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Problems After The War

Nov 30, 2014

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  • 1. PROBLEMS AFTER THE WAR

2.

  • Germ unhappy w/ treaty.
  • * due to reparations, loss of land & reduction in military

3.

  • 2. League of Nationstoo weak-US did not join because we did not ratify harsh treaty.
  • LON used economic sanctions to stop problems, not
  • force

4.

  • 3. Inflation - a rise in prices due to Germ printing more money

5.

  • 4.DAWES PLAN - US plan set up tohelp Germ pay back reparations& loaned 200 million to rebuild.
  • Created US
  • investment .

6.

  • 5.DEPRESSION -period of low eco activity & rising unemployment

7.

  • Depression caused by:
  • 1. Farm prices fall due tooverproduction( somedestroy crops to helpprices )

8.

  • 2.US stock market booms
  • in 20s, so investors pull
  • money out of Germ to
  • invest.
  • 3.Market crashes
  • & stock prices
  • drop

9.

  • 4.USinvestors w/draw
  • money from Germ &
  • Euro & banks
  • weakened.
  • 5. Production falls &
  • unemployment
  • rises.

10.

  • EconomistJohn Maynard Keynes-said:Unemployment caused by less demand ( which can be increased by putting peopleto workbuilding
  • public works)

11. F D R

  • US-Franklin D Roosevelt wins 1932 election.
  • 15 mill out of work, 50% cut in production

12.

  • CreatedNEW DEAL - put people to work by funding public works. (building roads, post offices,airports).
  • Creates Social Security Act, TVA, etc.

13. RISE OF THE DICTATORS 14.

  • DONT WRITE!!!
  • By 1939, Fr & GB only big nations of Europe still democratic
  • New form of dictatorship develops

15.

  • TOTALITARIAN STATE - aims to control all aspects of citizens lives. (poli, eco,social, culture & intellectual
  • Individual will is subordinated
  • to collective
  • will of masses

16. MUSSOLINI&ITALY 17. I T A L Y

  • 1920s: BENITO MUSSOLINI created a new poli party.
  • CreatesFASCISMwhich glorifies state above the individual, nationalism, glory of Italy& needs a strong central govt led by dictator

18.

  • 1920- Italy has problems. Middle class fears communist takeover. Muss formsBLACK SHIRTS(armedfascists) who attack strikes & communists
  • making many
  • happy

19.

  • 1922: Fascist threaten to march on Rome if not given power.
  • King VICTOR
  • EMMANUAL IIImakes Muss Prime minister & Muss creates fascistdictatorship by making PM head of govt.

20.

  • Steps to control:
  • 1.created secret police (OVRA), who arrest anyone.
  • 2. Banned & kills opposition.
  • 3. Muss called Il Duce (the leader)
  • 4. Stresses Italian pride

21.

  • 5.Took overmedia to spread
  • propaganda,
  • slogans.
  • 6. Created youth
  • groups. Focused
  • on military
  • activities & values
  • to create war lovers

22.

  • Muss gave money to Catholic Church & created Vatican City as independent state & made it religion of Italy
  • In return, Pope
  • recognized Italy
  • & MUSS as leader.

23. STALIN & THE USSR 24.

  • Famine hits in 1920-1922 & industry falls 20%.
  • VI LENIN createNEW ECONOMIC POLICY(called NEP),a version of capitalism.
  • Peasants can sell produce & small businesses could be privatelyowned,but
  • heavy industry & banking
  • owned by govt

25.

  • Communists createUNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST
  • REPUBLICS.
  • (USSR)

26.

  • Sickle-Unity of peasants
  • Hammer- workers
  • Red field: blood spilled by workers in fight for freedom
  • Star-energy of sun and life

27.

  • Lenin died in 1924 & a fight for power begins in Politburo

28.

  • LEON TROTSKY , war commissar, wants to spread communist rev & industrializerapidly

29. JOSEF STALIN

  • Josef Stalin - party general secretary wants power.
  • In charge of appointing 1000s of officials, who support him.

30.

  • Stalin gets control of party.
  • Gets rid of old Bolsheviks, & kicksout Trotsky(who ismurdered in Mexico).

31.

  • Creates5 YEAR PLANS - sets of eco goals for 5 year periods to go fromagriculturalnation toindustry .
  • 1 stplan- produce moreCAPITAL GOODS(goods used to produce
  • other goods).

32.

  • Bigger labor force in cities
  • no housing.
  • Low wages.
  • Strict laws
  • Propaganda stresses sacrifice to build nation

33.

  • COLLECTIVIZATION -govt took over private farms & made peasants work for them.
  • By 1934, 26 mil farms taken .
  • famine occurs, 10 mil die, resistors sent to
  • labor camps & party
  • control increases.

34.

  • Paranoid Stalin beginsPURGES -eliminating problem people to keeppower.

35.

  • Military officers, party members, citizens, union
  • officials & diplomats were killed, arrested or sent to labor camps

36. HITLER & GERMANY 37. Dont write

  • Born Aus 1889, Austria. Mom remarried.
  • high school failure
  • Traveled to Vienna & rejected by art school.
  • Dev racist &
  • nationalist ideas here.
  • Saw poli parties
  • use terror &
  • propaganda

38.

  • HITLERS REPORT CARD
  • FrenchUnsatisfactory
  • GeographySatisfactory
  • GermanAdequate
  • GymnasticsExcellent
  • HistorySatisfactory
  • PhysicsAdequate
  • MathematicsUnsatisfactory
  • ArtExcellent
  • ChemistryAdequate
  • GeometryAdequate

39. 40.

  • After WWI, joined extreme nationalist group in Munich calledGerman Workers Partyin 1919.

41.

  • By 1921, controls & renames party National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) orNAZI.
  • *55,000 people join
  • *Create party
  • militia of 12,000
  • called Brown Shirts.

42.

  • Organizeduprising against the govt in 1923
  • TheBEER HALL PUTSCH ,was crushed
  • & Hitler jailed

43.

  • WroteMein Kampfin jail about:

44.

  • * Said superior nations have right toLEBENSRAUM -living space thru expansion.
  • *Superior individuals should rule over the masses

45.

  • Realizes Nazi party needs to get votes to get power, not violent rev. Party expands & appeals to pride.
  • Biggest party in
  • REICHSTAG
  • (parliament) by
  • 1929.

46.

  • Dont WRITE!
  • Nazi rise helped byunemployment & eco problems
  • Industry
  • leaders,
  • aristocrats,
  • officers look to
  • Hitler for leadership.

47.

  • Pres. Hindenburgneeds to get support in 1933.
  • He makes HitlerChancellorin 1933, thinking he could control him

48.

  • Hitler sets up total Nazi control by Mar. 23, 1933

49.

  • Reichstag passesENABLING ACT-give govtpower to ignore constitution for
  • 4 years to pass
  • laws to deal
  • w/ nations
  • problems & gave
  • Hitler legal basis for actions

50. 51.

  • Nazis purge Jews from govt
  • CONCENTRATION CAMPSset up &
  • abolished
  • trade unions
  • & poli
  • parties

52.

  • Hindenburg dies in 1934 & Hitler rules.All officials take oath of loyalty to Fuhrer.
  • Wants to develop an Aryan nation to rule Europe.
  • Says Germ had 2 empires& Hitler will createTHIRD REICHor 3 rdempire

53. DONT WRITE!!!!!!!

  • Believed they were descendents of Romans & Greeks & Germsmeant to create Roman-like empire.

54.

  • Heinrich Himmler set upS CHUTZSTAFFENor SS, secret police