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Post War Memoirs

Jun 02, 2018



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  • 8/10/2019 Post War Memoirs


  • 8/10/2019 Post War Memoirs


    Webs ites

    Im ages from the Im m igration M useum M elbourne

    at http://im m igration.m useum

    (Follow these links: D iscovery and

    Research> Im ages on this site)

    D epartm ent of Im m igration,Fact Sheet 4: Over

    Fi fty Years of Post-war Migra tionand Fact

    Sheet 8: Aboliti on of the White Austral ia Poli cy

    at http://w w m (Follow these links:

    Inform ation Resources> Fact Sheets)

    H istory Trust of South Australia at

    http://w w

    (Follow this link: M igration M useum )

    A valuable collection of links from the M igration

    H eritage Centre of N SW at

    http://w w w.m these links: Resources and Tools>

    Facts about M igrants and M igration)

    The International O rganization for M igration,

    dedicated to the hum ane and orderly

    m ovem ent of people around the w orld at

    http://w w w.iom .int/

    O fficial site of the U nited N ations H igh

    Com m issioner for Refugees at

    http://w w

    Am nesty International: hum an rights issues

    affecting refugees in Australia athttp://w w

    G l o s s a r y

    assimilation policy policy that encourages

    im m igrants to adopt the

    language, values and custom s

    of their new country of


    integration policy policy that encourages

    im m igrants to respect the

    law s of their new country of

    residence and to adjust to the

    dom inant social and cultural

    practices, but also to retainand celebrate som e elem ents

    of the culture from w hich

    they com e

    Red slang term for com m unist.

    Red w as the m ain colour on

    the flags of m any com m unist

    countries, sym bolising the

    blood shed by w orkers in

    defending them selves against

    their oppressors.

    refugee person w ho flees from danger

    and seeks safety (refuge) in

    another country, or in another

    part of their ow n country

    UNHCR office of the U nited N ations

    H igh Com m issioner for

    Refugees established on

    14 D ecem ber 1951 to

    safeguard the rights and

    w ell-being of refugees

    USSR U nion of Soviet Socialist

    Republics a federation of

    com m unist states that w as

    form ed by Russia after the

    Russian Revolution of 1917

    26 M a k i n g H i s t o r y M i d d l e S e c o n d a r y U n i t s I n v e s t i g a t i n g P e op l e a n d I s s u e s i n A u s t r a l i a a f t e r Wo r l d W a r I I

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    S u n n y A u s t r a l i a ? 27

    Jo h n O K e e f e , A n n i e O K e e f e a n d f i v e c h i l d r e n

    This photograph show s m em bers of the O Keefe

    fam ily John O Keefe, Annie O Keefe and five

    children. These people w ere key characters in a

    very dram atic episode in the history of Australian

    im m igration.

    Annie w as born in Indonesia. H er first

    husband, Sam uel Jacob, w as also Indonesian. Early

    in W orld W ar II, he helped the Australian m ilitary

    forces w hen they w ere fighting against Japanese

    forces in Indonesia. In Septem ber 1942, because

    of great danger, the fam ily w as evacuated to

    Australia. They m oved into a house ow ned byJohn O Keefe, a single Australian. Just after the

    Jacobseighth child w as born, Annies husband

    w ent back to Indonesia on another m ilitary

    m ission. H e asked John O Keefe to look after

    Annie and the children if anything should happen

    to him . In Septem ber 1944, returning from the

    island of Am bon, he w as killed in a plane crash.

    Annie Jacob becam e a w idow, caring for her

    children in a strange land.

    D uring W orld W ar II, m any Asian people

    fleeing from the Japanese invaders found safety inAustralia. The Australian G overnm ent m ade it clear

    that w hen hostilities ended, these Asian people

    should return to their hom elands. At that tim e,

    the Australian G overnm ent had a longstanding

    policy to prevent the m igration of Asian people to

    Australia. Thus, according to governm ent policy,

    Annie and her children w ere destined to return to

    Indonesia once the Japanese forces w ere defeated.

    After Annies husband w as killed, she becam e

    closer to John O Keefe. Three years later, on

    4 June 1947, they m arried. H ow ever, in January 1949

    the Australian G overnm ent insisted that Annie and

    her children had to leave the country and return

    to Indonesia. The w ar had ended in 1945, theJapanese had been defeated and the Australian

    G overnm ent claim ed that there w as no longer

    any reason for Annie to stay in Australia.

    Som e Australians disagreed w ith the decision

    of the Australian G overnm ent. They included

    som e pow erful people, particularly Archbishop

    M annix, leader of the C atholic Church in

    M elbourne. There w as m uch publicity about the

    case. Citizens in the M elbourne suburb w here the

    O Keefe fam ily lived began raising m oney for a

    legal challenge to the governm ent decision.Law yers for the O Keefe fam ily issued a w rit

    against the Im m igration M inister, Arthur Calw ell,

    and one of his departm ental officers. O n 18 M arch

    1949, four of the six H igh Court judges ruled that

    Annie O Keefe and her children could stay in

    Australia. W hen the new s w as broadcast on the

    radio, a nun (Sister Paula) announced it to all

    classes at St Josephs School, w hich six of the

    eight O Keefe children attended. According to a

    report in the Heraldnew spaper the next day,students clapped and cheered. At hom e, Annie

    and her daughter Tineke heard the new s and

    Annie celebrated by dancing a jig.

    O utside the court, John O Keefe said that he

    w ould have left Australia w ith Annie and the

    children if they had lost the court case. H e added:

    But now w e can rem ain to com plete the task of

    educating all the children. I am sure that there

    w ill be no cause for regret that Australia has

    obtained in m y Indonesian-born w ife and her

    children som e very good citizens(Herald,M elbourne, 18 M arch 1949, p 1).

    Th e Annie OKee fe s t or yA ustr al ianstory



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    28 M a k i n g H i s t o r y M i d d l e S e c o n d a r y U n i t s I n v e s t i g a t i n g P e op l e a n d I s s u e s i n A u s t r a l i a a f t e r Wo r l d W a r I I

    The Australian G overnm ent a Labor Party

    governm ent led by Prim e M inister Ben Chifley

    w as very disappointed by the court decision. The

    M inister for Im m igration, Arthur Calw ell, announced

    that he w ould introduce new legislation into the

    federal parliam ent. If passed, the legislation w ouldallow the D epartm ent of Im m igration to send

    Annie and her children back to Indonesia.

