect with nature or beauty. The building should possess changes in internal character to be comfortable and ready to use as a new look or new change. For example, the building should be used according to the users need. Finally, the effect of beautythe aesthetic element of a living environmentmay be the most unquantifiable contributor to psychological comfort in the living place. Some famous writers say that Comfort is as elusive as the blind mens elephant. Comfort is directly related to humans behavior as well as his perception. as we know that people feel comfort and use it when his environment is adjusted and his mood influences is agreeable. for example, we like to stay in home, but if the temperature rises to 40 degree celsius, we prefer to visit nearest swimming pool or we go for bath, it depends upon human psychology; as we surely understand that comfort are the required things for every body to adjust according to the built environment and the physical needs of the people to live in a good environment and a good space. 14. 8. Analysis While analysing the Traditional building, first we should understand its internal layout which has its own specific features, to have some changes within it, to feel comfort and to use as a adaptability re-use. There should be a good space concept while mastering the open floor plan. There are many things to consider while planning the internal layouts based upon a comfortable and user mood and demand and as well as functional interior design. (The Layout of the same building which was proposed for the Residence for the same family or the owner of the own traditional building.) These analysis is based upon the situation of the Traditional building which was situated at Lalitpur-09, Dhokasi, Shankhamul. Most people love to pick out colors, fabrics and finish when adaptability re-use, but we should go for the first step: space planning. When done right, it can produce a finished room that feels larger and performs more efficiently. A few of steps will help people to decide on the best arrangement for their lifestyle: While analysing space needs, first make a clear about and make a list of the smaller, functional spaces you will need within the larger space, and then assign estimated square footage for each area. Think about the size of your furniture and the number of people occupying the room. For instance, the space between the kitchen counter and the dining room table should be at least 4 feet so that people can walk between the two and diners have room to pull out chairs. But an entry door in the path and/or a larger scaled space will need more space 6 feet or more. After analysing space needs what a people desire for their life style, define what are your space relationships? Once you have determined the right size for each space, figure out which spaces need to be near each other these are called adjacencies. As people move from one space to the next, which ones make the most sense to be near each other? An obvious adjacency is placing the dining table near the kitchen, but then do what the people want an area for comfortable seating immediately nearby, a small 15. workspace, or maybe a children's play area? It all depends on lifestyle. Then after that, we should go for defining what are the existing conditions? Most adaptability, remodeling, redecorating or reorganizing projects don't start with a clean slate. Space plan takes shape within an existing shell. Locations of doors and windows, electrical outlets, columns and partitions will all be major considerations as people think about their space plan. Then proceeding the requirements while going by comfort and uses, again, a main purpose to deal all about where are the plumbing, gas and sewage lines? For kitchens, bathrooms and other rooms that need a water supply and drainage, you will want them as close as possible to existing plumbing and sewage lines to minimize costs. Plan the adjacencies accordingly. Think of furniture in context of grouping. In the bedroom, a bed, nightstand makes up a group. In the living room, a sofa, coffee table, chair may be a grouping. The groupings are The individual pieces of furniture The space around them The space needed to access the grouping Thinking in this way will make it easier for to plan space. Remembering the orientation of furniture pieces in relation to each other, and the spacing between pieces to encourage social interaction, it will help both users and if made agreement for rent for some kind of traditional house use for restuarant, then for the coming users or may be guest, it makes much comfortable to use the material and furniture. Consider public and private spaces. When thinking about public versus private spaces, think about whether you want some of the spaces enclosed, or partially walled off. Bedrooms are private spaces that should be located in a quieter area of the living space. Kitchens are open and public. Based on the changing needs, people want some changes in their home, but while looking the traditional structure of the building, it is a compulsary way to preserve our traditional building to preserve their original fabric to sustain for a long time. But due to climatic change, the building go many changes from roof to brickwork and some part of the facade. to minimise the loss, the important traditional building are been used as an adaptive re-use concept to protect its original structure, the internal layout structure, crafted wooden work and mostly to preserve its material, forms and finishes. 