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Catalog No. L51524e PIPELINE RISER SYSTEM DESIGN AND APPLICATION GUIDE PR-178-622 Prepared for the Onshore/Offshore Supervisory Committee Pipeline Research Committee of Pipeline Research Council International, Inc. Prepared by the following Research Agencies: Brown and Root U.S.A., Inc. Publication Date: February 1987
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Page 1: Previews L51524toc

Catalog No. L51524e

PIPELINE RISER SYSTEM DESIGN AND APPLICATION GUIDE

PR-178-622

Prepared for the Onshore/Offshore Supervisory Committee

Pipeline Research Committee

of Pipeline Research Council International, Inc.

Prepared by the following Research Agencies:

Brown and Root U.S.A., Inc.

Publication Date: February 1987

Page 2: Previews L51524toc

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

1.2 Basis of Design Guide

1.3 Scope of Design Guide

1.4 Riser System Descriptions

2.0 GENERAL DISCUSSION OF DEEPWATER RISER DESIGN

2.1 General

2.2 Riser Design Procedures

2.3 Operating, Seabed, and Environmental Design Considerations

2.4 Applicable Analyses and Computer Software

2.5 Flexible Pipe Design

3.0 DESIGN OF CONVENTIONAL DEEPWATER PIPELINE RISERS

3.1 Description and Applications

3.2 Installation Related Design Considerations

3.3 Pipeline/Riser Connectors and Connection Aids

3.4 Conventional Riser Component Design

4.0 DESIGN OF DEEPWATER J-TUBE RISERS

4.1 J-Tube Riser System Description and Applications

4.2 Installation Related Design Considerations

4.3 J-Tube Component Design

5.0 DESIGN OF REVERSE J-TUBE RISERS

5.1 Reverse J-Tube Riser System Description and Applications

5.2 Installation Related Design Considerations

5.3 J-Tube Component Design

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)

6.0 DESIGN OF BENDING SHOE RISERS

6.1 Bending Shoe System Description and Applications

6.2 Installation Related Design Considerations

6.3 Bending Shoe Component Design

7.0 DESIGN OF BAREFOOT RISERS

7.1 Barefoot Riser Description and Applications

7.2 Installation Related Design Considerations

7.3 System Component Design

8.0 DESIGN OF CATENARY RISERS

8.1 Catenary and Mid-Depth Catenary Riser Description

and Applications

8.2 Installation Related Design Considerations

8.3 Flexible Pipe Risers

9.0 DESIGN OF TENSION AND/OR BUOYED RISERS

9.1 Tension and/or Buoyed Riser System Description and Applications

9.2 Installation Related Design Considerations

9.3 System Component Design

10.0 COST COMPONENTS

APPENDIX A BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX B LIST OF U.S. PATENT REFERENCES

APPENDIX C J-TUBE PULL FORCE PROGRAM

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SECTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

1.2 Basis of Design Guide

1.3 Scope of Design Guide

1.4 Riser System Descriptions

1.4.1 Conventional Riser

1.4.2 J-Tube Riser

1.4.3 Reverse J-Tube

1.4.4 Bending Shoe

1.4.5 Barefoot Riser

1.4.6 Free Spanning Risers

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Section 1.0 - List of Figures

FigureNo. T i t l e

1-1

1-2

Platform Types

Current Riser Systems (Steel Pipe)

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2.0 GENERAL DISCUSSION OF DEEPWATER RISER DESIGN

2.1 General

2.1.1 Deepwater Risers - Fixed and Compliant Platforms

2.1.2 Deepwater Risers - Moored Platforms

2.2 Riser Design Procedures

2.2.1 Phase I - Preliminary Engineering

2.2.2 Phase II - Detai led Engineering

2.2.3 Phase III - Material Procurement

2.2.4 Phase IV - Construction

2.3 Operating, Seabed, and Environmental Design Considerations

2.3.1 Seabed Soils

2.3.2 Operating Conditions

2.3.3 Wave and Current Loadings

2.3.4 Platform Motions

2.3.5 Platform Settlement

2.4 Applicable Analyses and Computer Software

2.4.1 Operational Stress Analysis

2.4.2 Instal lat ion Stress Analysis

2.4.3 Analysis of Tensioned and Buoyed Risers

2.5 Flexible Pipe Design

2.5.1 Flexible Pipe Manufacturers

2.5.2 Flexible Pipe Construction

2.5.3 End Fittings

2.5.4 Flexible Pipe Properties

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Section 2.0 - List of Figures