    But Annie and the children w ere spared that

    action. In 1949, the Labor governm ent lost the

    federal election, and the new Liberal governm ent

    led by Prim e M inister Robert M enzies decided that

    Annie and her children could stay in Australia. The

    new M inister for Im m igration, H arold H olt, said

    that w artim e refugees such as Annie O Keefe

    m erited special consideration(The Ar gus, 11January 1950). W hen H olt m ade that statem ent,

    John and Annie O Keefe w ere expecting the birth

    of their child w ithin tw o m onths.

    1 Look aga in a t the photo o f the OKeefe fam i ly. Im agine tha t i t i s to be pub l ished in an Aust ra l ian n ewspaper in the la te

    1940s. Wri te two capt ions for the photo one that could h ave appeared i f the photo were publ ished before the HighCourt decis ion, and one that could h ave appeared i f the photo were publ ished after th e High Court decis ion.

    2 Create som e thought bubb les fo r th ree o f the peop le in the photo Ann ie , John and on e of the ch i ld r en . In each

    bub ble, wr i te what each of them m ight have been th i nk ing about Austral ia as the ph oto was taken. You can ch oose

    whether to date the photo before or af ter the High Court decis ion.

    Examining a visual source

    1 Wh y were An n ie a n d t h e res t o f h er f a mi l y se n t to Au s tra l ia ?

    2 What was Aus t ra l ian governm ent po l icy towards As ian peop le who had sought p ro tec t ion

    in Austral ia dur ing World War I I?

    3 Wh y d o yo u t h i n k s o m e Au s tra l i an s su p p o r ted t h e r i gh t o f An n ie a n d h er c h i l d re n t o

    stay in Australia after the War?

    4 Wh y d o yo u t h i n k t h e L a bo r go ve rn m en t wa s so k e en t o m a k e s u re t h a t An n ie a n d h er

    chi ldr en did n ot stay in Austral ia?

    Comprehending and interpreting text

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    S u n n y A u s t r a l i a ? 29

    The O Keefe story w as fam ous because it

    challenged the w ay m ost Australians thought

    about their ow n country. In 1945, 97 per cent of

    non-Indigenous Australians had been born either

    in the British Isles, or in Australia (usually w ith

    British ancestors).

    H ow ever, W orld W ar II had a profound effect

    on the history of m igration to Australia and on

    the present com position of the population. In

    N ovem ber 1946, a year after the end of the w ar,

    Australias first M inister for Im m igration, ArthurCalw ell, m ade the follow ing speech.

    Source 1: Defending the wide brown land

    The days of our isolation

    are over The call to

    Australians is to realize

    that without adequate

    numbers, this wide

    brown land may not be

    held in another clash ofarms, and to give their

    maximum assistance to

    every effort to expand its economy and

    assimilate more and more people who will come

    from overseas to link their fate with our destiny.

    Arthur Calwell, M inister for Immigration, House of

    Representatives, November 1946.

    In 1951, just six years after the end of W orld

    W ar II, Senator D orothy Tangney m ade this speech

    to the Senate (one of Australias federal houses of

    parliam ent in C anberra).

    Sour ce 2: A speech t o t he Austr al ian

    Senate in 1951

    We are all members of

    the British family and I do

    not regard the transfer ofpeople from Great Britain

    to Australia as migration

    in the true sense. We

    should accept people

    from the Homeland as

    members of the family to

    which we all belong.

    Senator Dorothy Tangney, Address in Reply,

    Senate, 20 June 1951.

    Wa n te d n e w m i g ra n t s !

    G iven the w ords of Arthur Calw ell and Senator

    D orothy Tangney, you w ont be surprised to learn

    that the Australian G overnm ent w anted the m uch-

    needed im m igrants to com e from the British Isles.

    In Source 3 you can read the w ords of John, w ho

    m igrated from Scotland in 1950.

    S u n n y A u s t r a l i a ? 29

    Post-war immigration to Australia:Reffos and Ten Quid Tourists

    Investigatingt he


    A r t h u r C a l w e l l

    S e n a t o r D o r o t h y

    T a n g n e y

    1 W h at do es Ar t h u r Cal w el l m e an b y t h is l an d

    m ay no t be he ld in another c lash o f a rm s ?

    2 H o w cl o se h ad Au st r al i a c om e to i n va si on i n t h e

    years just before 1946?

    3 Wh at two t h i n gs d oe s Ca lwel l s ay h ave t o h ap p en ,

    to safeguard Australia?

    4 Ca lwel l u se s t h e t erm a ssim i l ate . Th i s me an s th a t

    newcom ers to Austral ia were expected to adopt

    cur rent Austral ian ways of l i fe. Which group s of

    people from overseas would probably f in d i t easiest

    to assim i late in Austral ia?

    5 Wh at i s t h e l i n k b etwee n Ca lwel l s u s e o f

    assim i late and the ideas in Dor othy Tangneys

    speech (Source 2) ?

    Comprehending and interpreting text

    1 Ac co rd in g to Sen a tor Do ro th y Ta n gn e y, wh a t i s t h e

    fam i ly to whi ch al l Austral ians belong?

    2 Wh y d o es Se n ato r Do ro th y Ta n gn e y sa y t h a t t h e

    m igrat ion of Br i t i sh people to l ive in Austral ia is not

    real ly m igra t ion ?

    3 Se n ato r Do roth y Ta n gn e y u s es t h e t erm we i n h e r

    speech. Of a l l th e people l iv ing in Austral ia at th at

    t im e, who m ight not have fe l t that they were

    inc luded in the term we ?

    Comprehending and interpreting textNe











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    Sour ce 3: Sun ny Austr al ia

    Come and live in sunny Australia. This hoarding

    was about 20 feet long and 15 feet high [about

    7 m 5 m]. It showed a healthy looking tanned

    Australian smiling with a hand beckoning a

    welcome to all. He was standing bathed in

    sunshine at a beautiful beach wearing bathers,

    you could practically hear the surf coming in

    To the left of the scene there were Palm trees

    with coconuts, piles of pineapples and oranges,

    apples, grapes, pawpaws and all types of t ropical

    fruits appeared to be there for the taking Who

    could possibly resist that. I couldnt and I didnt.