16. These building, which represents the traditional structure is 77 years old, which has its own form which is a speciality of a Newari towns structure, mostly found within the Kathmandu Valley. The building is using by the same family who is doing its maintenance from the beginning. The owner is Mrs. Shrada Shrestha who is more than 70 in age and the care taker of the building is Mr. Gyaniraj. These proposal is done to proposed the traditional building of the same building where the documentation took place. It was proposed for a residence which can be used both by the home owners or it can be rented to the other family members, but used for a residential purpose. Due to maintenance of the building, the upper part was changed and CGI sheets are placed at the roof level at the top, and as we know that the building is 77 years old, some of the structure went maintenance and to preserve its other original form, preservation process by adaptability re-use concept was started to save its authenticity and integrity to reform its original layout within the building. Analysis according to the floor plan 1. Ground floor plan The accumulation of the ground floor consists of two rooms, toilet and bathroom, a little space and from there, a staircase was provided to go to upstairs. It is suitable to use for a small family as a residence shifting to rent purpose and may the home owner use the room according to their comfort and necessary. Due to low spaces within the ground floor, it is most suitable to smallest number of people to live in. Here, the ground floor is divided into two rooms and one room is used as a bedroom, and in the bedroom the small low double bed is used due to less space inside the room and the next one is used as a kitchen. For the small family, it is most suitable to get such facilities. The staircase is within the building, it has an advantages that, people can use their room for the private means and it separates from others too if it was been given rent for people to share the ground floor. And the free space near the staircase may be used for studying which can be made by designing wooden material like the following figure 17. 2. First floor plan The accumulation of the first floor consists of one room attached with toilet-bath. Bedrooms are private spaces that should be located in a quieter area of the living space. For a family, bedroom is most necessary, it should be separated from other rooms to get much comfort to sleep well and feel relaxed. The personal specific character is directly related to bedrooms 3. Second floor plan The accumulation of the second floor consists of three rooms inter-related with each other. Though there are separate doors to enter it, but it can again be used to modify the rooms as per the comfort and use by the home owner. here in the second floor, there are two rooms for which it has its own importance to use it according to the requirements. There are two alternative slide doors from both the rooms to enter the third room, so that the small room which faces to east elevation can be more separated to use as a work place or a study room. It was linked to living room since, if the number of family or guest is low, they can select to sit the first living room which is nearby to the staircase, or if the number of people is more, the next guest room can be used to have it by entertaining in more comfort way. Mostly depends upon the user demands and mood as well as related to environment and psychological behavior of a person. 4. Top floor plan The accumulation of the top floor plan consists of a kitchen and an open terrace. Though kitchen should be open and public for users, it also help to understand the spaces within it to justify the needs of the people. The kitchen should be wider for walkability and for a diners, it should be feeling comfortable to use it in right way. Though here, traditional favourites are re-use, reinvented, redefined, and remixed to create a striking statement of individual taste and character. And mostly the main important features of a Traditional building or any building is that; , the lighting, kitchen, staircase property, bathroom design fitted with equipped material should be taken into consideration to make it internally look bold and beautiful. Lighting is all about ambiance-whether day or night. lamps have rectangular 18. shades to echo shapes of transform windows, and in the evening, a contemporary chandelier in frosted glass and chrome provides a gentle glow to match the deepening dusk skies. What are to noted for a building Design: Lighting source, painting color , sleek and curved corner sinks and optional vanity, tiles and flooring, fixtures and mirrors for reflection effect, alternative sliding doors and mostly a landscape features within a specified location. Main thing is to preserve its architectural features which is the most important key to guard its tradtional look to make comfortable in its use and protection. Concept of living room and kitchen in more better form, the buidling can be changed according to this type of layout,modifying in color combination and changing the style of door and window frame by shuttering and steel fitted with glass material. Since the building is a traditional structure, so to preserve its structure, heavy things were discouraged and mostly wooden material with a folding system should be used to protect the building and to make more comfortable the inner stucture should be free to walk and design should be a proper and good looking with less use of furniture but use of architectural features to look the room bold and beautiful. 19. 9. Existing condition of the building It is important to understand the differences between traditional and modern buildings so that we can care for older buildings in an appropriate and compatible manner. This will mean using methods and materials that are sympathetic to the building and that do not cause long-term problems and the unnecessary loss of historic fabric. Most traditional buildings are built with stone, soft bricks, timber and earth using earth or lime- based mortars and renders. These materials allow moisture to be absorbed and then to readily evaporate away, we often say it allows the building to 'breathe'. In such buildings the levels of dampness in the building are 'controlled' by this ready evaporation of moisture. Externally the porous materials are dried out by the wind and sun. Internally, air movement - through the roof covering, windows and openings - all help the evaporation of moisture from the internal porous surfaces. Where moisture can evaporate freely and the traditional 'breathing' performance is not impaired, the walls of traditional buildings will remain relatively dry. Of course even the evaporation from porous materials may prove insufficient if building fabric is subject to excessive wetting. Traditional buildings were designed with good details to keep water out of the building, for example deep eaves, wide gutters and plinths at ground level. If those features are made inoperative, e.g. by blocked gutters or raised external ground levels, then the building is at risk. The existing condition of the building has many drawbacks from the ground floor to the top floor. Since the traditional structure of the newari building has its own importance, but there are few things which should be addressed for preserving its original structure to prevent it from decay, structure failure, termites and damp. While observing from ground floor, there is a problem in ground floor due to damp, but it can be minimizes by using modern materral or by using tiles in the floor to protect it from damp from ground seepage. And at the topmost part, the jhingati was replaced by corrugated iron sheets to prevent the building from climatic change which may be heavy rain in summer and moist in winter. By the late 19th century there had been a significant move away from buildings constructed using traditional materials and methods to those buildings with cavity walls and damp-proof courses built using cement mortars and renders. 