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Post World War Politics (TOK)

Feb 24, 2016

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Post World War Politics (TOK). By. Rowan Castellanos. Ending of World War II. After World War II, Europe and Asia were in ruins Borders were being redrawn Homecoming, expulsion, and burial Before the war, the world population was at about two billion - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Post World War Politics (TOK)

Post World War Politics (TOK)By. Rowan CastellanosEnding of World War IIAfter World War II, Europe and Asia were in ruinsBorders were being redrawnHomecoming, expulsion, and burialBefore the war, the world population was at about two billionAbout eighty million died during World War II, about four percent of the entire populationThe Allied forces became the new occupiers of Germany, Japan, and most of the land previously occupied by Japan.The Allies, now occupying Germany, now attempted to permanently disable the war-making abilities of both Germany and JapanFactories were destroyed and the former leadership was removed and prosecutedThousands of war criminal trials were held in Europe and Asia, resulting in executions and prison sentencesMillions of Japanese and Germans citizens were expelled from the places that they had called home

These post-war actions, among others, taken by both the Allied Powers and by the United Nations lead to problems Tensions create East and West GermanyDivergent plans on the Korean Peninsula lead to North and South KoreaThe Partition Plan for Palestine- recommended a partition with the Economic Union of Mandatory Palestine to follow the termination of the British MandateOn 29 November 1947, the U.N. General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of the Plan as Resolution This led to Israel declaring its independence, 1948, and marked the start of the continuous Arab-Israel conflictPost War PoliticsThe Soviet Union and United States began to pay attention to the politics in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, areas which had previously been disregarded in favor of Europe and North AmericaThe United States and Soviet Union fought for influence over the political development of these newly independent countriesAmericans did not want more Communist nations, and the Soviet Union did not want more Democracies

Tehran ConferenceNovember twenty-eighth to December first, 1943Strategy meeting between President Franklin Delano Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and Premier Joseph Stalin of the Soviet UnionHeld in the Soviet Embassy in Tehran, IranWas the first of three wartime conferences, the Big ThreeAs a result of this meeting:It was decided to open a second front against Nazi GermanyRelations between the Allies and Turkey were addressedIran operations in Yugoslavia were addressedAn envisioned post-war settlement plan was discussedThe Big Three pledged the recognition of Irans independence

Yalta ConferenceAlso known as the Crimea ConferenceCodenamed the Argonaut ConferenceFebruary fourth through eleventh, 1945World War II meeting of Roosevelt, Churchill, and StalinThe purpose:To discuss Europes post-war reorganizationDiscuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn EuropeMet in the Livadia Palace near Yalta in Crimea

StalinPost-war economic assistance for Russia American and British recognition of a Soviet sphere of influence in eastern Europe Churchill Protection of the British Empire Clarify the postwar status of Germany. RooseveltConsensus on establishment of the United NationsGaining Soviet agreement to enter the war against Japan once Hitler had been defeatedPotsdam ConferenceJuly seventeenth to August second 1945Held at Cecilienhof in Potsdam, occupied GermanyAlso known as the Berlin Conference of the Three Heads of the Government of the Soviet Union, United States, and United KingdomChurchill was later replaced by Clement Attlee and President Harry S. Truman represented the United StatesThe three leaders gathered to decide how to administer punishment on Nazi Germany On May eighth, Germany had agreed to an unconditional surrender

Conference goals also included:The establishment for post-war orderPeace treaty issuesCountering the effects of the war

Introduction to the Cold WarAfter World War II, the world entered into a new eraThis era was brought on by the decline of old world powers and rise of two new super powers:The Soviet Union, also known as the USSRThe United StatesA bipolar worldThe United States and Soviet Union had been temporary allies during World War II, but turned into competitors on world stage and ended up engaged in The Cold WarThe Cold War is duly named because it never became open war; rather, it focused on espionage, political subversion, and proxy warsThe world divided in two, the United States-led Western bloc, and the Soviet Union-led Eastern blocSome countries tried to stay neutral through the Non-Aligned Movement.Created in 1961 by the leaders of India, Indonesia, Egypt, Ghana, and YugoslaviaThe non-sligned countries were not formally with or against any major power blocThe Cold War turned into a nuclear arms race between the United Stated and Soviet UnionIt never became a heated war because of mutual deterrents or mutually assured destructionCold War: Behind the Scenes Beginnings: 1945 to 1947The Cold War lasted just under fifty yearsEvents during and after World War II aggravated tensions and led to the Cold WarThese include:Soviet-German Pact- August twenty-third, 1939, broken when the German government invaded the Soviet Union on June twenty-second, 1941 During the first two years of the war led to subsequent invasions