    The tremendous differences were

    staggering; working hours in Australia were only

    40 hours a week with very generous sick pay In the UK all of these things were important but

    [in Australia] most important of all was there was

    no class or caste barriers. There was a policy of

    full employment. This w as a very important

    consideration for working people.

    Gray, Bronwyn and Young, Alan 1989, The Ten Quid

    Tourists, New World Arts, Melbourne, p 9.

    Johns w ords are an exam ple of the pushpull

    factorsthat affect m igration from one country to

    another. In Johns case, he felt pushedfromScotland by som e factors and pulledto Australia

    by others.

    Source 4: An Austral ian Government

    pos ter used in England to a t t rac t

    po ten t i a l m ig ran t s

    30 M a k i n g H i s t o r y M i d d l e S e c o n d a r y U n i t s I n v e s t i g a t i n g P e op l e a n d I s s u e s i n A u s t r a l i a a f t e r Wo r l d W a r I I

    In your work book , d raw a

    table l ike the one opposi te

    and use in fo rm at ion f rom

    John s accoun t ( Sour ce 3)

    to com plete the gr id . As

    you com ple te th is un i t ,add extra factors that you

    discover f rom other


    Identifying and analysing information

    Motivations for immigration

    Push Pull

    1 I m agi n e w h o th e m a n i n th e po st er ( So u r ce 4 ) c ou l d

    be im agine a nam e for h im and for h is son ; im agine

    his occupat ion, wh o else is in h is fam i ly, what he

    doesn t l ike about h is present l i fe in En gland, wh at

    he hop es l i fe would be l ike in Austral ia. Use yourideas to f in ish h is sen tence In Aus tra l ia I wi l l .

    2 I m agi n e t h at th e m a n i s b ei n g i n t er v i ew ed b y a

    reporter for a 1950s London TV show. With a

    classm ate, take on the r oles of the reporter an d the

    m an. Devise som e quest ions and answers for the

    inter v iew. Discuss with your teacher wh ether youcan perform your in terv iew for the c lass.

    Examining a visual source



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    S u n n y A u s t r a l i a ? 31

    O ne pushpull factor that w as im portant w as

    the offer of assisted m igration. At different tim es

    throughout Australias history in the nineteenth

    and tw entieth centuries, European m igrants had

    been offered financial incentives to m igrate to

    Australia. These offers included, at various tim es,free or subsidised passage on ships and grants

    of land in Australia. U ntil 1920, the separate

    colonies/states ran their separate schem es of

    assisted m igration. After 1920, the federal

    governm ent took responsibility.

    Perhaps the best know n assistance schem e

    w as the popularly nam ed ten pound tourist

    schem e, first set up in 1937. British m igrants w ere

    asked to pay just ten pounds ($500$1,000 at

    todays values) to cover the cost of their m igration.

    The other costs of transporting them to Australia

    and resettling them w ere shared by the B ritish and

    Australian governm ents. W orld W ar II disrupted

    the schem e, but it becam e the basis of the post-

    w ar program s to attract large num bers of m igrants.

    Schem es of assisted m igration encouraged the

    adequate num bersof m igrants that Arthur

    Calw ell said w ere needed for the developm ent

    and security of our w ide brow n land.

    Although the Australian G overnm ent

    preferred British im m igrants, it did accept som enon-British people for a special reason. In Europe,

    W orld W ar II and the H olocaust (the large-scale

    persecution, im prisonm ent and execution of

    Jew ish people by the G erm an N azi regim e) had

    caused great turm oil. W hen G erm any w as

    defeated, the U SSR occupied a num ber of East

    European nations that had been invaded by the

    G erm ans. H ordes of people w ere displaced and

    hom eless. They w ere called refugees people

    seeking refuge, or safety. M any refugees dream ed

    of a new life in another country such as theU nited States, Canada or Australia. In 1947, the

    Australian G overnm ent agreed to accept non-

    British refugees from Europe.

    In 1948, artist and w riter Judy Cassab, her

    husband, Jansci, and their tw o children w ere living

    in Budapest, the capital of H ungary. H ungary had

    been occupied by the U SSR. Against enorm ous

    odds, Judy and her husband had survived the w ar.

    O ther m em bers of her extended fam ily perished

    in the H olocaust. Source 5 is an entry in her diary

    explaining w hy she w anted to leave com m unist-

    controlled H ungary.

    Source 5: Judy Cassab

    a t t em pts t o l eave

    H ungary

    25 January 1948

    My passport application

    was refused with no

    explanation. Its most

    difficult to get one. The

    [Hungarian] government

    likes to keep the families where one member

    can travel hostage [Her husband Jansci w as

    given permission to travel to the West for work.]

    I am longing to bring the children up somewhere

    where they can feel they belong. We shall

    migrate. Jancsi says, These are the people w ho

    killed our families* and I cant live and workamong killers.

    Adapted extract from Cassab, Judy 1995,

    Judy Cassab Diaries, Random House Australia,

    Milsons Point , New South Wales.

    Reprint ed by permission of Random House Australia

    [*The people who killed our families were

    those Hungarians who had collaborated with the

    German Nazis, and who had helped the

    Holocaust extend from Germany into Hungary.]

    Judy Cassab, her husband and tw o children

    m igrated to Australia in 1951 under the D isplaced

    Persons schem e.

    By the tim e Judy Cassab arrived in Australia,

    Australia had begun to sign agreem ents w ith

    various European nations, allow ing m igration by

    people from those nations to Australia. The

    agreem ents w ere m ade w ith M alta (1948), Italy

    and the N etherlands (1951), Austria, Belgium ,

    G reece, W est G erm any and Spain (1952).

    Ju d y C a s s a b

    1 H o w d i d t h e H u n g ar i an Go ver n m en t m a k e Ju d y

    Cassab in to a ho stage? What does the hostage

    system suggest about h ow m any people fel t about

    l i v ing in com m un is t-con t ro l led Hu ngar y?

    2 Use what you ve learn ed about Judy Cassab to add to

    your table of pushpul l factors.

