THE QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Prepared By: Manoj Patel Assistant Professor JHUNJHUNWALA BUSINESS SCHOOL, FAIZABAD
The Questionnaire Definition: A questionnaire is a set of carefully planned written questions related to a particular research topic which, when submitted to and answered accurately by properly selected persons called respondents, will supply data to complete the research project.
Advantages of the Questionnaire 1. The questionnaire is easy to construct. 2. Distribution is easy and inexpensive. 3. Tabulation of responses is easy. 4. The respondents replies are of his own. 5. Confidential information may be given freely. 6. Respondents can fill out the questionnaire at their own convenience. 7. More accurate replies may be given.
Disadvantages of a Questionnaire 1. The questionnaire cannot be used with illiterates. 2. Some or many respondents may not return the questionnaire. 3. A respondent may give a wrong information. 4. Respondents may leave some or many items unanswered. 5. Some questions or items may be vague to the respondents. 6. The number of choices may be very limited.
Construction of a Questionnaire The following are the steps in the construction of a questionnaire: 1. Making research in the library. There might be some theses or dissertations dealing with studies similar to the research problem at hand. The questionnaire in these studies may serve as models in the construction of one. 2. Interviewing knowledgeable people. Talking to people who know the principles of questionnaire construction may help a lot.
3. Mastering the guidelines. The guidelines learned from the theses and dissertations and from knowledgeable people must be mastered before writing a questionnaire. 4. Writing the questionnaire. Write the questionnaire following as much as possible the guidelines learned. 5. Editing the questionnaire. After the questionnaire has been written, it must be shown to people who know about questionnaire construction, especially to an adviser if there is one, for correction and suggestions for the improvement of the questionnaire.
6. Rewriting the questionnaire. The questionnaire must be rewritten according to corrections and suggestions for the improvement of the questionnaire. 7. Pretesting the questionnaire. This is called a dry run. This is the process of determining the validity and reliability of the questionnaire and determining the clarity of the items, the difficulty in answering them, the proper time length of answering, attractiveness and other problems. 8. Writing the questionnaire in its final form. The questionnaire should now be written in its final form after making the necessary corrections, adjustments, and revisions after the dry run.
TYPES OF QUESTIONS ASKED IN SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRES A. According to form: 1. The free answer type. The respondent is free to answer the question in his own words and his own way. This is called the open form, open ended, subjective, unrestricted, essay, free response, and unguided response type. 2. The guided response type. This is also called the closed form or restricted type. The respondent is guided in making his reply. There are two kinds of this type (a) recall and (b) recognition types.
a. Recall Type. The replies are recalled and supplied. Example: Please supply the following asked for: (a) Graduate Course finished _________ (b) School graduated from ___________ (c) Year of graduation _______________ b. Recognition Type. There are options given and the respondent chooses his reply or replies. There are three types: dichotomous, multiple choice, and multiple response.
1. Dichotomous. There are only two options and one is chosen. Example: Are you employed? Yes ____ No____ 2. Multiple Choice. Several options are given but only one is elected as a reply. Example: What program do you prefer to take? Please check. _____ Education _____ Nursing _____ Commerce _____ Optometry _____ Medicine _____ Computer _____ Engineering _____ Others _____ Dentistry
3. Multiple Response. Two or more options may be chosen from those given. Example: Why do you used Hapee toothpaste? Please check your answers. ______ It sweetens my breath ______ It makes my mouth fresh ______ It prevents tooth decay ______ It is cheap ______ It is available all the time ______ It is made in the country ______ It is economical
B. According to the Type of Data asked for: 1. Descriptive Data (Verbal Data) Example: In What kind of community do you live. Please check. ____ City ____ Town ____ Barrio 2. Quantitative Data (Numerical Data) Examples: (1) What is your daily wage? ____ (2) What is the total income of your family?____
3. Intensity of Feeling, Emotion or Attitude Example: Do you agree that RH bill be implemented? Please check your attitude. _____ Strongly agree _____ Agree _____ Fairly agree _____ Disagree _____ Strongly disagree
4. Degree of Judgment Examples: (1) How serious is drug addiction in your university? Please check. ______ Very Serious ______ Serious ______ Fairly Serious ______ Not Serious ______ Not a Problem
(2) How efficient is your graduate statistics Professor? Please check. ______ Very efficient ______ Efficient ______ Fairly efficient ______ Inefficient ______ Very inefficient 5. Understanding Example: Explain what a dictatorship form of government is.
6. Reasoning Example: Why do you prefer a surprise examinations in statistics for research? Important Characteristics of Research Instruments including the Questionnaire I. Validity means the accuracy by which an instrument gathers information for which it is intended to gather. Example: If data about the teaching of statistics are needed, then the instrument must gather data about the teaching of statistics and not data about the teaching of any other subject.
II. Reliability means consistency of measurement that is, if an instrument administered to the same group it should give the same or about the same average measures of the two groups. Guidelines in the Formulation of Items or Questions for a Questionnaire 1. Make the questionnaire as valid and as reliable as possible. To do this, the following suggestions are offered: a. Make all directions brief, clear and unequivocal. While there are general directions, there should be a direction for every specific type of questions asked.
Example: Poor direction for multiple choice items: Answer the following questions. Better: For each question, choose the best answer from among those given and put a check mark before your choice. b. Use correct grammar. Punctuation marks should be placed properly to avoid misinterpretation. Example of poor grammar: Please accomplish the questionnaire as soon as possible return it. Better: Please accomplish the questionnaire and return it as soon as possible.
c. Make all questions brief, clear and unequivocal. Specify the precise units in which the answer is to be given to avoid misinterpretation. Examples: Vague Question: What is your income? Better: What is your monthly income? Poor Question: Are you married or not? Better: Are you married? d. Avoid asking biased or leading questions. A biased or leading questions is one in which there is veiled suggestion for answer.
Example of a biased question: Do you use Hapee Toothpaste? If no, what brand do you use? In this question, there is veiled suggestion to make Hapee as the answer. The respondent may think that because Hapee is mentioned, it is the best toothpaste, and so has the tendency to say yes. Better: What brand of toothpaste do you use? Example of a leading question: Why do you use Hapee toothpaste? This is a leading question if there is no preceding question asking what brand of toothpaste the respondent is using. If he says he is using Hapee toothpaste, the question is good. However, if the respondent answers the question without telling him first that he is using Hapee, that is an admission that he is using Hapee although actually he is not.
e. Objectify Responses. This is to make easier for the respondent to make replies and for the standardization of responses for easier tabulation. Example: Why do you use Hapee toothpaste? Instead of requiring the respondent to write his responses, give all the possible reasons and let him check his replies. ____ It sweetens my breath better ____ It makes my mouth feel fresher ____ It is cheaper ____ It is available all the time ____ It last longer ____ Others, please specify
f. Relate all questions to the topic under study. All questions must gather data relevant to the study. If t