20. (1st figure shows-Close up showing the porous nature of lime wash, 2nd figure shows- Another inappropriate repair: the cement render on this building is too rigid and has cracked. Water will now be penetrating through this crack, be dampening the fabric but be unable to evaporate 3rd figure shows- The consequences of mixing technologies. Here a cement repointing has led to damage to the soft bricks in the arch.) Where modern impervious materials are causing problems of dampness and decay they should ideally be removed, but only where this will not cause more damage to the building then leaving them in place. Unfortunately, the removal of many impervious materials will cause damage to the building and needs to be done with great care to prevent any unnecessary damage to historic fabric. Traditional buildings are different from modern buildings because of their method of construction, not because of their age or their listed status. Understanding why traditional buildings are different is a key to conserving them for the future. Although not all traditional buildings are protected (and not all protected buildings are traditional) many are. Traditional buildings have an appeal due their special character, history and location. The building posses different internal structure mostly of inner fabric as a wooden material and the inner layout depends upon the use of material introduced within it. 10. Living in the Traditional building Old buildings have an appeal due to their special character, history and location. But they are a finite resource and to enable future generatons to enjoy the very qualities that attract us to these 21. buildings we must take appropriate care of them. Here are some helpful methods to live a life as a comfort in a Traditional building: First understand your building before undertaking any works to your living building. Appreciate how it works and performs. Respect its age and character-including the quality of the materials and the craftmanship in the building. Appreciate what all that is significant about your building - don't remove any of the historical fabric without first consulting the Conservationist. Gradual erosion of historic fabric will eventually dilute the character and special interest of the building to future owners and generations. Regularly inspect and maintain the traditional living building. Timely, and appropriate, maintainence will prevent serious and more costly problems at a later stage. Make contact with your local Conservation Officer. Conservation Officers can provide practical advice, guidance and information Attend courses for homeowners on the care and repair of historic buildings. Make sure that any repairs address the causes of a problem and do not just treat the symptoms (e.g. investigate why the walls are damp instead of inserting a damp-proof course to treat dampness caused by high external ground levels or a leaking gutter). Be extremely careful when carrying out alterations to an old building. Modern comfort standards can in many cases be achieved but require great care to minimize the disturbance and to retain as much of the original fabric as possible. Professional advice can be particularly valuable in this area. Treat every old building as special and unique. Pass it onto future generations in a sound and maintainable condition. (First figure- injected damp proof courses (DPCs) attempt to hold back dampness that is often better tackled at source. DPCs injected into masonry will not be successful and cause irreparable disfiguration; 2nd figure- Repointing of the soft stonework in this building with cement mortar has led to rapid deterioration of the stone) 22. 11. Detailling inside the building While designing the building layout, we should specify the most use location or its architectural features to use as a adaptive reuse to prevent the original fabric as well as to give a shiny surface mostly to the wooden materials design as like to walls, doors, windows, postures, flooring, staircase and frame work and mostly the color combination to make the building more alive in context of conservation point of view. The most specific features are the wooden furnitures, color combination, style of floor finishes and the landscape features within the building to give a pleasant environment. (The internal layout need so many changes to feel comfort and as from the luxurious point of view, there should be proper management and combination of colour, textures, wooden material 23. and specially the standing of furnitures, beds, decorative items and postures to make the room bold and beautiful and pleasant) 12. Preventive methods for the problem in Traditional building There are many problems in traditional structure due to use of traditional material from a very long time which causes several changes by climatic change. The droplet of rainwater strike to the jhingati based roof and causes many changes like leakage in the roof and decay of wooden materials, swept of a lime mortar from the brickwall and mostly due to termites, the material go for fast decay and threatened for the carved material which has its own value from the earlier days till today. In a building there are many materials which posses a single structure to multiple structures in the form of joist, beam, staircase, wooden carved and mostly the traditional bricks and the flooring method. To prevent such structure and material following methods are taken under consideration to prevent as well as to minimize the loss in traditional buildings which posses from dry wall to floor finishes and to the roofing material. A relatively common example of the effect of inserting a damp-proof material into a structure is the appearance of fresh 'rising damp' in walls following the laying of a new concrete floor with a damp-proof membrane. This can be done with a suspended floor or by re-detailing the floor/wall junction in such a way as to allow moisture to dissipate, for example, with a vented skirting detail. The most cost-effective way of preventing damp problems in buildings, including those resulting in damp masonry at the foot of walls, is to minimize moisture sources and provide adequate passive moisture sinks to dissipate any penetrative moisture so as to make the system fail-safe. 24. 