    Comprehending and interpreting text


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    Tw o w a ys mee t

    The languages, cultures and lifestyles of these

    non-British im m igrants w ere often quite different

    from those found in British-influenced Australia.

    N ot surprisingly, this produced som e m isunder-standings and som e conflicts. For exam ple,

    Andrew Riem er had a difficult tim e on his first day

    of school in Australia. Like Judy Cassab, Andrew s

    fam ily had m igrated from H ungary.

    Source 6: Andrew

    Riemer s f ir s t day a t

    school .

    The bemused boys

    surrounded me on thatfirst morning, staring in

    wonderment at an

    overcoloured scarecrow

    [Andrew s mother had

    sent him to school wearing coloured striped

    socks, sandals, a blue shirt and shorts the

    Aussie boys w ere w earing grey] Small eyes

    looked suspiciously out of freckled faces; thin

    lips were pursed in disapproval I cannot

    adequately describe the sense of total desolation

    that descended on me during those first days

    I understoo d almost nothing of w hat w ent on

    around me I w as treated w ith sympathy and

    a degree of kindness, apart from one or tw o

    roughnecks who jeered at me and mocked my

    prissy ways [People] had been called on to

    deal with a deaf mute in striped socks.

    Riemer, Andrew 1992, Inside Outside, Angus &

    Robert son, Pymble, New South Wales, pp 9093.

    Som e Australians have also recorded their

    m em ories of w hat happened w hen they w ere

    confronted w ith im m igrants from very different

    backgrounds. In Source 7, H ugh Lunn, a fam ous

    journalist, recalls one day w hen he w as in Year 5 at

    school. D im itri, w hose fam ily w as from Russia, hadarrived in H ughs class.

    Source 7: Hugh Lunn and

    D ima

    You Communist pig, Dima,

    I sneered from behind him:

    shortening Dimitri because it

    w as long, as was our custom.

    Confident in the knowledge that

    none of the boys around me wanted anythingto do w ith him, and convinced that he w as too

    scared to answer I continued: You Russian dog

    Dima. At last after nearly six years, I had found

    a way to be popular with the rest of the boys.

    Just as I was about to give the Russian

    another one, Egoroff [Dimitri] turned around:

    You Australian donkey, he said, in English

    You Red w orm, I answered just before Egoroff

    lunged his palms at both sides of my head saying,

    I rubber your ears, I rubber your ears.

    It w as like torture If ever an example of

    Red aggression was needed this was it.

    Lunn, Hugh 1989, Over the Top w ith Jim,

    University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, p 4.

    Extract reprinted with kind permission from

    Hodder Headline Australia 2001

    A n d r e w R i e m e r

    H u g h L u n n

    1 Wh y do es An d re w d esc r i b e h im se lf a s a d ea f mu te

    in str iped socks?

    2 Ho w d id An d re ws c l assm a te s re sp o n d to h im ?

    3 Af ter a few weeks Andrew was sent to the Specia l

    Class for in te l lectual ly chal lenged students. In later

    l i fe, Andr ew proved hi m self to be inte l lectual ly

    ta lented. Why do you th ink he woul d have been sent

    to a Special Class?

    Comprehending and interpreting text

    1 Why was Hugh fee ling conf iden t as he taunted Dim i t r i?

    2 Wh at d i d Hu g h wan t t o a ch ie ve b y i n s u l ti n g D im i t r i ?

    3 Fo rm a gro u p o f t h re e w i t h two cl assm a te s. Ta k e o n

    three ro les D im i t r i , Hu gh, and the teacher who h as

    discovered the two of them f ight ing. Talk about wh at

    m ight have happened, and th en prepare a ro le-play

    to perform . Think about these issues:

    h o w th e teac h er w i l l fi n d o u t wh a t h a pp en e d

    w h et h er t h e t w o b o ys w i ll t el l th e tr u t h

    w h et h er t h e teac h er w i l l pu n i sh e i th er o r b o th

    of the boys

    wh a t th e t ea ch e r w i l l sa y t o th e b oys an d t o t h e

    rest of the c lass about such b ehaviour h o w th e two b o ys m igh t r e ac t o n c e t h e t ea ch e r

    goes aw ay.

    Comprehending and interpreting text

    32 M a k i n g H i s t o r y M i d d l e S e c o n d a r y U n i t s I n v e s t i g a t i n g P e op l e a n d I s s u e s i n A u s t r a l i a a f t e r Wo r l d W a r I I



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    H ugh Lunns com m ent about Red

    aggressionis a rem inder that m any

    Australians m isunderstood the bigger

    picture of im m igration. Those Russians w ho

    cam e to Australia w ere usually fleeing from

    com m unism , a regim e that they opposed.They w ere refugeesfrom com m unism

    exactly the opposite of the Russians w ho

    m any Australians feared as the Red Threat.

    The experiences of im m igrants varied

    greatly. Youve seen that som e of Andrew

    Riem ers class w ere sym pathetic and kind,

    w hile m ost of H ugh Lunns class approved

    of his taunting D im itri. Source 8 is another

    recollection from the tim e, by fam ous

    Australian playw right Louis N ow ra. H e w ent

    to school in outer M elbourne.

    Source 8: Fawkner

    State School

    Usually, up to a

    quarter of the pupils

    in our classes could

    not speak English.

    They were the

    overflow from the


    migrant hostel school. They spent recesses

    together even though they might not

    speak each others languages because

    it was preferable to being among the

    Australians whose abuse of these wogs was

    unrelenting. Even though these migrants

    may not have understood English they

    quickly understood that in the playground

    they were the low est of the low. These

    children passed through my classes as ifcaught in a rapidly revolving door. Arriving

    one day, wide-eyed with fear, they sat mute

    and puzzled through the various subjects

    until, dull-eyed with incomprehension at

    the new world they found themselves in,

    they vanished some weeks or months

    later, having learnt little except to find

    strength in pretending to be invisible.

    Extracts from Nowra, Louis 1999, The Tw elfth

    of Never, Picador, Sydney, pp 11011.

    Published by Pan Macmillan Australia

    S u n n y A u s t r a l i a ? 33

    L o u i s N o w r a

    All the sources youve read so far suggest that the

    non-British Australians w ere expected to assim ilateto fit into the existing w ay of life in Australia. This w as

    the expectation of m ost Australians at the tim e and the

    official policy of the Australian G overnm ent. In 1957, an

    Italian-language sports new spaper in Adelaide offered

    this hum orous com m ent on assim ilation.

