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Presentation -Telescopes - The Square Kilometre Array - Phil Crosby

Apr 08, 2018

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    The Square Kilometre Array -

    Challenges, Opportunities, and Industry

    Involvement

    Phil Crosby

    SKA Program Development Office

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    Observing the Universe

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    Many Science Questions Remain

    How were the first stars and galaxies formed?

    What is the large scale structure of the universe?

    Dark Energy DarkMatter

    What is the origin and evolution of cosmicmagnetic fields?

    Was Einstein right? Can we detect gravitational

    waves?

    Planet formation and the Cradle of Life

    Will we find ET?

    EXPLORATION OF THE UNKNOWN

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    The Challenges of Radio Astronomy

    The signals are extremely weak.

    We need huge antennas to capture them

    They need to be in special places

    Astronomers compete with noise

    From radio, TV, phones, machines, etc

    From the equipment itself, amplifiers etc

    Signals are buried in the noise

    Need smart techniques to resolve This means huge computing power

    Large amounts of data to handle

    Pushing boundaries in capacity, speed and

    storage

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    SKAMovie 3 minutes

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    The SKA will be the largest scientific instrumenton the planet

    A next generation global radio astronomy facility

    To be built in eitherSouthern Africa, orAustralia

    Will operate between around 70 MHz to 25 GHz

    50 times the sensitivity and 8000 times the survey speed of currentinstruments

    a collecting area of around 1 million square meters over a vast

    unpopulated area

    a combination of3000-5000 dishes and wide FoV antennas

    will employ beam forming technology on a scale not previously

    explored

    Needs data transport system and computing power beyond that

    available today

    Will address fundamental questions about the universe

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    FundingAgencies

    NASA

    NSF

    United States of America

    CIT / JPL

    Cornell U / NAIC

    Harvard U / Smithsonian CentreforAstrophysics

    MIT / Haystack Observatory

    NRAO

    Naval Research Lab

    SETI

    U Cal Berkley

    U Illinois

    U New Mexico

    UWinsconsin

    Virginia Tech

    UnitedKingdom

    UManchester (JBO)

    Oxford U

    Cambridge U

    UGlasgow

    Leeds U

    Cardiff U

    FundingAgencies

    EuropeanUnion

    NationalGovernments viaResearchCouncils

    RadioNet

    Sweden

    OnsalaSpaceObservatory

    Chalmers U ofTech

    Italy

    NationalInstitute

    forAstroph

    ysics

    France

    ParisObservatory

    UdOrleans

    CentreNationalde laRechercheScientifique

    OMMIC

    Netherlands

    Astron

    JIVE

    KapteynAstroInst

    Leiden U

    UGronegan

    Portugal

    IST-Centra

    Spain

    FundacionAlcala Nat.AstronomyObservatory

    UValencia

    Poland

    TorunCentreforAstronomy

    Germany

    Max-PlanckInstituteforRadioAstronomy

    Russia

    PushchinoAstroSpaceCentre

    Australia

    CSIRO-ATNF

    ICRAR

    SwinburneU

    U NSW

    UMelbourne

    U Sydney

    UAdelaide

    U Tasmania

    UWAFundingAgencies

    ARC

    DIISR

    CSIRO

    WA Gov

    NewZealand

    Auckland Uof Tech

    Canada

    NRC

    Laval U

    McGill U

    Queens U

    U Calgary

    UMontreal

    U Toronto

    York U

    ACURACASCAFundingAgencies

    NRC

    NSERC

    SouthAfrica

    NRF

    UKwaZulu-Natal

    FundingAgencies

    DeptScience &Tech

    DeptTrade& Industry

    NRF

    The SKA Global Network

    Over 90 Organisations8 SKA Consortia

    SKA Program DevelopmentOffice

    Based at University ofManchester, UK

    Group of domainspecialists

    Mission to deliver acosted design by 2012

    IndianConsortium

    Raman ResearchInstitute

    TATAInst forRadioAstronomy

    Nat. Centre forRadioAstronomy

    FundingAgencies

    Dept of AtomicEnergy

    Dept of Science &Tech

    China

    NAO, ChineseAcademy ofSciences

    FundingAgencies

    Chinese Academy ofSciences

    MoST

    DeptScience & Tech

    Tsinghua U

    Korea

    Korean VLBINetwork

    Japan

    Kagoshima U

    NAOJ

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    Pb/s0.1 1 Tb/s

    Gb/s

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    Station

    Central

    Processing

    Facility

    Comms links

    Max.

    Distance for

    Dense AAs

    Dishes spread

    along spiral

    Possible Site Schematic

    Max. Distance

    for Central

    Power Distn

    DenseAA

    SparseAA

    Dishes

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    Concise Picture ofTechnologyOptions

    Numbers of dishes (2000-3000) depends on whether Phased Array Feedsand/or Aperture Arrays are used in the SKA.

