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POV Ganguly

Apr 04, 2018

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    41JANUARY 2008 The IndIan ConCreTe Journal

    Point of View

    K.K. Ganguly

    Applications of structural engineering

    in projects and other associated issues

    A brief review

    An attempt has been made to review the type of designand construction that are being done in some specicareas other than major industrial applications. Thiscovers different forms of construction with various typesof materials. Structural applications are also includedto some limited extent. Some photographs have beenincluded to explain innovative structural applications.

    Special use with respect to structural morphologyare highlighted briefly and the important issues inengineering buildings in the built environment arediscussed apart from re engineering and connecteditems. Facade engineering and hybrid construction is alsoreferred. Repair and restoration of structures especiallyheritage structures is an important responsibility ofstructural engineers. Some comments on restoration ofstructures have been made. Finally, specic commentsare given about future trends highlighting structuralsafety, ready mix concrete, high strength concrete, selfcompacting concrete, decorative concrete, admixtures,recycling of wastes, etc. It is commented that both

    architects and engineers will have to work together toproduce purposeful and innovative design for modernbuildings. The education and training of engineers isalso touched upon. The review of different structuralengineering applications and associated issues aspresented here is limited and restricted to a few specicareas only as per the liking of the author and hencecannot be treated as complete by any standard.

    It is interesting to mention that the structural design inall the cases have been carried out with close interactionwith the architects and engineers of other services. Itmay be noted that structural morphology was given toppriority for all the applications mentioned here

    A few photographs (Figures 1 - 31) of different projects

    are also presented. These are chosen from non-industrialprojects (i.e. not from industrial projects like powerplants). It will be interesting to note the structuralmorphology as demonstrated by the architects in thedifferent projects. Structural forms and shapes aregenerally different in each project in order to meetthe requirements and to produce innovative design.

    These columns of ICJ offer an opportunity to the engineering

    fraternity to express their views on the current practices in

    design, construction and management being followed in the

    industry.

    To share your opinion with our readers, you may send in your

    inputs in about 1500 words via e-mail to [email protected]

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    The IndIan ConCreTe Journal JANUARY 200842

    Point of View

    The photographs have been selected carefully topresent various structures from different parts of thecountry. These structures have been built by differentcontractors.

    Isti t pjctsA brief review of different structural engineering

    applications in industrial projects has been made inthe past.1 The basic layout of a power plant is normallydeveloped by mechanical/electrical engineers usingequipment manufacturers guidelines/requirementsand with the help of architects/planners who areresponsible for the development of the total masterplan of the project. The basic dimensions of the plant,therefore, are related to the layout of major equipment,the operational requirements and maintenance. Thearchitects have limited freedom regarding the layout ofthe plant buildings of such projects. After carrying out1 or 2 such projects, the job may become repetitive in

    most cases and the challenges to a structural engineermay also be restricted. Furthermore, references from thepast and similar projects may be used by the consultinghouses wherever possible to cut down the design time.Incidentally, the cost of civil and structural items is lessas compared to equipment cost. Hence, the attemptsfor innovative design to reduce civil/structural cost arenot there and not important.Therefore, opportunitiesfor renement of structural analysis and design maybe limited. In some cases, however, bigger structuraldimensions may have to be provided when the loadingdata including other details are not properly availableat the time of designing the structure. Hence, structural

    design work may not be very challenging as the structuraldesign may have to be carried out using higher loadsintentionally. The question of economy on structuralitems may be missing in industrial projects due tovarious reasons and the emphasis is on the completionof the structural design quickly. This situation may not

    be encouraging to the structural designer which maydemotivate him/her.

    In non-industrial projects such as university complexes,hotels/resorts, hospitals, housing projects, commercialcomplexes, etc. the architects normally play a majorrole in the development of the layout, building form,aesthetics, etc. The cost of architectural nishes alongwith services may also be very high in such projects.The challenges are more here for the structuraldesigner and there will be pressure to cut down thedimensions of structural elements for visual and otherrequirements and to produce economical design fordifferent structural schemes. The services of structuralengineers are more demanding and more appreciated inthis case as compared to industrial projects. Engineersand architects are dependent on each other to designand construct innovative modern buildings. Structuralengineers must learn to work with the architects inharmony for creative and innovative design. Each

    profession has different skills and carries differentresponsibilities. Structural engineers would have to learnto work in multi-disciplinary teams having differentprofessionals and understand how others think andwork. Architectural creativity must be supported byengineering skill to produce innovative design. Theclients should be convinced that the innovation willbe worthwhile and cost effective. The engineering

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    43JANUARY 2008 The IndIan ConCreTe Journal

    Point of View

    argument should not come in the way of architectural

    solutions. Mutual respect and appreciation betweenarchitects and structural engineers will be requiredas there will always be an engineering solution to agood architecture. Best buildings can be designed andconstructed from a symbiotic relationship betweenarchitects and engineers. Structural engineers have toshoulder a bigger responsibility of the work both indesign and construction to produce a safe and durablestructure at the end.

    egiig biigs i t bit

    vimt

    It is very important to assess carefully the presentsituation that is developing on our planet earth

    before deciding on the design of buildings in the builtenvironment. The following points are relevant

    Continuous supply of irreplaceable constructionmaterials and the use of cheap non-renewableenergy is going on. This condition cannot continueforever.

    Population growth is very high and it is now over6 billion and likely to be 9 billion by 2050. Someresearchers have estimated the above gure tobe more2. The rate of increase is about 80 million.extra persons per year worldwide. This is the mostserious problem on our hands.

    Carbon dioxide loading is an indicator ofpollutant potential. As per current estimate it isabout 5.5 t of CO2 per person per year for USA,2.7 t for Europe and 0.8 t for China.2

    Building activities would have to take intoaccount the geographical imbalance of wealthand population.

    It is reported that 70% of our forest has alreadybeen destroyed and going by the current rate,100% destruction might take place by the year2027.

    Global warming is already taking place andaccording to some estimates, the temperature risein next 100 years may be in the region of 5.8oC.It is also suggested that after 2020, (i) winters

    will be reduced in length (ii) summers will havemore hotter spells with periods of drought (iii)

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    6.

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    The IndIan ConCreTe Journal JANUARY 200844

    Point of View

    tidal heights will increase (iv) wind speeds willbe variable and may be stronger.3

    We cannot pass on our planet in this condition to ourchildren and grandchildren. We must save the planetfor our future generations.

    The challenges before the engineers/architects are (a)better whole life performance (b) to use less primarymaterials (c) to use less non-renewable energy (d)wasting less (e) causing less disturbance to naturalenvironment (f) to reduce the burden on the planet and

    working out solutions that full social, environmentaland economic criteria. Hence, it is important for theengineering and management team to work together onall issues covering conception, planning, modelling andcalibration, construction, operation and use.

    Fi giig f stctsFollowing recent res in various parts of the world, theperformance of structures during re has become a veryimportant design issue for engineers. The real structure,however, will behave differently from a simple beamcommonly tested in a furnace for obtaining data for re

    design. The actual structures will have in-built secondaryload paths which are often mobilised during re whenstructural deections are larger4. Fire engineering is amulti-disciplinary activity but the structural engineershave to play a major role. It is important to adoptperformance based design approach against re loadsfor the structures. Previous designs were primarily basedon the control of the structure for non-combustibility and

    separation to provide the required time.

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