FigureNo. T i t l e

2-1 Sequence o f E v e n t s f o r D e e p w a t e r R i s e r D e s i g n a n d

Construction

2-2 Preliminary Engineering for Deepwater Riser Design

2-3 Phase II - Detailed Engineering for Deepwater Riser Design

2-4 Phase III - Mater ia l Procurement Sequence of Events for

Deepwater Risers

2-5 Phase IV - Construction Sequence of Events for Deepwater

Risers

2-6 Pipeline Expansion Equations

2-7 Conventional Riser Computer Model

2-8 Basic Pipe Stress Equations

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SECTION 3.0 DESIGN OF CONVENTIONAL DEEPWATER PIPELINE RISERS

3.1 Descript ion and Applicat ions

3.1.1 Riser System Components

3.1.2 Deep Water Applications/Limitations

3.2 Instal lat ion Related Design Considerations

3.2.1 Instal lat ion Scenarios

3.2.2 Riser Ins ta l la t ion

3.2.3 Pipeline/Riser Connections (w/Diver Intervention)

3.2.4 Pipeline/Riser Connections (Diverless)

3.2.5 Pipeline End Target Area

3.2.6 Riser Location

3.3 Pipeline/Riser Connectors and Connection Aids

3.3.1 Mechanical Connectors

3.3.2 Connector Aids

3.4 Conventional Riser Component Design

3.4.1 Flexibi l i ty at Lower Riser Section

3.4.2 Flexibi l i ty of Vert ical Riser/Deck Piping

3.4.3 Riser Supports

3.4.4 Corrosion Protection Measures

3.4.5 Repairability/Mid-Riser Connectors

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Section 3.0 - List of Figures

FigureNo. T i t l e

3-1 Typical Platform Riser Instal lat ion

3-2 Typical Platform Riser Instal lat ion with Offset

3-3 Riser Guide Rail System

3-4 Spring Loaded Diverless Clamp

3-5 Slotted Keyhole Typer Riser Support (Diverless)

3-6 Conven t i ona l R i se r I ns ta l l a t i on Us ing S lo t t ed Keyho le

Riser Supports (Fab r i ca ted & Up r i gh ted w i t h F loa t i ng

Equipment)

3-7 Conven t i ona l R i se r I ns ta l l a t i on Us ing S lo t t ed Keyho le

Riser Supports (Fabricated on Tower)

3-8 Diver Assisted Spool Piece Installation

3-9 Pipe Lifting Procedures

3-10 Underwater Habitat (UWH) and Submersible Pipe Alignment

Rig (SPAR)

3-11 Diverless Spool Piece Installation Procedure

3-12 Sled- to-Receiver Pul l - in Ins ta l la t ion

3-13 One Atmosphere Pull -In Procedure

3-14 Pipeline End Positioning in Deepwater

3-15 Steel and Flexible Pipe Expansion Loops

3-16 Upper Riser Supports

3-17 Intermediate Riser Clamps

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SECTION 4.0 DESIGN OF DEEPWATER J-TUBE RISERS

4.1 J-Tube Riser System Description and Applications

4.1.1 System Components

4.1.2 Applicat ions/Limitat ions

4.2 Installation Related Design Considerations

4.2.1 Startup and Termination of Pipelay

4.2.2 Pull-in Procedures

4.2.3 Pipeline Approach

4.2.4 Deck Space Requirements for Pull Equipment

4.3 J-Tube Component Design

4.3.1 J-Tube Conduit

4.3.2 J-Tube Exit and Pipe Span

4.3.3 Riser Pipe String

4.3.4 Pipel ine

4.3.5 Platform Appurtenances

4.3.6 Corrosion Protection Measures

4.3.7 Flexible Pipe J-Tube Risers

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FigureNo.

4-1

4-2

4-3

4-4

4-5

4-6

4-7

4-8

4-9

4-10

4-11

Section 4.0 - List of Figures

T i t l e

J-Tube Riser Instal lat ion

J-Tube Pull Force vs. Back Tension for Example Cases

J-Tube Pull Force vs. J-Tube Radius for Example Cases

J-Tube Pull Force vs. Clearance Ratio for Example Cases

J-Tube Minimum Radius vs. Riser Pipe Wall Thickness

(24" O.D. Riser Pipe in 2,500 ft. Water Depth)

Typica l J -Tube Insta l la t ion Procedure ( In termi t tent Pu l l

Off Conventional Vessel)

Second End J-Tube Pull-In Procedure

Typical J-Tube Installation Procedure (Continuous Pull)

Typical J-Tube Pull Winch Arrangement on Platform Deck

J-Tube Conduit Configuration Showing Stepped Down Conduit

Size and Mid-Length Connections for Mult i-Piece Jacket

Installation (Shell Cognac 12-Inch Line)

Releasable J-Tube Mouth

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SECTION 5.0 DESIGN OF REVERSE J-TUBE RISERS

5.1 Reverse J-tube Riser System Description and Applications

5.1.1 System Components

5.1.2 Applicat ions/Limitat ions

5.2 Installation Related Design Considerations

5.2.1 Pipe Transfer Equipment

5.2.2 Deck Space Requirements for Equipment

5.2.3 Production Rates

5.2.4 Anodes on Pipe Pulled Through Riser

5.2.5 Pipeline Approach

5.3 J-tube Component Design

5.3.1 J-tube Conduit

5.3.2 J-tube Exit and Reverse Bend

5.3.3 Riser Pipe String

5.3.4 Corrosion Protection Measures

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FigureNo.