    Source 9: Are You Assimilated? Try Our

    Assim i lat ion Test .

    1. Do you speak English always, whether in private or

    public, and even in your sleep?2. Have you sworn off coffee, garlic, w ine, olive oil and


    3. Have you given up soccer?

    6. Have you planted an Avenue of Honour lately?

    11. Do you like to eat meat for breakfast?

    Extracts fromRoma, AprilMay 1957, p 4.

    N ote that the test refers to coffee, garlic, w ine, olive

    oil and spaghetti. In 1957, m any Australians thought

    these w ere w ogfood and drink. Today, how ever, m ost

    Australians enjoy m ost or all of these things. This can

    1 W h y d i d th e im m i gr an t ch i l d r en s ti ck t oget h er d u r i n g

    recesses at schoo l?

    2 Wh at f eel i n gs do es Lo u i s Nowra sa y t h at t h e im m igra n t s

    experienced?3 I m agi n e th a t yo u a r e a yo u n g an d e n th u s iast i c p r i m a r y

    school teacher in th e 1950s. In your c lass are a nu m ber

    o f non-Eng l ish-speak ing im m igran t ch i ld ren . Im agine tha t

    their exper iences are l ik e those descr ibed b y Andr ew

    Riem er, Hu gh Lunn and Loui s Nowra. Wri te a let ter to the

    Dir ector of Educat ion, m aking suggest ions to im prove the

    school exper iences of the im m igrant chi ldr en in a l l schools.

    Comprehending and interpreting text

    1 Ho w ca n yo u t el l t h at t h i s i s a se n d -u p , an d n o t a ge n u in e


    2 D o yo u t h in k t h at h u m o u r i s a go od w ay t o d eal w i th

    ser iou s issues? Do you th in k th is hum orou s test could h ave

    led som e Austral ians to th in k m ore deeply about th e

    t reatm ent o f non-Br i t i sh m igran ts in Aus tra l ia?

    Comprehending and interpreting text


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    rem ind you of one consequence of the

    im m igration of non-British people to Australia

    the changes in Australianseating and drinking

    habits. Looking back years later, Andrew Riem er

    thought about this.

    Sour ce 10: A t wo -way p r ocess

    No one seemed to

    realise at the time

    (or was prepared to

    admit it publicly) that

    assimilation could well

    become a two-way

    process. The emphasis

    was always on the

    newcomers obligationto merge into Australian society, to adopt its

    ways, to learn its customs, without the least

    altering patterns of behaviour, religious practice

    or communal ethics. The possibility that the

    migrant population might change the face of

    Australian society was generally feared.

    Riemer, Andrew 1992, Inside Outside,

    Angus & Robert son, Pymble, New South Wales.

    Migran t con t r ibu t ions

    to Austral ia

    M igrants have changed the face of Australian

    society. Som e of the m ost obvious ways involve

    food and drink, clothing fashions and sport.

    The im pact on Australian culture and lifestyle

    is easiest to see. But im m igrants m ade vital

    contributions in other w ays. They provided

    m ost of the w orkforce for the m ost am bitious

    developm ent project ever undertaken in Australia

    the fam ous Snow y M ountains Schem e, w hich

    harnessed w ater for agriculture and the production

    of hydro-electricity. O thers w orked as labourers

    and process w orkers on building sites and in

    factories. Their w ork helped to produce houses,

    roads, public buildings, cars and w hite goods

    during the econom ic boom of the 1950s and 60s.

    Som e took jobs as sales assistants in shops.

    M any im m igrants started their ow n businesses

    such as cafes, delicatessens, fruit shops, clothingand tailoring shops. O n the outskirts of cities, and

    in rural areas, they becam e m arket gardeners and

    farm ers. As the years passed, im m igrant children

    succeeded at school, studied at universities or

    technical colleges and becam e valued m em bers

    of the professions (including doctors, law yers and

    engineers) and the trades (such as builders,painters and electricians). G radually, these

    Australians w ith non-British backgrounds becam e

    increasingly involved in com m unity w ork as

    m em bers of parliam ent and councils, and of

    service clubs and com m unity organisations.

    For m any, the path w as not easy. Som e

    Australians dem onstrated lingering suspicion,

    prejudice and discrim ination. The abusive term s

    w og, Baltand reffow ere still heard. Leonard

    D urtanovich, a prom ising cricketer of east

    European background, gained selection in the

    Australian test team , but changed his nam e to

    Len Pascoe.

    C h a n g i ng a t t i t u d e s

    N ew governm ent policies altered Australias

    im m igration pattern. In 1949, the N ationality and

    Citizenship Act created the status of Australian

    citizen. U ntil then, Australians w ere officiallyBritish subjects. G radually Australias im m igration

    34 M a k i n g H i s t o r y M i d d l e S e c o n d a r y U n i t s I n v e s t i g a t i n g P e op l e a n d I s s u e s i n A u s t r a l i a a f t e r Wo r l d W a r I I

    1 I n a gr o u p , b r ai n st or m t h e i m m i gr a n t i n f lu e n ces

    that you are aware of in your own l i fe and in your

    own com m un i ty. Concent ra te on the im m igran t

    groups that cam e to Austral ia in th e 1950s people

    from south and east Europe ( for exam ple I ta ly,

    Greece, Hu ngar y, Yugoslavia, Tur key) an d from theMi ddle East ( for exam ple Lebanon ) . Collect m agazin e

    im ages, n ewspaper art ic les, advert isem ents and

    other sources about th ese inf l uences. Use these

    sources to design an d pr oduce a poster h ighl ight ing

    the im m igrants im pact on Austral ian society.

    2 Exp lor e memoir as evidence in hi stor y. Write a

    br ie f m em oi r f rom your own schoo l days to 2001.

    With th ree other c lassm ates share your stor ies.

    W h at p i ct u r es em er ge of Au st r al i an s ch o ol

    l i fe in the late 20th century? Wh at are t h e s tr e n gth s a n d wea k n esse s o f

    m em oirs as evidence in h istory?

    Use your f indings to support your work on Adding

    to the evidence on page 35.