13. Conclusion Even with the loss of traditional skills and the complexities introduced into building by new materials and new styles of occupancy, the conditions resulting in damp to the base of walls can easily be avoided with a little thought and scientific understanding. Indeed, new materials and techniques can often be used to advantage if their properties are analyzed as potential environmental controls. In contrast, the misdiagnosis of rising damp and the general application of particular products and techniques without considering the consequences lead to the unnecessary waste of the increasingly limited budgets available for maintenance and refurbishment. . Here we see that the building can be used as a residence purpose, though the building was partially used as a residence purpose in the ground floor whereas the other floor are not used from the begining. Hence it can be said as this process is not purely a adaptive reuse if we go for residence purpose, and can be named as a rehabilitation work, but again it depend upon the users or home owner to decide whether the building should be used as a residence or any commercial use since the building is located near the historic area and also infront the common street used for communication from Shankhamul on the way to Mangalbazar and vice-versa. Strictly saying, this building is a form of a homeowner to a changing needs for residence purpose as a tourist home or may be rented purpose. Furthermore, we can say that this building can be used as a residence purpose as a adaptability reuse concept to maintain the building., since the building area is small as compare to the new modern buildings but also it posses some newari traditional value due to use of the traditional material and the facades and the building has undergone many changes from the begining from the roof to floor due to climatic changes. Hence strongly, this building can be used as a residence for two families with smaller number of units or family members. The ground floor damp problem were prevented by using the best policy of engineering design and it can be used as a rent purpose whereas from the first floor the another family or the caretaker of the building can start living there. 25. In my opinion it is suitable to the homeowner to give the building in a rent as a residence to the smaller number of family units to get the budget which has invested for the change in building structure. The area has its commercial value and historical value and is nearer to the city, hence it will be sustained by giving rent and the investment which the owner has invested, will be fruitful within a year and the luxury should be made so that the other family members can shifted in that building as a residence to live in. The main important is to supply of good facilities as well as there should be the spaces for parking and safer environment. Hence, to preserve the historical, architectural and interior visual character, adaptability re-use concept has started. As we all know preserving traditional building means, preserving the building history which was originated from the past and has its own importances from the historical timeline as well as from the material, craftmanship and as from its traditional look, which is the vernacular architecture of the newari towns, which has a long history of construction techniques and its crafted and visual features which posseses a change according to the comfort and luxury as well as influence of modern living style. Enclosure Appendix-I Introductory Details 1. Location:- Ward no. 09, Dhokasi, Shankhamul, Lalitpur sub-municipality 2. Plot no. of Land:- Not provided 3. Area of Plots:- 4. Owner of Property:- Mrs. Shrada Shrestha 5. Age of Owner:- Age above 70 6. Current Address of owner:- Ward no.09, Dhokasi, Shankhamul, Lalitpur district 7. Details of surrounding properties:- North:- Way to Kathmandu through Shankhamul, East:- Way to Baneswor, Kathmandu South:- Way to Mangalbazar, the historic area of Patan West:- Way to Pulchowk crossing Bagmati River 26. 8. Detail of Access Road:- Type of Road: Bituminous Road Width of Road: 4.00 m 9. Distance of Property from nearest Commercial/Busy built-up area: From Mangalbazar it is on the way to 20/25 minutes and from Baneswor, same as it is to walk from there and from transportation just 10 minutes. 10. Site Details:- Shape : Irregular patterns of House Topography : Elevated land Width of Frontage : 4m Depth:- Unknown 11. Site Services:- Watersupply: flow of watersupply by KUKL Electrcity:- by NEA Sewerage system:- presence of a drain Telephone/Cable line:- facilities of both in that area 12. Site Constraints:- No overhead high tension line Noisy Not so polluted Bagmati River is nearby Hindu Temple is infront of the Building 27. Appendix-V Technical Details A. General Description 1. Year of Completion:- 2013 2. Anticipated future life:- 100 years 3. Type of Structure:- Load bearing 4. Current usage of the Structure:- Residential 5. Type of design:- 6. Special architectural feautres:- no 7. Current state of Building:- Average and Maintainence 8. Number of Floors:- 3 9. Height of Floor:-28/32 feet 10. Plinth area of the building:- 510 sq.ft 11. Total floor area of the Building: 444.15 sq.ft 12. Percentage coverage of site by Building:- 100% B. Structural Elements 1. Type of Foundation:- 2. D.P.C:- P.C.C, mm 3. Walls:- External:- presence Internal:- presence Partition:- wooden partition Finishing:- floor 4. Floors:- Ground Floor: present 1st Floor: present 2nd Floor: present 2nd Floor: newly constructed 5. Doors:- Frame: framed Shutters: Fittings: Finishing: 6. Roof: Type: traditional jhingati, but shifted to cgi sheets due to climatic change Finishing: C. Electrical Installations: D. Sanitary Installation details: E. Other Features:-