5-1

5-2

5-3

5-4

Section 5.0 - List of Figures

T i t l e

Reverse J-Tube Installation

Reverse J-Tube Pull Equipment

Reverse J-Tube Pull Platform Configuration

Riser Pipe Elevator Slip

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SECTION 6.0 DESIGN OF BENDING SHOE RISERS

6.1 Bending Shoe System Description and Applications

6.1.1 System Components

6.1.2 Applicat ions/Limitat ions

6.2 Installation Related Design Considerations

6.2.1 Startup and Termination of Pipelay

6.2.2 Pipeline Approach

6.2.3 Pipeline Line-up/Uprighting

6.3 Bending Shoe Component Design

6.3.1 Bending Shoe

6.3.2 Riser Pipe String

6.3.3 Pipel ine

6.3.4 Riser Supports

6.3.5 Platform Appurtenances

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FigureNo.

6-1

6-2

6-3

6-4

Section 6.0 - List of Figures

T i t l e

Bending Shoe Riser Installation

Pipel ine Posit ioning for Bending Shoe Instal lat ion During

Pipeline Abandonment

Bending Shoe Arrangement for Example 24-Inch Uprighting

Riser Upr ight ing Conf igurat ions (24- Inch Riser in 2 ,500

ft. Water Depth)

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SECTION 7.0 DESIGN OF BAREFOOT RISERS

7.1 Barefoot Riser Description and Applications

7.1.1 System Components

7.1.2 Applicat ions/Limitat ions

7.2 Installation Related Design Considerations

7.2.1 Startup and Termination of Pipelay

7.2.2 Pipeline Approach

7.2.3 Pipeline Uprighting/Lowering

7.2.4 Riser Supports

7.3 System Component Design

7.3.1 Riser Pipe String

7.3.2 Riser Supports

7.3.3 Platform Appurtenances

7.3.4 Corrosion Protection Measures

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FigureNo.

7-1

7-2

7-3

Section 7.0 - List of Figures

T i t l e

Barefoot Riser Installation - Lifting from Seabed

Barefoot Riser Installation - Lowering from Lay Vessel

Pipe Bending Restrictors

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SECTION 8.0 - DESIGN OF STEEL CATENARY AND FLEXIBLE PIPE RISERS

8.1 Catenary and Mid-Depth Catenary Riser Description and Applications

8.1.1 System Components

8.1.2 Applicat ions/Limitat ions

8.2 Instal lat ion Related Design Considerations

8.2.1 Startup/Termination of Pipelay

8.2.2 Pipeline Approach

8.2.3 Mid-Depth Riser Lowering Procedure

8.2.4 Example Mid-Depth Catenary

8.3 Flexible Pipe Risers

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FigureNo.

8-1

8-2

8-3

8-4

8-5

8-6

Section 8.0 - List of Figures

T i t l e

Mid-Depth Catenary Riser

Geometry of Catenary and Mid-Depth Catenary Risers

Mid-Depth Catenary Riser Support/Connector

Configuration of Mid-Depth Catenary in 2,500 ft. of Water

Configuration of Mid-Depth Catenary in 1,000 ft. of Water

Flexible Riser Configurations

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SECTION 9.0 DESIGN OF TENSION AND/OR BUOYED RISERS

9.1 Tension and/or Buoyed Riser Description and Applications

9.1.1 System Components

9.1.2 Appl icat ions

9.2 Insta l la t ion Related Design Considerat ions

9.3 System Component Design

9.3.1 Tensioning Component

9 .3 .2 Riser Arrangement

9 .3 .3 Top Interface

9.3 .4 Bottom Interface

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FigureNo.

9-1

9-2

9-3

3-4

9-5

9-6

9-7

Section 9.0 - L is t o f F igures

T i t l e

Typical Tension/Buoyed Riser Configuration

Riser Tensioning System

Integral Buoyancy Air Chamber Arrangement

Tension vs. Log Fatigue Life

Cross Section of Integral & Non-Integral Risers

Subsea Templates - Single and Mult i-Well

Bottom Joint Concepts

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TABLE 10-1

1. Material

1A.

1B.

1C.

1D.

1E.

1F.

1G.

1H.

1 I .

1J.

1K.

1L.

Pipe

Corrosion Coating

Concrete Coating

(Standard, above water application)

(Between riser and platform)

Anodes

Riser Clamps

Insulating Flanges

Connection Joints

Neoprene Coating

Mechanical Connect

J-Tube

Bending Shoe

Support Tower

ions (Between riser and pipeline)

1M. Splash Zone Protection

1N. Riser Bend (Prefabricated)

10. J-Tube Stopper Plug (Normally neoprene)

1P. Insulating Flanges (Monobloc, below water application)

2. Installation Equipment and Appurtenances

2A. Pipelay Installation Vessel (Laybarge, Reel Vessel, etc.

2B. Pulling Winch

2C. D.P. Vessel

2D. Riser Clamps

2E. J-Tube

2F. Bending Shoe

2G. Support Tower

2H. Platform Crane

2I. Structural Rail System

2J. ROV

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3. Installation Methods

3A. Field Instal led Riser (Using f loating vessels)

3B. Pre-instal led Riser (Instal led in fabrication yard)

3C. Field Installed Riser (Using deck equipment)