    Further activitiesFurther activitiesFurther activities


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    law s w ere freed up, especially in relation to non-

    European people. In 1947, non-Europeans w ho

    had been in Australia for 15 years under special

    perm its w ere allow ed to stay indefinitely. In 1957,

    these sam e people w ere able to becom e Australian

    citizens. In 1958, Australia abolished the D ictationTest. This test had allow ed a potential im m igrant

    to be given a test in any European language. It

    could be used to deny entry to anyone considered

    undesirable by officials. In 1966 the new Liberal

    Prim e M inister, H arold H olt, announced a

    relaxation of im m igration rules for non-Europeans.

    Instead of som e non-Europeans being adm itted as

    special cases, non-Europeans w ho qualified under

    im m igration guidelines could be adm itted. They

    w ere to be treated in the sam e w ay as other

    potential im m igrants.

    W hy did these changes occur? As w ith m any

    historical developm ents, the causes w ere probably

    com plex. Certainly, there w as pressure on Australia

    from our Asian neighbours countries like India,

    Pakistan, Indonesia, M alaya and Singapore, w hich

    had gained their independence after W orld W ar II.

    (Previously, they had been colonies ruled by

    various European nations.) Australian

    governm ents Labor or Liberal w anted good

    relationships w ith these nations in our region.

    In Australia, lobby groups such as theIm m igration Reform G roup form ed to pressure the

    governm ent. They seized upon som e celebrated

    cases of apparent unfairness to non-European

    people in Australia, such as those of Sergeant

    G am boa, a U S soldier of Filipino background w ho

    had m arried an Australian w om an during W orld

    W ar II but w ho w as refused perm ission to stay in

    Australia w ith her and their children; and Shiri

    Prasad, an Indian Fijian, w ho w as deported even

    though he w anted to stay in Australia, w here his

    five-year-old daughter Nancy w as in hospital.

    At the sam e tim e, Australian society adopted

    m ore liberal ideas. M any people had begun to

    think m ore deeply about issues of hum an rights

    and justice, especially w hen the horrors of the

    H olocaust w ere revealed after W orld W ar II.

    S u n n y A u s t r a l i a ? 35

    1 Dra w a tim e li n e f r om 1 9 4 5 t o 19 6 6 . On i t , m a k e en t r i e s d esc r i b i n g m a jo r e ve n ts a n d d eve lo p m en ts i n t h e

    histor y of m igrat ion to Austral ia.2 A nu m ber o f ext racts in th is sec t ion a re taken f rom m em oi rs of everyday Aus t ra l ians , usua l ly pub l ished as

    books. Thin k about th e use of such m em oirs as histor ical evidence. In part icul ar, th in k about th e character ist ics

    l is ted below. Draw a table l ike the fo l lowing in your work book and w ri te your opi nion next to each of the statem ents.

    Adding to the evidence

    Characteristic of some personal How could this affect the value of thememoirs memoir as an historical source?

    Mem oi rs m ay be wr i t ten m any years a f ter

    the events that th ey describ e.

    Auth ors m ay not want to present anun f lat tering or n egat ive im age of them selves.

    I n t he i r m em o i rs , au t ho rs m ay be w r i t ing

    about people who are st i l l al ive, and who

    are wel l kn own to the author s .

    Mem oi rs descr ibe im portant events throu gh

    the eyes of jus t one person the author .

    Au t ho rs m ay hope t ha t t hei r m em o i rs

    becom e bestsel l ing books.

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    In countries other than Australia, post-w ar

    im m igration had a profound effect. The U nited

    States of Am erica has experienced m assive w aves of

    im m igration throughout its history. Today, in N ew

    York harbour, there are tw o dram atic rem inders.

    O ne is the fam ous Statue of Liberty. The other is

    nearby, Ellis Island, w here m illions of im m igrants

    first landed w hen they reached the U nited States.

    The Statue of Liberty w as a gift to the people of

    the U nited States from the people of France. It w as

    unveiled on 28 Septem ber 1886. O n a plaque atthe base of the statue is a fam ous poem w ritten in

    1883 by Em m a Lazarus. M any people believe the

    poem sum s up the feelings of Am ericans tow ards

    im m igrants. In Source 11 are the last lines of the

    poem .

    Source 11: Poem: The New Colossus

    Give me your tired, your poor,

    Your huddled masses yearning to be free,

    The wretched refuse of your teeming shore;Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,

    I lift my lamp beside the golden door!

    36 M a k i n g H i s t o r y M i d d l e S e c o n d a r y U n i t s I n v e s t i g a t i n g P e op l e a n d I s s u e s i n A u s t r a l i a a f t e r Wo r l d W a r I I

    P o s t -w a r i m m i g r a t i o n t oo ther pa r t s o f the wor ld


    and globalconnections

    S t a t u e o f L i b e r t y

    1 Ac co rd in g t o th e p oe m, wh a t typ e of p eo p le d o es

    the Un ited States welcom e?

    2 W h at m i gh t t h e p o et m ean w h e n sh e cal l s t h ese

    people tem pest- tost ?

    3 W h at m i gh t t h ose p eo p le be h o p in g f or i n t h e

    Un ited States?

    4 T h e l am p t h e p oet m en t i on s is t h e l am p h el d al o ft

    by the Statue of L iberty. What could the lam p

    sym bol ise to a r r iv ing im m igran ts?

    Comprehending and interpreting text

    W hen the Statue of Liberty w as erected, and

    w hen Em m a Lazarus w rote her poem , thousands

    of im m igrants w ere arriving in the U nited States

    every year. M ost cam e across the Atlantic O cean

    from Europe to the m ain east coast port of N ew

    York. Before 1890, im m igration to the U nited

    States had been fairly haphazard. There w ere no

    uniform im m igration law s for the w hole country.

    Individual states m ade decisions about w ho

    could enter and settle. G enerally, there w ere

    few restrictions on im m igration. M illions of

    people, m ainly from Ireland, Britain and W estern

    Europe, crossed the Atlantic to w hat they saw

    as a land of opportunity. For those people, the

    w ords of Em m a Lazaruss poem w ould have

    rung true.