The perceived delay of an amphibious invasion of German-occupied EuropeThe Western Allies' support of the Atlantic Charter, defined the Allied goals for the post-war worldThe disagreement in wartime conferences over the fate of Eastern EuropeThe Soviets' creation of an Eastern Bloc of Soviet satellite statesMarshall Plan- American initiative to aid Europe, in which the United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet CommunismViews of Joseph StalinStalinism- policy on how to construct socialism and develop a communist societyStalinist policies in the Soviet Union included: State terror- acts of terrorism conducted by a state against a foreign state or people or its own people

Authoritarianism- form of government, characterized by absolute or blind obedience to authorityThe theory of socialism in one country- given the defeat of all the communist revolutions in Europe, the Soviet Union should begin to strengthen itself internallyCollectivization of agriculture- consolidate individual land and labor into collective farmsRapid industrializationA centralized state

Views of Winston ChurchillIdentified with Christianity and its Anglican expressionAdmitted to praying often during the heat of battle, but he always knew it was an unreasonable thing to doWorldly man- dealt with governance, war, strategy, business, and economicsSuggests that religion isnt necessary to dictate ethical and moral behavior for mankind

Views of Charles de GaulleGaullism- French political ideologyMain foreign policy was independence for France and maintaining as much control of as many French colonies as possibleFrance should not have to rely on any other countries for its survivalShould refuse subservient roles to any countryBelieved that NATO was a conspiracy by the Anglo-Saxons to dominate Europe

Harry S. TrumanThirty-third presidentRoosevelts final running mate in 1944April twelfth, 1945, succeeded to presidency when Roosevelt diedUnited States successfully ended World War II and in the aftermath, entered the Cold War

During few weeks as Vice President, Truman barley saw RooseveltHe received no briefing on the development of an atomic bomb or tensions with Soviet UnionWhen Roosevelt died, Truman said "I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me."

Primary Source DocumentOrigin- Cold War anti-communist propagandaPurpose- suggests that the rise of communism brings the deaths of the named nations, hence the gravestones. The presents of Uncle Sam foreshadows that the United States is coming closer and with it, war. The iceberg also serves as symbolism, this is just the tip of the iceberg. If communism is allowed to continue, it will only bring about the death of other nations.Value- portrays American sentiment towards communism.Limit- this is bias, being propaganda, it is specifically engineered to bring forth specific thoughts and emotions

Work Cited"A/RES/181(II) of 29 November 1947." A/RES/181(II) of 29 November 1947. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. . "Charles De Gaulle's Views - Cold War." Charles De Gaulle's Views - Cold War. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. . "Electronic Newsletter of the ECPR-SG on Extremism & Democracy." Electronic Newsletter of the ECPR-SG on Extremism & Democracy. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. . "FDR and the Soviet Union." FDR and the Soviet Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. . "Harry S. Truman." The White House. The White House, n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. . "INFORMATION FOR PARTICIPANTS TO THE SIXTEENTH SUMMIT OF THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT." 16th NAM Summit. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. . "Joseph Stalin." About.com 20th Century History. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. . "Joseph Stalins Religion and Political Views." Joseph Stalin's Religion and Political Views. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. . "Mutually Assured Destruction Revisited." Mutually Assured Destruction Revisited. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. . "On This Day." nytimes,com. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. . Roskin, Michael. "Post-World War II trends and debates." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. . "Stalinism." Stalinism. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. . The Editors of Encyclopdia Britannica. "Tehran Conference (World War II)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. . "The Potsdam Conference, 1945 - 19371945 - Milestones - Office of the Historian." The Potsdam Conference, 1945 - 19371945 - Milestones - Office of the Historian. N.p., n.d. Web