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Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Early American Involvement

Jan 06, 2016

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Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Early American Involvement Map: World War II in Europe and North Africa War in North Africa and Italy Faces of History: Dwight D. Eisenhower. The Allied Response. Preview, continued A Turning Point in the Soviet Union A Turning Point in the Pacific - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

PowerPoint PresentationWar in North Africa and Italy
Faces of History: Dwight D. Eisenhower
The Allied Response
World War II
A Turning Point in the Pacific
Map: War in the Pacific
The Allied Response
World War II
Section 2
Reading Focus
In what ways were Americans involved in the early years of the war?
How did the Allies make gains in North Africa?
What was the turning point in the Soviet Union?
What was the turning point in the Pacific?
Main Idea
The early years of World War II went poorly for the Allies. But after the United States joined the war, the Allies soon recovered and began making gains against the Axis.
The Allied Response
World War II
Control of the ocean important
Food and equipment for England and Soviet Union shipped by sea
Germany relied on U-boats
U.S. offered military aid
Provided ships and military escorts for British convoys
October 1941—USS Reuben James; first U.S. Navy ship sunk by Germany
The Battle of the Atlantic
Early American Involvement
World War II
Enormous task of mobilization; men and women volunteered for service
Factories converted; “victory gardens” planted; scrap drives and recycling to collect materials
Some negative effects of patriotism
Japanese Americans placed in internment camps during the war
American Home Front
World War II
With U.S. officially at war, German U-boats in American waters
Tried to destroy American merchant ships
Hundreds of ships lost to German subs
After 1943, Allies able to fight back more effectively
Allied factories at full production
Large numbers of ships and planes
More firepower helped locate and destroy U-boats
Key German code system broken
Losses dropped sharply
Vital supply line to Great Britain and Soviet Union kept open
Atlantic belonged to Allies
Find the Main Idea
How were Americans on the home front involved in the war?
Answer(s): Many factories converted to produce weapons and supplies; Americans made do with less food, fuel, and other items; people planted "victory gardens".
World War II
Section 2
Nearly 250,000 Axis soldiers taken prisoner; with surrender, all of North Africa in Allied hands
Italian and British forces battled for control of North Africa. The Suez Canal and the oil fields of the Middle East were essential to the British war effort. After Italian forces failed against the British, Hitler was forced to send German troops to support the Italians.
War in North Africa and Italy
Afrika Korps led by Erwin Rommel
Pushed British back into Egypt
Traded blows for two years
1942—Battle of El Alamein
British victory under Gen. Bernard Montgomery
Axis power lessened in North Africa
Back-and-forth fighting
Rommel caught between forces in east and west
Supply problems worsened
Americans join the battle
July 1943, Allied soldiers landed on the island of Sicily
Weak Italian resistance
Allies capture Sicily
Hitler tried to protect against the Allied march through Italy
September 1943
Strong German resistance as troops moved north
Bloody fighting continued for months
Fighting in Italy
World War II
Summarize
What did Allied troops accomplish in the war in North Africa and Italy?
Answer(s): They drove the Axis out of North Africa and used it as a base for launching an invasion of Europe through Italy.
World War II
Leningrad
Citizens under siege in Hitler’s attempt to force a surrender
Winter of 1941—1942, thousands starved to death daily
Siege of Leningrad cost 1 million civilian lives
A Turning Point in the Soviet Union
1941 German invasion halted with winter
German equipment failed in bitter cold
Poorly equipped troops suffered greatly
World War II
Section 2
In the spring of 1942, Hitler ordered renewed assaults on the Soviet Union. He assembled troops from Italy, Romania, and Hungary. Even with fuel shortages, Axis forces fought well initially.
Battle of Stalingrad
Factories supplied Soviet armies
On the Volga River
Hold city at all costs
Georgy Zhukov led Soviet counterattack
Axis soldiers with no food or ammunition
Hitler—“Surrender is forbidden”
1 million Soviet dead
Crushing defeat for Hitler; once invincible German army in retreat
Battle of Stalingrad turning point in war
Final victory
Why was the Battle of Stalingrad a turning point?
Answer(s): The German army had seemed invincible, but after failing to take Stalingrad, it was now retreating to the west.
World War II
Section 2
The attack on Pearl Harbor was an enormous success for Japan.
The damage took time to overcome; U.S. ability to strike back was limited.
Three Pacific Fleet aircraft carriers undamaged
Air power provided support for Allied ground and naval forces
Japanese navy still ruled the seas
Allies focused on Europe
Singapore, Hong Kong, Burma, and strategic islands
Target —U.S.-held Philippines
Americans surrendered in April 1942
Bataan Death March
Brutal violence, tropical heat, and lack of food or water
Many survivors perished in inhumane prison camps
A Turning Point in the Pacific
World War II
Midway a strategic island—home to U.S. military base
Japanese advantage—more ships and carriers
U.S. advantage—Japanese secret code broken
Admiral Chester Nimitz responsible for Allied victory; Japan’s navy suffered terrible blow
Battle of Midway
First carrier battle—May 1942
Off northeast coast of Australia
Japanese forces tried to take Port Moresby on island of New Guinea
Allied vessels tried to block attack
Each side lost a carrier in battle
A Japanese advance had been stopped
Battle of the Coral Sea
World War II
Allies developed island-hopping strategy
Captured islands used as bases for next attacks
Bypassed Japanese strongholds cut off from outside supplies
Island Hopping
Six months of brutal battle
Each side won small victories
Battle of Guadalcanal ended with Japanese troops fleeing the island
Japanese continued to fight to the death
Guadalcanal
Largest naval battle
Battle of Leyte Gulf—Allied victory
Japan’s naval power virtually destroyed
Leyte Gulf
Find the Main Idea
How was the Battle of Midway a turning point in the war in the Pacific?
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