    Betw een 1892 and 1954, over 12 m illion

    im m igrants arrived on Ellis Island to begin their

    new lives in the U nited States. D uring those

    62 years, the controls on im m igration becam e

    m ore form al. The U S C ongress (federal

    parliam ent) passed a series of im m igration law s

    that placed lim its on the num bers and types of

    people w ho entered the U nited States.


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    After W orld W ar II, m illions of refugees

    m igrated to the U nited States. They are a

    rem inder of how w orld affairs can affect a

    countrys im m igration program . M any of

    the refugees w ho w ere adm itted to the

    U nited States were fleeing from com m unist

    regim es in countries such as East G erm any,

    H ungary and Poland. In 1959, w hen a

    com m unist governm ent led by Fidel Castro

    deposed a corrupt governm ent in Cuba,

    m any C ubans fled to the U nited States

    (the U S state of Florida is less than

    150 kilom etres from Cuba). W hen the

    Vietnam W ar ended in 1975, thousands of

    Vietnam ese w ho did not w ant to live in

    a com m unist Vietnam becam e refugees

    in the U nited States.Britain too has a dram atic history of

    m igration. In the 1950s, people from the

    m any nations of the British Com m onw ealth

    had virtually unrestricted entry to Britain.

    By 1962, alm ost half a m illion had m igrated

    to Britain, m ainly from India, Pakistan and

    the W est Indies. These people contributed

    m uch to Britain, but they also m et

    w idespread prejudice, discrim ination and

    som etim es violence. In 1962, Britain

    introduced the Com m onw ealth Im m igrantsAct, severely lim iting im m igration by

    Com m onw ealth citizens.

    Im agine you are work in g fo r the Depar tm ent o f Im m igra t ion in

    one of the fo l lowin g coun tr ies: Canada, Br i ta in, New Zealand or

    Argent in a. The governm ent is prou d of i ts m igrant her i tage and

    wants to inc lude a h is to ry o f i t s post -war im m igra t ion (194 565 )

    on a special website. You have been chosen to prepare them ater ia l . The Web pages m ust inclu de the fo l lowing elem ents:

    a m a p o f t h e wo r l d , h i gh l i gh t i n g yo u r c h o sen c o u n t r y a n d th e

    coun tr ies that provided i ts post-war m igrants

    b r i ef d etai l s of t h e go ve rn m e n t s im m igra ti o n p o l i ci es b etween

    1945 and 1965

    stat i st i cs ( i n t h e fo rm o f a c h ar t ) t o sh o w th e p o in t o f o r i gi n

    of the post-war m igrants

    a 2 5 0 -wo rd sto r y o f a n ima gin a ry p o st -war m igra n t to t h e

    coun tr y, descr ib in g their jou rn ey, who they travel led with,

    why th ey chose their dest inat ion above other possible places

    and the i r thou ghts about the i r n ew hom e.

    a l i st o f the re fe rences you used in your research . ( I f you use

    the In te rne t fo r th is task , t r y typ ing the words Im m igra t ion

    histor y fo l lowed by the nam e of your chosen coun tr y.)

    Further acticitiesFurther activitiesFurther activities

    S u n n y A u s t r a l i a ? 37

    Reasons for letting people enter the Reasons for refusing entry to peopleUnited States

    People who were parents w i th un m arr ied Physica l or m enta l defects that m ight prevent a

    ch i ld r en u n der 21 ( 1924) per son ear n in g a l i vin g ( 1907)

    Peo pl e aged 21 or ol der wi th sk i l ls i n agr i cu l tu r e ( 1 92 4) Per so n s w it h t ub er cu l osi s ( 1 90 7)

    People whose sk i l l s were needed ur gent l y in the Chi ldr en not accom panied by parents

    Uni ted States (1952)People who m ight take jobs away f rom US

    Refu gees f leein g per secu tion an d su ffer in g ( 1953) wor k er s ( 1907)

    People wh ose fam i l ies were al ready l iv ing in the People who could no t read and wri te ( 1917 )Uni ted States (1965)

    People from m ost coun t r ies o f As ia (1917)

    Al l sp ec i fi ed el em en ts a re p ro vid ed .

    E ac h e lem e n t i s ac cu ra te an d i n fo rma t i ve , as sp ec i fi ed .

    T h e sa mp le sto r y i s i n tere st i n g a n d wel l st r u c tu red .

    There is evidence of product ive research using valuable sour ces.

    The br ie f ing paper is we l l p resented and expressed.

    Cr i ter ia for assessm ent

    Source 12 lists som e of the criteria that the U S G overnm ent

    used to decide w ho could enter the country as im m igrants.

    Sour ce 12: US im m igr at io n p ol ic ies

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    There are m illions of refugees in the w orld

    today. M any are people w ho have left their ow n

    countries because they have been persecuted,

    or because they fear they w ill be victim ised on

    account of their race, religion or political beliefs.

    They flee because they fear discrim ination,

    im prisonm ent, physical harm or even death.

    H ow ever, not all those seeking to becom e

    refugees fear persecution or victim isation. Som e

    seek refuge in another country because they sense

    great danger for exam ple, if their country is

    being w racked by w ar. O thers flee from fam ine

    and starvation caused by floods, drought or othernatural disasters. Still others leave because they

    see greater opportunities in another country.

    Because of these different reasons, term s such as

    political, religious, social, econom icand

    environm entalcan be used to classify refugees.

    There have been refugees throughout hum an

    history. H ow ever, the refugee issue becam e a

    m ajor global concern after W orld W ar II due to the

    large num bers of displaced people. M any found

    them selves far from their hom e countries, som e

    of w hich w ere now occupied by the arm ies of

    the Soviet U nion, w hich had helped defeat the

    G erm ans. M any did not w ant to return hom e, as

    they did not w ant to live under a com m unist

    governm ent. As youve

    learned already, m any

    refugees displaced by W orld

    W ar II and its afterm ath

    found new lives in countries

    such as Australia and the

    U nited States.The plight of such

    people caused the U nited

    N ations to set up a special

    organisation the O ffice of

    the U nited N ations H igh

    Com m issioner for Refugees

    (U N H CR) on 14 D ecem ber

    1951. The U N H CR states its

    aim s as safeguarding the

    rights and w ell-being of

    refugeesand striving toensure that everyone can

    exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe

    refuge in another state, and to return hom e

    voluntarily. Today, the U N H CR has over 5,000

    full-tim e em ployees in over 120 countries around

    the w orld.