    Each technology is characterized by a frequency range and field of view.

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    Aperture Array Technology

    Production Thinking

    Courtesy ASTRON, OPAR

    Electronic

    Sensor

    ASTRON Prototype The Netherlands

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    PhasedArrayFeed Prototype

    One of three

    prototypesunder

    development.

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    Multi-pixel phased array feeds

    from Dave Deboer

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    Dishes+Single Pixel Feeds

    Prototype 15 m

    composite dish

    USAAllen

    Telescope

    Array 42x6m

    hydroformed

    dishes

    South Africa

    Canadaprototype 10

    m composite

    dish

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    rms error: 0.25 mm

    Final MouldAlignment

    Composite DishManufacturing(Canada)

    Removingfrom Mould Mounted on Drive

    rms error: 0.25 mm

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    Metal DishManufacturing

    12m antenna stretch-formed panels

    Patriot Systems

    NovelSheet MetalStructure

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    Wide field-of-view

    Allen Telescope Array

    Parkes

    Base model SKA

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    Correlators Ultimately Built in Industry

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    Electricalpower not solved yet

    30-50MW (or more!) required for full SKA

    Solar potential is high on both sites

    24/7 coverage is needed (but short breaks OK)

    Requires storage or alternative night-time power source Cost likely to be an issue if not subsidized

    Its a tough environment temp, dust, remote

    Role for small scale (~ 1MW) systems

    Good project for demonstration of solar technology

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    The Pre-Cursor Projects

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    South Africa + 7 countries

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    Australia

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    SpectrumMeasurements: 80MHz 1.6 GHz

    City

    Pop. 4 million

    Town

    Pop. 6,000

    Possible

    Site

    100MHz 200MHz

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    Industry Opportunities

    From P. Hall

    SummaryofOpportunities in the SKASignal Path

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    The SKA will be the largest scientific collaboration on the planet

    To meet the SKA timelines, a very high level ofindustry involvement

    will be needed, especially R & D, and economical mass production and

    deployment.

    Broad areas are

    Siteworks & infrastructure

    SKA Project Support, Tools, Operations &

    M

    aintenance

    High volume production & deployment

    Low-medium volume production & deployment

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    What kinds of firms should consider participating in the SKA?

    Information & Communication Technology (ICT) - hardware, software, digital fibre systems, datamanagement, high-speed / high-volume data processing, control systems, modelling and simulation

    systems, networked enabled system deployment & management, integrated circuit design,

    fabrication, and test, telecoms systems.

    Engineering Construction &Maintenance (ECM) building construction, electrical and

    mechanical services, R & D services, environmental services, fibre optic, power, civil engineering,land access consultants, remote infrastructure operations and maintenance, site management &

    planning, surveying services.

    Advanced Aerospace & Radar Technology and Equipment antenna design and manufacture, image

    processing, radio astronomy, receiver feed systems, wideband phased arrays, RF devices, RFI

    mitigation.

    Advanced Materials andManufacturing - advanced materials, composites, sheet metal fabrication.

    Systems Integration &Maintenance project design, execution, interface management, risk

    management, scheduling, operations and maintenance of complex distributed systems.

    Transport, Training, and Other Goods & Services regional support, recruitment and training,

    transport and logistics, community consultation and studies, regulatory monitoring.

    I f r tii -s2ICT / lec3ICT ata4ICT istriICT softw6ICT softw7ICT ata8I te rate9TelecomE i eeriildi c2Electrical3E i eeri4E iro m15i re o ti16I frastruc17La d acc18Remote i19ite ma a2Surve i21dva ced22A tenna d23Ima e r24Radio ast25Receiver26RF devic27RFI miti28Com ute29Hi erf3Hi -s e31etworkin32Advanced33Advanced34Advanced34En ineeri36S stems I37Inte rate38Sc edulin39S stems i39Trans ort4Ot er o42Re ional43Trans ort44

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    Intellectual Property

    SKA has developed a Statement of Intent on IP. Signed by organizations participating in the SKA.

    Establishes ground rules on protection, licensing, and donation of foreground and

    background IP for the SKA project.

    An IP strategy will be developed, with registered ownership Negotiations in the spirit of scientific cooperation.

    Signed by legal entities, when that becomes possible.

    SKA must have access to IP developed in the national &

    regional projects: Some of this will be generated in industry.

    Where possible, IP licensed early for the SKA, so that it can be used in open

    bidding, rather than giving advantage to a particular supplier.

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    To Summarise The SKA is an iconproject a BIG leap.

    Answers to key sciencequestions

    Challenges yet to besolved

    Global collaborationinstitutes & industry

    Potential for industry

    participation, and spin-off products/IPopportunities. Thank You

    Phil Crosby

    SKA Program Development Office

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