    These statistics are a rem inder that the refugee

    problem has increased since W orld W ar II. In the

    past 50 years or m ore, conflicts around the globe

    have produced new groups of refugees. The

    U N H CR claim ed that, at the end of 2000, there

    w ere alm ost 20 m illion refugees in the w orld,

    distributed as follow s:

    Various conflicts have caused people to flee

    their countries, to becom e refugees. H ere are

    som e exam ples, using statistics from the year 2000.

    38 M a k i n g H i s t o r y M i d d l e S e c o n d a r y U n i t s I n v e s t i g a t i n g P e op l e a n d I s s u e s i n A u s t r a l i a a f t e r Wo r l d W a r I I

    Th e w orld s re fuge esMaking l ink swith t oday

    Asia 8,820,700

    Europe 4,855,400

    Africa 4,173,500

    N orth Am erica 1,086,800

    Latin Am erica & Caribbean 765,400

    O ceania 81,300

    Total 19,783,100

    Country Number of Causesrefugees

    Australia 57,792 Conflict and/or persecution in Vietnam ,

    Cam bodia, Chile, China, Afghanistan and

    Iraq over the past 30 years or so.

    India 170,941 Civil w ar and devastating floods in

    Bangladesh since the 1970s.

    Pakistan 2,001,468 O ppression by the Taliban regim e, w hich

    cam e to pow er after a civil w ar in


    U ganda 236,622 Civil w ar in Rwanda, in which tw o rival

    ethnic groups the H utu and Tutsi

    com m itted w idespread atrocities.

    Algeria 169,656 The invasion of W estern Sahara by

    M orocco.

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    S u n n y A u s t r a l i a ? 39

    N ot all refugees have the sam e status. The alm ost 20 m illion

    refugees m entioned above include the follow ing.

    Category Examples

    People claim ing to be refugees, aw aiting About one m illion people w ho fled from warfare

    processing by U N H C R. in Afghanistan crossed the border into Pakistan,

    w here they live in tents in huge cam ps. Because

    the situation in Afghanistan is still unstable, it is

    not clear what w ill happen to these people.

    People w ho have been granted refugee status by Som e people w ho fled from Vietnam after 1975,

    a country other than their own. fearing the new com m unist governm ent, sailed to

    Australia in boats. Australia granted these boat

    peoplerefugee status.

    People w ho are granted tem porary protection The Australian G overnm ent has granted tem porary

    a step taken w hen there is a sudden influx of protection visas to m any boat people arrivingrefugees w ithout any prom ise of around the years 200001. The asylum seekers keep

    perm anent asylum . that status w h ile their claim s for refugee status are


    Internally displaced people, w ho have m oved to In the African nation of the Sudan, som e Sudanese

    another part of their ow n country. have fled from the north of the country to the

    south, because they w ere being persecuted by the

    dom inant social and religious group in the north.

    1 Ju d gi n g b y t h e d et ai l s i n th e

    photograph, how h ard a journey

    woul d th is have been?

    2 U se i n fo r m a ti on p r o vi d ed e ar l ier

    to explain wh y these people are

    m ak ing th is t r ip .

    3 Wh at wo r ds w ou l d yo u u se t o

    describe these refugees? Think

    about th eir expressions, body

    language, posture. What feelingsdo you th ink they had when th is

    photo w as taken?

    4 W h at do yo u th i n k t h ese r ef u gees

    woul d be carr y ing? I f you had to

    leave your hom e hur r ied ly and

    perm anent ly, what would you

    choose to carry, if that was all

    you could k eep?

    Examining a visual source

    A f g h a n r e f u g e e s t r e k k i n g t h r o u g h t h e K h y b e r P a s s o n t h e i r w a y t o P a k i s t a n .

    Gett y Images

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    W hen people arrive in another country, it

    is not alw ays easy to decide w hether they are

    genuine refugees. In 200001, m any people

    arrived in Australia on boats, seeking asylum .

    They claim ed to be fleeing persecution, usually

    in Iraq or Afghanistan. M any of these people w eregenuine refugees, w ho had braved great dangers

    in m aking the hazardous trip to Australia.

    H ow ever, the Australian G overnm ent suspected

    that som e asylum seekers w ere actually econom ic

    refugeespeople w ho w ere not in danger in

    their ow n countries, but w ho w anted a better life

    in Australia. The U N H CR does not recognise

    econom ic refugeesas genuine refugees, and itdoes not include such people in its program s.

    40 M a k i n g H i s t o r y M i d d l e S e c o n d a r y U n i t s I n v e s t i g a t i n g P e op l e a n d I s s u e s i n A u s t r a l i a a f t e r Wo r l d W a r I I

    Im agin e that you h ave to decide whether the fo l lowin g

    people should be granted asylum as refugees in


    a a m a n w h o i s f leei n g a ci vi l w ar i n w h i c h p eo p le of

    his ethni c grou p are being attacked and often k i l l edby mem bers o f a dom inant e thn ic group

    b a w om an w h o h as b een t h r eat en ed w it h p u n i sh m en t

    unless she adopts a particular dress style that is

    dictated by th e rel ig ion th at she belongs to

    c two p are n t s wh o wan t t h ei r ch i l d re n to h ave b et t er

    educat ional opportu ni t ies than are avai lable in their

    o wn c ou n t r y

    d a wo m a n wh o wro te a n e wsp a pe r a r ti c le c r i ti c al o f

    her governm ent , and wh o faces im pr isonm ent fo r

    doing th is.

    To help you with your d ecisions, v isi t th e UNHCR

    website at ht tp: / /www.unh Use the Protect ing

    refugees FAQs l ink of the Protecting refugees section,

    and any other l inks that look helpful . Art ic le 14 of

    the UN Declarat ion of H um an Rights states that

    Ever yone has the r ight to seek and to enj oy in oth er

    coun tr ies asylum from persecut ion . However, the

    UN em phasised that the Declarat ion did not apply to

    people who were being prosecuted for ordi nar y

    cr im in al of fences. You can r ead th e ent i r e UN

    Declarat ion on the D iscover ing Dem ocracy websi te ath t tp : / /www.cur r icu lum /dem ocracy/ddun i ts/


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